Multimedia Content Encryption: Techniques and Applications, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Multimedia Content Encryption

Techniques and Applications, 1st Edition

By Shiguo Lian

Auerbach Publications

224 pages | 137 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2008-09-17
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The widespread use of image, audio, and video data makes media content protection increasingly necessary and urgent. For maximum safety, it is no longer sufficient to merely control access rights. In order to fully protect multimedia data from piracy or unauthorized use, it must be secured through encryption prior to its transmission or distribution. Multimedia Content Encryption: Techniques and Applications presents the latest research results in this dynamic field.

The book begins with the history of multimedia encryption and then examines general performance requirements of encryption and fundamental encrypting techniques. It discusses common techniques of complete, partial, and compression-combined encryption; as well as the more specialized forms, including perception, scalable, and commutative encryption. In addition, the author reviews watermarking and joint fingerprint embedding and decryption. Later chapters discuss typical attacks on multimedia encryption, as well as the principles for designing secure algorithms and various applications. An exploration of open issues, up-and-coming topics, and areas for further research rounds out the coverage.

Shiguo Lian is the author or co-author of more than fifty peer-reviewed journal and conference articles covering topics of network security and multimedia content protection, including cryptography, secure P2P content sharing, digital rights management (DRM), encryption, watermarking, digital fingerprinting, and authentication. By following the techniques outlined in this book, users will be better able to protect the integrity of their multimedia data and develop greater confidence that their data will not be misappropriated.

Table of Contents






Book Organization


Performance Requirement of Multimedia Content Encryption


Security Requirement

Cryptographic Security

Key Sensitivity

Plaintext Sensitivity

Ciphertext Randomness

Perceptual Security

Subjective Metric

Objective Metric

Security Level

Compression Efficiency

Encryption Efficiency

Format Compliance

Application Suitability



Fundamental Techniques




Symmetric Cipher or Asymmetric Cipher

Block Cipher or Stream Cipher

Encryption Mode of Block Cipher

ECB Mode

CBC Mode

CFB Mode

OFB Mode

CTR Mode


Multimedia Compression

Audio Compression

Image Compression

Video Compression

Scalable Coding

Multimedia Communication

Transmission Network

Application Scenarios

Digital Watermarking



Complete Encryption

Definition of Complete Encryption

Classification of Complete Encryption

Encryption Algorithms for Raw Data or Compressed Data

Raw Data Encryption

Compressed Data Encryption

Typical Encryption Algorithms


Random Pixel Permutation

Random Line Permutation

Chaotic Map-Based Permutation

Random Modulation

Confusion-Diffusion Algorithm

Partial DES

Security and Efficiency

Hardware Implementation

Lightweight Encryption

Performance Comparison



Partial Encryption

Definition of Partial Encryption

Data Partitioning

Part Selection

Classification of Partial Encryption

Partial Image Encryption

Raw Image Encryption

Partial Image Encryption during Compression

Partial Encryption in Run-Length Coding

Partial Encryption in Wavelet-Based Codec

Partial Encryption of the Compressed Image

Partial Audio Encryption

Partial Video Encryption

Encryption after Compression

Encryption during Compression

MPEG2 Video Encryption

MPEG4 AVC/H.264 Video Encryption

Performance Comparison



Compression-Combined Encryption

Definition of Compression-Combined Encryption

Secure Huffman Coding Based on Random Huffman-Tree


Secure Arithmetic Coding Based on Interval Permutation

Secure Coding Based on Index Encryption

Secure Fixed-Length Coding (FLC) Based on Index


Secure Variable-Length Coding (VLC) Based on Index


Secure Coding Based on Exp-Golomb Code

Secure Coding Based on Huffman Code

Random Coefficient Scanning

Random Scanning in Wavelet Domain

Random Scanning in DCT Domain

Performance Comparison



Perceptual Encryption

Definition of Perceptual Encryption

Perceptual Encryption Based on Bit-Plane Selection

Bit-Plane Encryption in the Spatial Domain

Bit-Plane Encryption in the DCT Domain

Bit-Plane Encryption in the Wavelet Domain

Perceptual Encryption Based on Frequency Band Selection

Frequency Band Encryption in a DCT Block

Frequency Band Encryption in the Wavelet Domain

Performance Comparison



Scalable Encryption

Definition of Scalable Encryption

Scalable Media Coding

Layered Coding

Layered and Progressive Coding

Progressive Coding

Scalable Coding

Scalable Encryption Algorithms

Scalable Encryption for Layered Coding

Scalable Encryption for Layered and Progressive Coding

Scalable Encryption for Progressive Coding

Scalable Encryption for Scalable Coding

Performance Comparison



Commutative Watermarking and Encryption

Definition of Commutative Watermarking and Encryption

CWE Based on Partial Encryption

The General Architecture

The Improved Scheme

Selection of the Encryption Part and Watermarking Part

CWE Based on Homomorphic Operations

The CWE Scheme Based on XOR Operation

The CWE Scheme Based on Module Addition

Performance Comparison



Joint Fingerprint Embedding and Decryption

Definition of Joint Fingerprint Embedding and Decryption

Typical JFD Schemes

The JFD Scheme Based on Broadcast Encryption

The JFD Scheme Based on Codeword Modification

The JFD Scheme Based on Partial Decryption

The JFD Scheme Based on Index Modification

The JFD Scheme Based on Homomorphic Operations

Performance Comparison



Typical Attacks on Multimedia Encryption

Security Requirement of Multimedia Encryption

Cryptographic Attacks

Flaws in Perceptual Security

Level Encryption in Run-Level Coding

Statistical Model-Based Attack on Sign Encryption

Replacement Attack

Replacement Attack on Bit-Plane Encryption

Replacement Attack on Frequency Band Encryption

Replacement Attack on Intra-Prediction Mode




Some Principles for Secure Multimedia Encryption

Shannon’s Information Theory of Secrecy System

Principles for Secure Complete Encryption

General Models of Complete Encryption

Encryption Before or After Compression

Example of Secure Complete Encryption

Random Packet Partitioning

Packet Encryption


Encryption Efficiency

Principles for Secure Partial Encryption

Model of Partial Encryption

Principles for Secure Encryption

Cryptographic Security

Parameter Independence

Perceptual Security

Summary of the Principles and Means

Example Based on JPEG2000 Image Encryption

Parameter Sensitivity

Parameter Independence

Selection of the Cipher

The Partial Encryption Scheme

Performance Evaluation

Principles for Secure Compression-Combined Encryption

Model of Compression-Combined Encryption Scheme

Relation between Compression Ratio and Security

Equivalent Compression-Encryption Independent Scheme

Analysis on Existing Compression-Combined

Encryption Schemes

Tradeoff between Compression Ratio and Security

The Equivalent Compression-Encryption Independent Scheme



Multimedia Encryption in Typical Applications

Secure Media Player

Secure Media Streaming

Secure Media Preview

Secure Media Transcoding

Secure Media Distribution

Digital Rights Management


Open Issues

Perceptual Security

Lightweight Implementation

Contradiction between Format Compliance and Upgrade

Ability to Support Direct Operations

Key Management

Combination between Encryption and Other Means


Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COMPUTERS / Security / General
COMPUTERS / Internet / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mobile & Wireless Communications