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Multi-Antenna Synthetic Aperture Radar





ISBN 9781138076471
Published March 29, 2017 by CRC Press
468 Pages 221 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a well-known remote sensing technique, but conventional single-antenna SAR is inherently limited by the minimum antenna area constraint. Although there are still technical issues to overcome, multi-antenna SAR offers many benefits, from improved system gain to increased degrees-of-freedom and system flexibility. Multi-Antenna Synthetic Aperture Radar explores the potential and challenges of using multi-antenna SAR in microwave remote sensing applications. These applications include high-resolution imaging, wide-swath remote sensing, ground moving target indication, and 3-D imaging. The book pays particular attention to the signal processing aspects of various multi-antenna SAR from a top-level system perspective.

Explore Recent Extensions of Synthetic Aperture Radar Systems

The backbone of the book is a series of innovative microwave remote sensing approaches developed by the author. Centered around multi-antenna SAR imaging, these approaches address specific challenges and potential problems in future microwave remote sensing. Chapters examine single-input multiple-output (SIMO) multi-antenna SAR, including azimuth and elevation multi-antenna SAR, and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) SAR. The book details the corresponding system scheme, signal models, time/phase/spatial synchronization methods, and high-precision imaging algorithms. It also investigates their potential applications.

Introductory Tutorials and Novel Approaches in Multi-Antenna SAR Imaging

Rigorous and self-contained, this is a unique reference for researchers and industry professionals working with microwave remote sensing, SAR imaging, and radar signal processing. In addition to novel approaches, the book also presents tutorials that serve as an introduction to multi-antenna SAR imaging for those who are new to the field.

Table of Contents

Introduction
What is Multi-Antenna SAR
Multi-Antenna SAR Potentials and Challenges
Organization of the Book

Background Material
Convolution and Correlation
Sampling Theorem and Interpolation
Linearly Frequency Modulated Signal and Matched Filtering
Radar Ambiguity Function
Basic Principle of Synthetic Aperture
Point Spread Function
Basic Image Formation Algorithm

Azimuth Multi-Antenna SAR
Constraints on Resolution and Swath
Displaced Phase Center Antenna Technique
Single-Phase Center Multibeam SAR
Multiple-Phase Center Multibeam SAR
Azimuth Scanning Multibeam SAR
Azimuth Multi-Antenna SAR in GMTI
Conclusion

Elevation-Plane Multi-Antenna SAR
Null Steering in the Elevation-Plane
Elevation-Plane Multi-Antenna SAR
Several Practical Issues
Multi-Antenna Chirp Scaling Imaging Algorithm
System Performance Analysis
Numerical Simulation Results
Conclusion

MIMO SAR Waveform Diversity and Design
Introduction
Polyphase-Coded Waveform
Discrete Frequency-Coding Waveform
Random Stepped-Frequency Waveform
OFDM Waveform
OFDM Chirp Waveform
Constant-Envelope OFDM Waveform
Conclusion

MIMO SAR in High-Resolution Wide-Swath Imaging
Introduction
MIMO SAR System Scheme
Multidimensional Waveform Encoding SAR HRWS Imaging
MIMO SAR HRWS Imaging
Space-Time Coding MIMO SAR HRWS Imaging
Conclusion

MIMO SAR in Moving Target Indication
Introduction
MIMO SAR with Multiple Antennas in Azimuth
Adaptive Matched Filtering
Moving Target Indication via Three-Antenna MIMO SAR
Moving Target Indication via Two-Antenna MIMO SAR
Imaging Simulation Results
Conclusion

Distributed Multi-Antenna SAR Time and Phase Synchronization
Frequency Stability in Frequency Sources
Time and Phase Synchronization Problem in Distributed SAR Systems
Impacts of Oscillator Frequency Instability
Direct-Path Signal-Based Time and Phase Synchronization
GPS-Based Time and Phase Synchronization
Phase Synchronization Link
Transponder-Based Phase Synchronization
Conclusion

Distributed Multi-Antenna SAR Antenna Synchronization
Impacts of Antenna Directing Errors
Beam Scan-On-Scan Technique
Pulse Chasing Technique
Sliding Spotlight and Footprint Chasing
Multibeam Forming on Receiver
Determination of Baseline and Orientation
Conclusion

Azimuth-Variant Multi-Antenna SAR Image Formation Processing
Introduction
Imaging Performance Analysis
Azimuth-Variant Characteristics Analysis
Motion Compensation
Azimuth-Variant Bistatic SAR Imaging Algorithm
Conclusion

Multi-Antenna SAR Three-Dimensional Imaging
Introduction
Downward-Looking SAR Three-Dimensional Imaging
Side-Looking SAR Three-Dimensional Imaging
Forward-Looking SAR Three-Dimensional Imaging
Frequency Diverse Array SAR Three-Dimensional Imaging
Conclusion

Bibliography
Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Wen-Qin Wang, Ph.D., is currently an associate professor in the School of Communication and Information Engineering at the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu. He is also a visiting scholar at the City University of Hong Kong. From June 2011 to May 2012, Dr. Wang was a visiting scholar at the Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey. His research interests include communication and radar signal processing and novel radar imaging techniques. He has authored more than 100 papers. Dr. Wang is the recipient of several awards, including the Hong Kong Scholar (2012), the New Century Excellent Talents in University (2012), The Outstanding Young Scholars of Sichuan Province (2012), The Young Scholar of Distinction of UESTC (2012), the Excellent Ph.D. Dissertation of Sichuan Province (2011), the Project Investigator Innovation Award from the Wiser Foundation of the Institute of Digital China (2009), and the Excellent Paper Award of the 12th Chinese Annual Radar Technology Conference (2012). He is an editorial board member of two international journals and was the Technical Program Committee Co-chair of the International Conference on Computational Problem Solving, Chengdu, in 2011.

Reviews

"... a comprehensive and valuable resource for graduate students, academics, and practitioners actively pursuing research in SAR."
—Abduwasit Ghulam, Assistant Professor, Center for Sustainability, St. Louis University, Missouri, USA, from Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, September 2015

"A new world is opening, full of a huge amount of new, attractive, and useful applications. But a new science is needed to support the necessary vision to explore and utilize the available opportunities therein contained. The book, Multi-Antenna Synthetic Aperture Radar, is just the important necessary step in this direction, formalizing the full theory of use of multiple antennas in SAR systems, together with the appropriate novel software codes for the raw data processing. ... The book presents an exhaustive preliminary formalization of this new science, and will play a very important role for its future development. ... The book contains all the current developments of SAR procedures and techniques, including improvement of features, extension of applications, three-dimension and moving-target imaging, and other attractive new performances. ... The book is very valuable for SAR operators who want to update their backgrounds in the area of hardware and software extensions of SAR techniques."
—Giorgio Franceschetti, University Federico II of Napoli, Italy