Nano-CMOS Gate Dielectric Engineering: 1st Edition (e-Book) book cover

Nano-CMOS Gate Dielectric Engineering

1st Edition

By Hei Wong

CRC Press

248 pages | 149 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2011-11-28
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Description

According to Moore’s Law, not only does the number of transistors in an integrated circuit double every two years, but transistor size also decreases at a predictable rate. At the rate we are going, the downsizing of CMOS transistors will reach the deca-nanometer scale by 2020. Accordingly, the gate dielectric thickness will be shrunk to less than half-nanometer oxide equivalent thickness (EOT) to maintain proper operation of the transistors, leaving high-k materials as the only viable solution for such small-scale EOT.

This comprehensive, up-to-date text covering the physics, materials, devices, and fabrication processes for high-k gate dielectric materials, Nano-CMOS Gate Dielectric Engineering systematically describes how the fundamental electronic structures and other material properties of the transition metals and rare earth metals affect the electrical properties of the dielectric films, the dielectric/silicon and the dielectric/metal gate interfaces, and the resulting device properties. Specific topics include the problems and solutions encountered with high-k material thermal stability, defect density, and poor initial interface with silicon substrate. The text also addresses the essence of thin film deposition, etching, and process integration of high-k materials in an actual CMOS process.

Fascinating in both content and approach, Nano-CMOS Gate Dielectric Engineering explains all of the necessary physics in a highly readable manner and supplements this with numerous intuitive illustrations and tables. Covering almost every aspect of high-k gate dielectric engineering for nano-CMOS technology, this is a perfect reference book for graduate students needing a better understanding of developing technology as well as researchers and engineers needing to get ahead in microelectronic engineering and materials science.

Reviews

… this book, by covering almost every aspect of high-k gate dielectric engineering for nano-CMOS technology, is as timely as ever for device and process engineers. Though it involves quite a lot of physics, it is never less than fascinating, through its many intuitive illustrations and tables.

—From the Foreword by Hiroshi Iwai, PhD, Professor, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan

Table of Contents

Overview of CMOS Technology

Introduction

MOS Transistor: A Quick Introduction to Classical Models

Short-Channel Effects and Short-Channel Modifications

Features and Uniqueness of MOS Transistor

MOS in Deca-Nanometer

Technology Trends and Options

Summary

References

High-k Dielectrics

The High-k Candidates

Electronic Structure of Transition Metals and Rare Earth Metals

Material Properties of Elemental Transition Metal and Rare Metal Oxides

Bandgap and Band Offset Energies

Bond Ionicity and Dielectric Constant

Carrier Effective Masses

Thermal Stability

Disorders and Defects

Summary

References

Complex Forms of High-k Oxides

Introduction

Silicates and Aluminates Pseudo-Binary Alloys

Stoichiometric Binary Alloys

Doping

Thermal Stability and Phase Separation

Summary

References

Dielectric Interfaces

Introduction

High-k/Silicon Interface

High-k/Metal Interface

Summary

References

Impacts on Device Operation

Introduction

Gate Leakage Current

Threshold Voltage Control and Fermi-Level Pinning

Channel Mobility

Subthreshold Characteristics

Dielectric Breakdown

Hot-Carrier Effects

Temperature Instabilities

Summary

References

Fabrication Issues

Process Integration

Atomic Layer Deposition

Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition

Physical Vapor Deposition

Etching

Summary

References

Conclusions

Appendix A: Fundamental Physical Constants and Unit Conversions

Appendix B: Properties of Si and SiO2

Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC008070
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / Microelectronics
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science