The core baseline of Intelligence-led Policing is the aim of increasing efficiency and quality of police work, with a focus on crime analysis and intelligence methods as tools for informed and objective decisions both when conducting targeted, specialized operations and when setting strategic priorities. This book critically addresses the proliferation of intelligence logics within policing from a wide array of scholarly perspectives. It considers questions such as:
- How are precautionary logics becoming increasingly central in the dominant policing strategies?
- What kind of challenges will this move entail?
- What does the criminalization of preparatory acts mean for previous distinctions between crime prevention and crime detection?
- What are the predominant rationales behind the proactive use of covert cohesive measures in order to prevent attacks on national security?
- How are new technological measures, increased private partnerships and international cooperation challenging the core nature of police services as the main providers of public safety and security?
This book offers new insights by exploring dilemmas, legal issues and questions raised by the use of new policing methods and the blurred and confrontational lines that can be observed between prevention, intelligence and investigation in police work.
Introduction (Nicholas R. Fyfe, Helene O.I. Gundhus and Kira Vrist Rønn)
Part I: The proliferation of intelligence-led policing
1. Police practices in the age of precaution: A moral typology (Vidar Halvorsen)
2. Investigation or instigation? Enforcing grooming legislation (Heidi Mork Lomell)
3. Predicting crime? On challenges to the police in becoming knowledgeable organizations (Nadja K. Hestehave)
Part II: New logics – new measures?
4. The preventive use of surveillance measures in the protection of National security: A comparative analysis of Dutch, Norwegian and Swedish legislation (Ingvild Bruce)
5. On the hunt: Aspects of the use of communication control in Norway (Paul Larsson)
6. The professional ethics of intelligence: On the feasibility of ethics as internal self-regulation of intelligence activities (Kira Vrist Rønn)
Part III: Innovations and new technologies
7. The co-construction of crime predictions: Dynamics between digital data, software and human beings (Mareile Kaufmann)
8. Grey zone creativity: The case of proactive policing (Mia R.K. Hartmann)
Part IV: Outsourcing police work
9. Plural policing webs: Unveiling the various forms of partnering and knowledge exchange in the production of nightlife territoriality (Thomas Friis Søgaard and Esben Houborg)
10. Privatization of intelligence-led policing: Auditors doing forensic work (Janne Flyghed)
Part V: Joining forces
11. Negotiating risks and threats: Securing the border through the lens of intelligence (Helene O. I. Gundhus)
12. The changing ecology and equity of policing: Some implications of reconfiguring boundaries in an era of police reform (Nicholas R. Fyfe)
Part VI: Old crimes, new ways
13. Policy making without politics: Overstating objectivity in intelligence-led policing (Annette Vestby)
14. Banning and banishing outlaw motorcycle gangs (Synnøve Jahnsen)
"In seeking to examine the dilemmas and legal implications of proactive policing through an intelligence-led approach, the editors have collated some insightful chapters that raise important questions about risk and accountability in the crime prevention domain. As Western police services are increasingly interested in forecasting threats rather than reacting to events, the chapters in this book are a timely discussion of the challenges of reducing uncertainty while retaining democratic principles. Chapter authors are largely Scandinavian, lending a refreshing perspective to this interesting book."
- Jerry H. Ratcliffe, Professor in the Department of Criminal Justice and Director of the Center for Security and Crime Science, Temple University, USA
"Nordic criminology has long been appreciated internationally for its penetrating theoretical insights and solid research tradition. This book is a welcome contribution to the literature on intelligence-led policing by the leading lights of 21st century Scandinavian police research. Pre-crime, preventive and pro-active policing, surveillance and intelligence analysis are all part of a complex professional language usually only addressed in terms of efficacy. This book goes beyond questions concerning ‘what works in intelligence-led policing’. Instead, this book asks the ethical questions and gets at what matters in policing."
- James Sheptycki, Professor of Criminology, Faculty of Liberal Arts and Professional Studies, York University, Canada
"This rich collection of academic contributions on intelligence-led policing should be regarded as a timely arrival in the era of counter-terrorism, in which surveillance, undercover methods and predictive risk assessment are becoming widely accepted and applied to a growing range of crimes and public offences. By its very nature intelligence-led policing is covert and intrusive, which leaves no opportunity for citizens to consent. The reduction of due process guarantees should be a major source of concern: not only border police but all forms of law enforcement and social scrutiny now routinely work with predictive algorithms, in which each and every individual is framed, whether criminal or not. The authors are right to claim that this reconfiguration of powers, organizational rationales and technological innovations is potentially toxic and that it should spark a social debate about the relationship between police, politics and communities."
- Monica den Boer, Director of SeQure Research & Consultancy and Adjunct Professor at the Department of Criminology and Security Studies, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.