1st Edition

Nanoelectronic Device Applications Handbook

Edited By James E. Morris, Krzysztof Iniewski Copyright 2013
    940 Pages 649 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    940 Pages 649 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Nanoelectronic Device Applications Handbook gives a comprehensive snapshot of the state of the art in nanodevices for nanoelectronics applications. Combining breadth and depth, the book includes 68 chapters on topics that range from nano-scaled complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) devices through recent developments in nano capacitors and AlGaAs/GaAs devices. The contributors are world-renowned experts from academia and industry from around the globe.

    The handbook explores current research into potentially disruptive technologies for a post-CMOS world. These include:

    • Nanoscale advances in current MOSFET/CMOS technology
    • Nano capacitors for applications such as electronics packaging and humidity sensors
    • Single electron transistors and other electron tunneling devices
    • Quantum cellular automata and nanomagnetic logic
    • Memristors as switching devices and for memory
    • Graphene preparation, properties, and devices
    • Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), both single CNT and random network
    • Other CNT applications such as terahertz, sensors, interconnects, and capacitors
    • Nano system architectures for reliability
    • Nanowire device fabrication and applications
    • Nanowire transistors
    • Nanodevices for spintronics

    The book closes with a call for a new generation of simulation tools to handle nanoscale mechanisms in realistic nanodevice geometries.

    This timely handbook offers a wealth of insights into the application of nanoelectronics. It is an invaluable reference and source of ideas for anyone working in the rapidly expanding field of nanoelectronics.

    Section I Nano-CMOS Modeling

    Validation of Nano-CMOS Predictive Technology Model Tool on NanoHUB.org
    Alejandro Rodriguez and Hasina F. Huq

    Comparative Analysis of Mobility and Dopant Number Fluctuation Models for the Threshold Voltage Fluctuation Estimation in 45 nm Channel Length MOSFET Device
    Nabil Ashraf, Dragica Vasileska, Gilson Wirth, and Purushothaman Srinivasan

    Impact of Random Interface Traps on Asymmetric Characteristic Fluctuation of 16-nm-Gate MOSFET Devices
    Yiming Li

    Section II Nano-CMOS Technology

    Bottom-Up Approaches for CMOS Scaling in the Nanoscale Era
    Mrunal A. Khaderbad and V. Ramgopal Rao

    Study of Lanthanum Incorporated HfO2 Nanoscale Film Deposited as an MOS Device Structure Using a Dense Plasma Focus Device
    A. Srivastava and Y. Malhotra

    Low-Power Reliable Nano Adders
    Azam Beg, Mawahib Hussein Sulieman, Valeriu Beiu, and Walid Ibrahim

    Section III Nano Capacitors

    Package-Compatible High-Density Nano-Scale Capacitors with Conformal Nano-Dielectrics
    Himani Sharma, P. Markondeya Raj, Parthasarathi Chakraborti, Yushu Wang, and Rao Tummala

    Modified Carbon Nanostructures for Display and Energy Storage
    Sivaram Arepalli

    Production and Characterization of Nanoparticle Dispersions of Organic Semiconductors for Potential Applications in Organic Electronics
    Muhammad Hassan Sayyad, Fazal Wahab, Munawar Ali Munawar, Muhammad Shahid, Jamil Anwar Chaudry, Khaulah Sulaiman, Zubair Ahmad, and Abdullah Mohamed Asiri

    Investigation of Charge Accumulation in Si3N4/SiO2 Dielectric Stacks for Electrostatically Actuated NEMS/MEMS Reliability
    Gang Li, Ulrik Hanke, and Xuyuan Chen

    Section IV Terahertz Systems and Devices

    Nano Antennas for Energy Conversion
    Mario Bareiß, Andreas Hochmeister, Gunther Jegert, Gregor Koblmüller, Ute Zschieschang, Hagen Klauk, Bernhard Fabel, Giuseppe Scarpa, Wolfgang Porod, and Paolo Lugli

