Mushrooms: Cultivation, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effect, and Environmental Impact, 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Mushrooms

Cultivation, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effect, and Environmental Impact, 2nd Edition

By Philip G. Miles, Shu-Ting Chang

CRC Press

480 pages | 8 Color Illus. | 98 B/W Illus.

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Description

Since the publication of the first edition, important developments have emerged in modern mushroom biology and world mushroom production and products. The relationship of mushrooms with human welfare and the environment, medicinal properties of mushrooms, and the global marketing value of mushrooms and their products have all garnered great attention, identifying the need for an updated, authoritative reference.

Mushrooms: Cultivation, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effect, and Environmental Impact, Second Edition presents the latest cultivation and biotechnological advances that contribute to the modernization of mushroom farming and the mushroom industry. It describes the individual steps of the complex mushroom cultivation process, along with comprehensive coverage of mushroom breeding, efficient cultivation practices, nutritional value, medicinal utility, and environmental impact. Maintaining the format, organization, and focus of the previous edition, this thoroughly revised edition includes the most recent research findings and many new references. It features new chapters on medicinal mushrooms and the effects of pests and diseases on mushroom cultivation. There are also updated chapters on specific edible mushrooms, and an expanded chapter on technology and mushrooms.

Rather than providing an encyclopedic review, this book emphasizes worldwide trends and developments in mushroom biology from an international perspective. It takes an interdisciplinary approach that will appeal to industrial and medical mycologists, mushroom growers, botanists, plant pathologists, and professionals and scientists in related fields. This book illustrates that mushroom cultivation has and will continue to have a positive global impact on long-term food nutrition, health care, environmental conservation and regeneration, and economic and social change.

Reviews

"Since the publication of the first edition of this book, important developments in biotechnology and mushroom production made a new, revised version necessary. … [This book] forms a comprehensive and up-to-date source of information for all interested in edible and medicinal mushrooms and their cultivation."

- Peroonia, 2004

"The name 'S.-T. Chang' is almost synonymous with the cultivation and use of mushrooms…the personal practical experience, depth of knowledge, and enthusiasms of the authors shine in these chapters, which are to me the heart of the book…this new edition of the essential reference work mycologists involved in mushroom cultivation turn to will surely also play a role in helping promote mushroom cultivation and use."

-Mycological Research, February 2005

"If you are a mushroom enthusiast, you must have this complex book. It would also serve admirably as part of a graduate level mycology course."

- Matthew W. Bernart, Rogue Community College, Oregon in the Journal of Natural Products, 2005, Volume 68

"To my knowledge, no past or current book comes closes to covering all the subjects considered in this book…

- Solomon P. Wasser, in International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, Volume 6

"…The book is richly illustrated with more than 100 original photographs and figures. The book contains about 800 terms in the glossary, which is very useful, especially for amateurs and beginning scientists…"

"…This latest edition has been expanded by more than 60%. …The new book contains 22 chapters…

"… Well-written and thorough…. I would strongly recommend this new edition of mushrooms without hesitation to industrial and medicinal mycologists, mushroom growers, botanists, plant pathologists, and professionals and scientists in related fields…. I will use this book extensively, both in teaching mycology to university students and in experimental work in my laboratory."

"The value of this book cannot be overestimated. … This book is a real encyclopedia of mushroom biology including cultivation, nutritional value, medicinal value, and environmental impact."

- Solomon P. Wasser, in International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, Volume 6

e book is richly illustrated with more than 100 original photographs and figures. The book contains about 800 terms in the glossary, which is very useful, especially for amateurs and beginning scientists…"

"…This latest edition has been expanded by more than 60%. …The new book contains 22 chapters…

"… Well-written and thorough…. I would strongly recommend this new edition of mushrooms without hesitation to industrial and medicinal mycologists, mushroom growers, botanists, plant pathologists, and professionals and scientists in related fields…. I will use this book extensively, both in teaching mycology to university students and in experimental work in my laboratory."

"The value of this book cannot be overestimated. … This book is a real encyclopedia of mushroom biology including cultivation, nutritional value, medicinal value, and environmental impact."

- Solomon P. Wasser, in International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, Volume 6

Table of Contents

OVERVIEW

INTRODUCTION

WHAT ARE MUSHROOMS?

