The qualities and effectiveness of working groups are determined by the goals of the group and the motives of its members. In Motives and Goals In Groups, Alvin Zander studies the effects of group goals and the reasons why particular group goals are chosen. He examines the origins of such goals, determines their value in terms of the work of the group, and analyzes how goals are affected by members' aspirations to achieve success. Zander assumes the idea that the motives of members are not merely dispositions to obtain personal satisfaction, but are also inclinations to achieve group success.
Earlier studies defined and clarified concepts about group achievement. They report on work in the laboratory, using high school students as subjects. In later investigations, these concepts were tested in groups outside the laboratory—classrooms, executive boards, industrial crews, and business departments.
In the new introduction, Zander brings his book up to date by analyzing members' motives and groups' goals from 1971 to the present day. He examines how current findings amplify results reported in the original book. Among the topics covered are: measurability of a group's objective; the degree of members' confidence in attaining the group's goal; the importance of a group's purpose; external pressures on a group's aspirations; and the reaction of members to their group's performance.
Motives and Goals in Groups brings together earlier research for the first careful, scientific study of goals In groups. It is of continuing importance to psychologists, educators, social workers, executives, therapists, and all others who work either in or with groups.