Multi-Antenna Synthetic Aperture Radar: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Multi-Antenna Synthetic Aperture Radar

1st Edition

By Wen-Qin Wang

CRC Press

468 pages | 221 B/W Illus.

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Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a well-known remote sensing technique, but conventional single-antenna SAR is inherently limited by the minimum antenna area constraint. Although there are still technical issues to overcome, multi-antenna SAR offers many benefits, from improved system gain to increased degrees-of-freedom and system flexibility. Multi-Antenna Synthetic Aperture Radar explores the potential and challenges of using multi-antenna SAR in microwave remote sensing applications. These applications include high-resolution imaging, wide-swath remote sensing, ground moving target indication, and 3-D imaging. The book pays particular attention to the signal processing aspects of various multi-antenna SAR from a top-level system perspective.

Explore Recent Extensions of Synthetic Aperture Radar Systems

The backbone of the book is a series of innovative microwave remote sensing approaches developed by the author. Centered around multi-antenna SAR imaging, these approaches address specific challenges and potential problems in future microwave remote sensing. Chapters examine single-input multiple-output (SIMO) multi-antenna SAR, including azimuth and elevation multi-antenna SAR, and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) SAR. The book details the corresponding system scheme, signal models, time/phase/spatial synchronization methods, and high-precision imaging algorithms. It also investigates their potential applications.

Introductory Tutorials and Novel Approaches in Multi-Antenna SAR Imaging

Rigorous and self-contained, this is a unique reference for researchers and industry professionals working with microwave remote sensing, SAR imaging, and radar signal processing. In addition to novel approaches, the book also presents tutorials that serve as an introduction to multi-antenna SAR imaging for those who are new to the field.


"… a comprehensive and valuable resource for graduate students, academics, and practitioners actively pursuing research in SAR."

—Abduwasit Ghulam, Assistant Professor, Center for Sustainability, St. Louis University, Missouri, USA, from Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, September 2015

"A new world is opening, full of a huge amount of new, attractive, and useful applications. But a new science is needed to support the necessary vision to explore and utilize the available opportunities therein contained. The book, Multi-Antenna Synthetic Aperture Radar, is just the important necessary step in this direction, formalizing the full theory of use of multiple antennas in SAR systems, together with the appropriate novel software codes for the raw data processing. … The book presents an exhaustive preliminary formalization of this new science, and will play a very important role for its future development. … The book contains all the current developments of SAR procedures and techniques, including improvement of features, extension of applications, three-dimension and moving-target imaging, and other attractive new performances. … The book is very valuable for SAR operators who want to update their backgrounds in the area of hardware and software extensions of SAR techniques."

—Giorgio Franceschetti, University Federico II of Napoli, Italy

Table of Contents


What is Multi-Antenna SAR

Multi-Antenna SAR Potentials and Challenges

Organization of the Book

Background Material

Convolution and Correlation

Sampling Theorem and Interpolation

Linearly Frequency Modulated Signal and Matched Filtering

Radar Ambiguity Function

Basic Principle of Synthetic Aperture

Point Spread Function

Basic Image Formation Algorithm

Azimuth Multi-Antenna SAR

Constraints on Resolution and Swath

Displaced Phase Center Antenna Technique

Single-Phase Center Multibeam SAR

Multiple-Phase Center Multibeam SAR

Azimuth Scanning Multibeam SAR

Azimuth Multi-Antenna SAR in GMTI


Elevation-Plane Multi-Antenna SAR

Null Steering in the Elevation-Plane

Elevation-Plane Multi-Antenna SAR

Several Practical Issues

Multi-Antenna Chirp Scaling Imaging Algorithm

System Performance Analysis

Numerical Simulation Results


MIMO SAR Waveform Diversity and Design


Polyphase-Coded Waveform

Discrete Frequency-Coding Waveform

Random Stepped-Frequency Waveform

OFDM Waveform

OFDM Chirp Waveform

Constant-Envelope OFDM Waveform


MIMO SAR in High-Resolution Wide-Swath Imaging


MIMO SAR System Scheme

Multidimensional Waveform Encoding SAR HRWS Imaging


Space-Time Coding MIMO SAR HRWS Imaging


MIMO SAR in Moving Target Indication


MIMO SAR with Multiple Antennas in Azimuth

Adaptive Matched Filtering

Moving Target Indication via Three-Antenna MIMO SAR

Moving Target Indication via Two-Antenna MIMO SAR

Imaging Simulation Results


Distributed Multi-Antenna SAR Time and Phase Synchronization

Frequency Stability in Frequency Sources

Time and Phase Synchronization Problem in Distributed SAR Systems

Impacts of Oscillator Frequency Instability

Direct-Path Signal-Based Time and Phase Synchronization

GPS-Based Time and Phase Synchronization

Phase Synchronization Link

Transponder-Based Phase Synchronization


Distributed Multi-Antenna SAR Antenna Synchronization

Impacts of Antenna Directing Errors

Beam Scan-On-Scan Technique

Pulse Chasing Technique

Sliding Spotlight and Footprint Chasing

Multibeam Forming on Receiver

Determination of Baseline and Orientation


Azimuth-Variant Multi-Antenna SAR Image Formation Processing


Imaging Performance Analysis

Azimuth-Variant Characteristics Analysis

Motion Compensation

Azimuth-Variant Bistatic SAR Imaging Algorithm


Multi-Antenna SAR Three-Dimensional Imaging


Downward-Looking SAR Three-Dimensional Imaging

Side-Looking SAR Three-Dimensional Imaging

Forward-Looking SAR Three-Dimensional Imaging

Frequency Diverse Array SAR Three-Dimensional Imaging




About the Author

Wen-Qin Wang, Ph.D., is currently an associate professor in the School of Communication and Information Engineering at the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu. He is also a visiting scholar at the City University of Hong Kong. From June 2011 to May 2012, Dr. Wang was a visiting scholar at the Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey. His research interests include communication and radar signal processing and novel radar imaging techniques. He has authored more than 100 papers. Dr. Wang is the recipient of several awards, including the Hong Kong Scholar (2012), the New Century Excellent Talents in University (2012), The Outstanding Young Scholars of Sichuan Province (2012), The Young Scholar of Distinction of UESTC (2012), the Excellent Ph.D. Dissertation of Sichuan Province (2011), the Project Investigator Innovation Award from the Wiser Foundation of the Institute of Digital China (2009), and the Excellent Paper Award of the 12th Chinese Annual Radar Technology Conference (2012). He is an editorial board member of two international journals and was the Technical Program Committee Co-chair of the International Conference on Computational Problem Solving, Chengdu, in 2011.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Remote Sensing & Geographic Information Systems
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Telecommunications