    Ballistic Transistor Logic for Circuit Applications
    David Wolpert and Paul Ampadu

    Section V Single Electron Transistors and Electron Tunneling Devices

    Simultaneously Controlled Tuning of Tunneling Properties of Integrated Nanogaps Using Field-Emission-Induced Electromigration
    Mitsuki Ito, Shunsuke Akimoto, Ryutaro Suda, and Jun-Ichi Shirakashi

    High-Resistive Tunnel Junctions for Room-Temperature-Operating Single-Electron Transistors Fabricated Using Chemical Oxidation of Tungsten Nanoparticles
    P. Santosh Kumar Karre, Daw Don Cheam, Manoranjan Acharya, and Paul L. Bergstrom

    Axon-Inspired Communication Systems
    Valeriu Beiu, Liren Zhang, Azam Beg, Walid Ibrahim, and Mihai Tache

    Electromechanical Modeling of GNP Nanocomposites for Integrated Stress Monitoring of Electronic Devices
    Alessandro Giuseppe D’Aloia, Alessio Tamburrano, Giovanni De Bellis, Jacopo Tirillò, Fabrizio Sarasini, and Maria Sabrina Sarto

    Section VI Quantum Cellular Automata

    An HDL Model of Magnetic Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Devices and Circuits
    Marco Ottavi, Salvatore Pontarelli, Adelio Salsano, and Fabrizio Lombardi

    Restoring Divider Design for Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata
    Seong-Wan Kim and Earl E. Swartzlander, Jr.

    LINA-QCA: Theory, Design, and Viable Implementation Strategies
    Loyd R. Hook IV and Samuel C. Lee

    Minimal Majority Gate Mapping of Four-Variable Functions for Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata
    Peng Wang, Mohammed Niamat, and Srinivasa Vemuru

    Section VII Memristors, Resistive Switches, and Memory

    Nanodevices: Describing Function and Liénard Equation
    Alberto Delgado

    Sensing and Writing Operations of Nano-Crossbar Memory Arrays
    An Chen

    Modeling of Complementary Resistive Switches
    E. Linn, S. Menzel, R. Rosezin, U. Böttger, R. Bruchhaus, and R. Waser

    Hybrid Design of a Memory Cell Using a Memristor and Ambipolar Transistors
    Pilin Junsangsri and Fabrizio Lombardi

    Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity Using Memristors and Nano-Crystalline Silicon TFT Memories
    Kurtis D. Cantley, Anand Subramaniam, and Eric M. Vogel

    Thermally Actuated Nanoelectromechanical Memory: A New Memory Concept for Spacecraft Application
    Elham Maghsoudi and Michael James Martin

    Section VIII Graphene Preparation and Properties

    Low-Stress Transfer of Graphene and Its Tunable Resistance by Remote Plasma Treatments in Hydrogen
    Waileong Chen, Chia-Hao Tu, Keng-Chih Liang, Chih-Yi Liu, Chuan-Pu Liu, and Yonhua Tzeng

    High-Yield Dielectrophoretic Deposition and Ion Sensitivity of Graphene
    Pengfei Li, Nan Lei, Jie Xu, and Wei Xue

    Multilayer Graphene Grid and Nanowire Fabrication and Printing
    Masudur Rahman and Michael L. Norton

    Section IX Graphene Devices

    Nanotransistors Using Graphene Interfaced with Advanced Dielectrics for High-Speed Communication
    Osama M. Nayfeh, Ki Kang Kim, and Jing Kong

    Graphene-on-Diamond Devices and Interconnects: Carbon sp2-on-sp3 Technology
    Jie Yu, Guanxiong Liu, Alexander A. Balandin, and Anirudha V. Sumant

    Graphene Band Gap Modification via Functionalization with Metal-Bis-Arene Molecules
    Paul Plachinda, David R. Evans, and Raj Solanki