Definition

Characteristics of Mushrooms

Categories of Mushrooms

Poisonous Mushrooms

MAGNITUDE OF MUSHROOM SPECIES

ECOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF MUSHROOMS AND FUNGI IN GENERAL

COLLECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF MUSHROOMS

Field Collection

Preserving the Collection

Precautions in the Use of Keys

JUSTIFICATION FOR THE TERM "MUSHROOM BIOLOGY"

IMPACT OF MUSHROOM BIOLOGY ON HUMAN WELFARE

MUSHROOM SCIENCE

Definition

Contributing Fields

Mushroom Cultivation Technology

Development of Mushroom Science

Mushroom Biotechnology

Nongreen Revolution

References

THE NUTRITIONAL ATTRIBUTES OF EDIBLE MUSHROOMS

INTRODUCTION

NUTRITIONAL ATTRIBUTES

Protein

Essential Amino Acids

Fat

Vitamins

Carbohydrates and Fiber

Minerals

Nucleic Acids

General Considerations

REFERENCES

MEDICINAL VALUES

INTRODUCTION

MEDICINAL MUSHROOMS

MEDICINAL EFFECTS OF THESE MUSHROOMS

Hematological

Antiviral

Antitumor

Antioxidant Activity

Cardiovascular and Renal

Carcinogenicity of Mushrooms

Allergic Reaction to Spores

General Considerations

REFERENCES

OVERVIEW OF THE BIOLOGY OF THE FUNGI

INTRODUCTION

THE FUNGI

Distinguishing Characteristics

Habitats

Role in Nature

Classification

VEGETATIVE STRUCTURE OF FUNGI

Hyphae

Organelles

Septal Structures

Secondary Mycelium of Basidiomycetes

Cell Walls

Unicellular Fungi

GROWTH

Growth Kinetics of Unicellular Fungi

Filamentous Fungi

SPECIALIZED VEGETATIVE STRUCTURES

SPECIALIZED REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES

Sexual

Non-sexual

REQUIREMENTS FOR GROWTH

Nutritional Requirements

Physical Requirements

Transport and Translocation

METABOLISM

Carbon

Nitrogen

Lipids

REPRODUCTION

Introduction

Sexual

Non-sexual

Spore Germination

RELATIONSHIP OF FUNGI WITH OTHER ORGANISMS - SYMBIOSES

Parasitism

Mutualism

Saprophytism

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FUNGI

Proximate Composition of Fungal Cells

Edible Mushrooms

REFERENCES

SUBSTRATE AND MYCELIAL GROWTH

INTRODUCTION

GENERAL NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR MUSHROOM GROWTH

PREPARATION OF SUBSTRATE

Composting

Microorganisms Involved During Composting

BREAKDOWN OF SUBSTRATES BY EXTRACELLULAR ENZYMES OF MUSHROOM MYCELIUM

GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF MUSHROOM CULTURE IN REGARD TO SUBSTRATE UTILIZATION BY INCREASED PRODUCTION OF EXTRACELLULAR ENZYMES

REFERENCES

SEXUALITY AND THE GENETICS OF BASIDIOMYCETES

DISCOVERY OF SEXUALITY BY KNIEP AND BENSAUDE

Tetrapolarity

Clamp Connection Formation

OTHER EARLY FINDINGS IN SEXUALITY IN BASIDIOMYCETES

Results of Tetrad Analysis

"Geographical Races"

Bipolarity

Illegitimate Matings

"Buller Phenomenon" (=Di-Mon Mating)

REACTIONS OTHER THAN THOSE FORMING DIKARYON

GENETICS OF THE MATING TYPE LOCI AND SEXUAL MORPHOGENESIS IN SCHIZOPHYLLUM COMMUNE

Schizophyllum commune

The A Locus of S. commune

The Two-Locus Mating Type Factor Occurs Elsewhere

Findings from Molecular Genetic Studies

Sexual Morphogenesis

GENETICS OF FUNGI

Induction of Mutants

Isolation of Mutants

Characterization of Mutants

Utilization of Methods of Molecular Biology in Genetic Studies of Fungi

REFERENCES

MUSHROOM FORMATION: EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL, NUTRITIONAL, AND CHEMICAL FACTORS

INTRODUCTION

DEVELOPMENT OF FRUITING BODIES

Role of Fruiting Bodies

Variation in Fruiting Body Structure

Primordium Function

Primordium Development

Types of Hyphae in Fruiting Bodies

Growth of Agaricus

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND FRUITING

Hydrogen Ion Concentration (pH)

