Enlightenment and Revolution – ideal and unforeseen consequence
The seventh book in the Architecture in Context series, this is a comprehensive survey of the European tradition of architecture from the pre-dawn of the Enlightenment in early Georgian England to the triumph of Brutalism in the seventh decade of the twentieth century.
The three main sections are preceded by a concise introduction isolating the key philosophical and political theories which dominated the period: in particular Enlightenment and industrialization. The first section of the book covers Anglo-Palladianism, French academic rationalism, their Neoclassical developments and the aspiration to the Sublime. This first part develops the major strand of eclecticism before progressing to Historicism and the impact of industrial building techniques in the second. The third and final part begins with Design Reform in reaction to industrialism and then proceeds to Design Reform in response to the reactionaries – though they too continue to make their mark as the chronicle progresses. The epilogue covers developments from the advent of the Postmodernists and their High-Tech adversaries to the diversity of formal and technological games played out towards the end of the century.
The numerous great architects and designers whose work both defines and illustrates the book’s themes include visionaries like Soane, Boullée and Schinkel, entrepreneurial innovators such as the Adams brothers and Repton, engineers of the age of iron including Eiffel, Paxton and Bélanger, and 20th-century giants – Frank Lloyd Wright, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Le Corbusier among many others.
Table of Contents
Foreword on Rationalism and Romanticism Part 1: 18th-Century Rationalism and Romanticism 1.1. Augustan Prelude 1.2. Rationalists and Romanticists; Reductivists and Eclectics 1.3. The Apogee of French Classicism 1.4. Athens Revealed and Eclectic Diversity in Britain 1.5. The Sublime, the Visionary and Radical Eclecticism Part 2: 19th-Century Historicism and Industrial Revolution 2.1. Bonaparte and Restored Bourbons 2.2. The British at Home and in the East 2.3. Germans, Russians and their neighbours 2.4. United States 2.5 Classicists, Goths and Engineers at Large 2.6. Supernational Historicism Part 3: 20th-Century Modernism and Traditionalism 3.1. Mechanization and Nostalgia 3.2. Transatlantic Cross-currents 3.3. Nationalist Revivalists, Internationalist Reformers 3.4. The Modern Movement and its Opponents 3.5. Augean Coda Further Reading. Index
Christopher Tadgell taught architectural history for almost thirty years before devoting himself full-time to writing and research, travelling the world to see and photograph buildings from every tradition and period.
Born in Sydney, he studied art history at the Courtauld Institute in London. In 1974 he was awarded his PhD for a thesis on the Neoclassical architectural theorist, Ange-Jacques Gabriel. He subsequently taught in London and at the Kent Institute of Art and Design in Canterbury, with interludes as F.L. Morgan Professor of Architectural Design at the University of Louisville and as a Member of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. He has lectured at academic institutions around the world, including the universities of Princeton, Harvard, Columbia and Cornell, the Graham Foundation in Chicago, and Cambridge University and the Courtauld Institute in the UK. He is a Trustee of the World Monuments Fund, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and a member of both the British and American Societies of Architectural Historians.
His The History of Architecture in India (1990, several reprints, Phaidon) is the definitive one-volume account of the architecture of the subcontinent, while many publications on French architecture include the standard account in Baroque and Rococo Architecture and Decoration (ed. Blunt, 1978, Elek). He has contributed many articles on Indian and French architecture to The Grove Dictionary of Art and other major reference books.