    Section X Carbon Nanotube Applications

    Integrating Low-Temperature Carbon Nanotubes as Vertical Interconnects in Si Technology
    Sten Vollebregt, Ryoichi Ishihara, Jaber Derakhshandeh, Johan van der Cingel, Hugo Schellevis, and C.I.M. Beenakker

    Readout Circuit Design for MWCNT Infrared Sensors
    Liangliang Chen, Ning Xi, Hongzhi Chen, and King Wai Chiu Lai

    Use of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors
    Adrianus I. Aria, Mélanie Guittet, and Morteza Gharib

    Spray Deposition of Carbon Nanotube Thin Films
    Alaa Abdellah, Paolo Lugli, and Giuseppe Scarpa

    Electrical Control of Synthesis Conditions for Locally Grown CNTs on a Polysilicon Microstructure
    Knut E. Aasmundtveit, Bao Quoc Ta, Nils Hoivik, and Einar Halvorsen

    Section XI Carbon Nanotube Transistor Modeling

    A Qualitative Comparison of Energy Band Gap Equations with a Focus on Temperature and Its Effect on CNTFETs
    Jesus Torres and Hasina F. Huq

    Real-Time Quantum Simulation of Terahertz Response in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube
    Zuojing Chen, Eric Polizzi, and Sigfrid Yngvesson

    Section XII Carbon Nanotube Transistor Fabrication

    Fabrication of Stable n-Type Thin-Film Transistor with Cs Encapsulated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
    Toshiaki Kato, Rikizo Hatakeyama, and Yosuke Osanai

    Printing Technology and Advantage of Purified Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes for Thin Film Transistors
    Hideaki Numata, Kazuki Ihara, Takeshi Saito, and Fumiyuki Nihey

    Section XIII Random CNT Network Transistors

    Solution-Processed Random Carbon Nanotube Networks Used in a Thin-Film Transistor
    Qingqing Gong, Edgar Albert, Bernhard Fabel, Alaa Abdellah, Paolo Lugli, Giuseppe Scarpa, and Mary B. Chan-Park

    Analysis of Yield Improvement Techniques for CNFET-Based Logic Gates
    Rehman Ashraf, Malgorzata Chrzanowska-Jeske, and Siva G. Narendra

    Low-Power and Metallic-CNT-Tolerant CNTFET SRAM Design
    Zhe Zhang and José G. Delgado-Frias

    Section XIV Nano-Redundant Systems

    Optimized Built-In Self-Test Technique for CAEN-Based Nanofabric Systems
    Maciej Zawodniok and Sambhav Kundaikar

    Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Architecture for Unreliable Device Technologies
    Nivard Aymerich, Sorin Cotofana, and Antonio Rubio

    Section XV Nanowire Fabrication

    Growth and Characterization of GaAs Nanowires Grown on Si Substrates
    Jung-Hyun Kang, Qiang Gao, Hark Hoe Tan, Hannah J. Joyce, Yong Kim, Yanan Guo, Hongyi Xu, Jin Zou, Melodie A. Fickenscher, Leigh M. Smith, Howard E. Jackson, Jan M. Yarrison-Rice, and Chennupati Jagadish

    Synthesis and Characterization of n- and p-Doped Tin Oxide Nanowires for Gas Sensing Applications
    Hoang A. Tran and Shankar B. Rananavare

    Cu Silicide Nanowires: Fabrication, Characterization, and Application to Li-Ion Batteries
    Poh Keong Ng, Reza Shahbazian-Yassar, and Carmen Maria Lilley

    High-Aspect-Ratio Metallic Nanowires by Pulsed Electrodeposition
    Matthias Graf, Alexander Eychmüller, and Klaus-Jürgen Wolter

    Section XVI Nanowire Applications

    Zinc Oxide Nanowires for Biosensing Applications
    Anurag Gupta, Bruce C. Kim, Dawen Li, Eugene Edwards, Christina Brantley, and Paul Ruffin