Temperature

Aeration

Light

Gravity

NUTRITIONAL FACTORS AND FRUITING

Concentration of Nutrients

Nature of Carbohydrate

Nitrogen

Mineral Nutrition

Vitamins

CHEMICAL FACTORS AND FRUITING

Melanin Production and Perithecial Development in Podospora

Morphogenesis in Schizophyllum commune

Effect of Cyclic AMP

SUMMARY

REFERENCES

MUSHROOM FORMATION: EFFECTS OF GENETIC FACTORS; BREEDING

INTRODUCTION

GENETIC FACTORS FOR FRUITING IMPOSED UPON THE MATING TYPE REQUIREMENTS

Schizophyllum commune

Lentinula

GENETICS OF FRUITING OF POLYPORUS CILIATUS

No Subunits of Incompatibility Factors

Genetic Control of Monokaryotic Fruiting

MONOKARYOTIC FRUITING

Species in Which Monokaryotic Fruiting Has Been Reported

Induction

Relationship with Dikaryotic Fruiting

Potential in Mushroom Cultivation

BREEDING FOR DESIRED MUSHROOM FEATURES

Extension of Temperature Range

Utilization of substrates

Sporeless Fruiting Bodies

General Techniques of Breeding For Strain Improvement

REFERENCES

MUSHROOM FORMATION: EFFECTS OF PESTS AND DISEASES IN MUSHROOM CULTIVATION

INTRODUCTION

History of Mushroom Cultivation and Diseases

VIRAL DISEASES

History

Symptoms

Diagnosis

Virus morphology

Epidemiology

Patch Diseases

BACTERIAL DISEASES

Introduction and Various Mushroom Diseases Caused by Bacteria

Management For Control of Burkholderia gladioli pv agaricicola

FUNGAL DISEASES

Introduction

Mycoparasites

Competitor Weed Fungi

NEMATODE DISEASES

Types of Nematodes

INSECT DISEASES

Introduction

Insects That Serve As Agents of Diseases in Mushroom Houses

ACTIVITY OF MITES IN MUSHROOM CULTIVATION

Genera Found During Mushroom Cultivation

Economic Importance

REFERENCES

CULTURE PRESERVATION

INTRODUCTION

OBJECTIVES

METHODS

Short Term Storage

Long Term Storage

A Useful Technique in Genetic Studies

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

WORLD PRODUCTION OF EDIBLE MUSHROOMS

INTRODUCTION

SPECIES CULTIVATED COMMERCIALLY

Agaricus bisporus

Lentinula edodes

Volvariella volvacea

Flammulina velutipes

Auricularia spp.

Pleurotus spp.

Pholiota nameko

Tremella fuciformis

Recently commercially Cultivated Mushroom Species

Mycorrhizal Fungi - Tuber, Tricholoma

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE WHICH MUSHROOM GROWERS SHOULD POSSESS

TRENDS

Production methods breaking the barriers of climate and geography

World production of mushrooms

Utilization of various wastes as substrates

Ten Key Guidelines for Mushroom Farming

CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

AGARICUS - THE LEADER IN PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY

INTRODUCTION

DEVELOPMENT IN THE INDUSTRY

France

Great Britain

The Netherlands

The United States

Italy

Ireland

Taiwan

South Korea

China

General Remarks

COMPOST MATERIALS AND COMPOSTING

Compost Materials

Amount of Compost Material

Composting

SPAWN AND SPAWNING

Definition

Preparation of Spawn

Spawning

CASING

HARVESTING

REFERENCES

LENTINULA - A MUSHROOMING MUSHROOM

INTRODUCTION

EARLY HISTORY OF CULTIVATION

MAJOR DEVELOPMENTAL EVENTS OF CULTIVATION

GENERAL REVIEW OF PRODUCTION

CULTIVATION IN WOOD LOGS

Preparation of Logs

Preparation of Spawn

Inoculation of Spawn into Logs

Laying Logs for Mycelial Running

Management of the Raising Yard for Fruiting

Cropping

CULTIVATION IN POLYPROPYLENE BAGS ("BAG LOG" CULTIVATION)

Materials

Inoculation

Incubation

Fruiting

Proper Care of the Bag Log

SPECIAL CULTIVATION PRACTICES

Taiwan

China

FRUITING IN LIQUID MEDIA

Experiments with Lentinula

Generalizations

DRYING AND STORAGE

REFERENCES

VOLVARIELLA - A HIGH TEMPERATURE CULTIVATED MUSHROOM

INTRODUCTION

BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Morphological Characteristics

Requirements for Mycelial Growth

Requirements for fruiting body formation

CULTIVATION METHODS

Production of Spawn

Mushroom Production

HARVESTING AND PROCESSING

Harvesting

Processing

SPECIAL CULTIVATION PRACTICE

Rural Spawn Station in Ping-shan County, Hebei Province, China

Technique of Cultivation of Straw Mushrooms in Green Poplar Village, Ping-shang County, Hebei Province, China

SOME SPECIAL METHODS AND THEIR RATIONALE

The Phenomenon of Early Fruiting

Insect Enemy of Straw Mushrooms - Nematodes

Coprinus - Fungal Competitor of Volvariella

REFERENCES

FLAMMULINA AND PHOLIOTA LOW TEMPERATURE CULTIVATED MUSHROOMS

INTRODUCTION

BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FLAMMULINA

Morphology

Natural History

Requirements for Mycelial Growth

Requirements for Fruiting Body Formation

BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PHOLIOTA

Morphology

Natural History

Requirements for Mycelial Growth

Requirements for Fruiting Body Formation

CULTIVATION METHODS

Flammulina

Pholiota

REFERENCES

PLEUROTUS - A MUSHROOM OF BROAD ADAPTABILITY

INTRODUCTION

BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Morphology of Sporophores

Sexuality

Requirements for Mycelial Growth

Requirements for Fruiting Body Formation

NUTRITIONAL VALUES AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES

Nutritional Values

Medicinal Properties

CULTIVATION METHODS

Production of Spawn

Production of Mushrooms

HARVESTING AND PROCESSING

SPECIAL CULTIVATION PRACTICE

REFERENCES

TREMELLA - INCREASED PRODUCTION BY A MIXED CULTURE TECHNIQUE

INTRODUCTION

BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Morphology

Natural History

Requirements for Mycelial Growth

Requirements for Fruiting Body Formation

CULTIVATION METHODS

Wood Log Culture

Plastic Bag Culture

SPECIAL CULTIVATION PRACTICES

Cultivation on Cottonseed Hulls in Gutian County, Fujian Province, China

Mixed Culture Cultivation of the "Golden Ear" Mushroom

HARVESTING AND PROCESSING

REFERENCES

DICTYOPHORA - FORMERLY FOR THE FEW

INTRODUCTION

BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Morphology

Natural History

Requirements for Mycelial Growth

Requirements for Fu\ruiting Body Formation

CULTIVATION METHODS

Cultivation in Forests

Indoor Cultivation

HARVESTING AND PROCESSING

Harvest Time and Method

Rapid Drying

Grading and Packaging

REFERENCES

GANODERMA LUCIDUM - A LEADER OF MEDICINAL MUSHROOMS

INTRODUCTION

BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Taxonomic Characteristics

Morphological Characteristics

Growth Parameters

CULTIVATION OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM

TRADITIONAL USES

BIOLOGICAL COMPOUNDS

Triterpenes/Triterpenoids

Polysaccharide

Fungal Immunomodulatory Protein (Fip)

Steroids

CONTEMPORARY USES

PRODUCTS OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM

MARKET VALUE OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM PRODUCTS

A PROTOCOL FOR QUALITY MUSHROOM NUTRICEUTICALS

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

Agaricua blazei and Grifola frondosa - Two Important Medicinal Mushrooms

INTRODUCTION

BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AGARICUS BLAZEI

History

Morphology

Requirements for Growth

BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GRIFOLA FRONDOSA

History

Morphology

Requirements for Growth

CULTIVATION METHODS

Agaricus blazei

Grifola frondosa

NUTRITIONAL CONTENT AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES

Agaricus blazei

Grifola frondosa

REFERENCES

OTHER CULTIVATED MUSHROOMS - THEIR NUMBER GROWS

INTRODUCTION

AURICULARIA

HERICIUM

BRIEFLY MENTIONED

Mycorrhizal Mushrooms

Species With Regional Appeal

REFERENCES

TECHNOLOGY AND MUSHROOMS

INTRODUCTION

MICROBIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

What is Biotechnology?

Lignocellulose Degradation and Utilization

BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE MUSHROOM INDUSTRY

General Review of Mushroom Production

Major Steps of Mushroom Technology

SOME FUNGAL GENETIC TECHNIQUES AND THEIR POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS

Protoplast Fusion for Genetic Manipulation

Di-Mon Matings and Sporeless Mutants

Breeding for High-Temperature Strains

Conservation of Germplasm

POTENTIAL USE OF MUSHROOM MYCELIUM

SOME OBSERVATIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS

Mushroom Cultivation

Criteria for Study of Major Phases of Cultivation

Problems in Cultivation in Developing Countries

Prospects for Mushroom Cultivation in Developing Countries

REFERENCES

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MED004000
MEDICAL / Alternative Medicine
SCI011000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Botany
SCI013000
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General