    Aqueous Synthesis of n-/p-type ZnO Nanorods on Porous Silicon for the Application of p–n Junction Device
    Eunkyung Park, Jungwoo Lee, Taehee Park, Jongtaek Lee, Donghwan Lee, and Whikun Yi

    High Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) as an Analytical Tool Using Silver Nanoparticles on GaN Nanowires
    Nitzan Dar, Wen-Jing Wang, Kuo-Hao Lee, Yung-Tang Nien, and In-Gann Chen

    Section XVII Nanowire Transistors

    High-Speed and Transparent Nanocrystalline ZnO Thin Film Transistors
    Burhan Bayraktaroglu and Kevin Leedy

    First-Principle Study of Energy-Band Control by Cross-Sectional Morphology in [110]-Si Nanowires
    Shinya Kyogoku, Jun-Ichi Iwata, and Atsushi Oshiyama

    Interplay of Self-Heating and Short-Range Coulomb Interactions Due to Traps in a 10 nm Channel Length Nanowire Transistor
    Arif Hossain, Dragica Vasileska, Katerina Raleva, and Stephen M. Goodnick

    Impact of Phonon Scattering in an Si GAA Nanowire FET with a Single Donor in the Channel
    Antonio Martinez, Manuel Aldegunde, and Karol Kalna

    Modeling and Minimizing Variations of Gate-All-Around Multiple-Channel Nanowire TFTs
    Po-Chun Huang, Lu-An Chen, C.C. Chen, and Jeng-Tzong Sheu

    Characterization of Gate-All-Around Si-Nanowire Field-Effect Transistor: Extraction of Series Resistance and Capacitance–Voltage Behavior
    Yoon-Ha Jeong, Sang-Hyun Lee, Ye-Ram Kim, Rock-Hyun Baek, Dong-Won Kim, Jeong-Soo Lee, and Dae Mann Kim

    Section XVIII Nanomagnetic Logic

    Nonvolatile Logic-in-Memory Architecture: An Integration between Nanomagnetic Logic and Magnetoresistive RAM
    Jayita Das, Syed M. Alam, and Sanjukta Bhanja

    Implementation of a Nanomagnet Full Adder Circuit
    Edit Varga, György Csaba, G. H. Bernstein, and Wolfgang Porod

    Investigations on Nanomagnetic Logic by Experiment-Based Compact Modeling
    Stephan Breitkreutz, Josef Kiermaier, Irina Eichwald, Xueming Ju, György Csaba, Doris Schmitt-Landsiedel, and Markus Becherer

    Parallel Energy Minimizing Computation via Dipolar Coupled Single Domain Nanomagnets
    Javier Pulecio, Sanjukta Bhanja, and Sudeep Sarkar

    Section XIX Spintronics

    On Physical Limits and Challenges of Graphene Nanoribbons as Interconnects for All-Spin Logic
    Shaloo Rakheja and Azad Naeemi

    Influence of Impurity and Dangling Bond Scattering on the Conductance Anomalies of Side-Gated Quantum Point Contacts
    J. Wan, J. Charles, M. Cahay, P.P. Das, N. Bhandari, and R.S. Newrock

    Electric Field-Controlled Spin Interactions in Quantum Dot Molecules
    Kushal C. Wijesundara and Eric A. Stinaff

    Material Issues for Efficient Spin-Transfer Torque RAMs
    Kamaram Munira, William A. Soffa, and Avik W. Ghosh

    Section XX Nanodevice Modeling

    Atomic-Scale Modeling of Nanoscale Devices
    Anders Blom and Kurt Stokbro



    James (Jim) E. Morris is an electrical and computer engineering professor at Portland State University, Oregon, and professor emeritus at SUNY-Binghamton, having served as department chair at both. Dr. Morris has served the IEEE Components Packaging and Manufacturing Technology (CPMT) Society as a treasurer (1991–1997), BoG member (1996–1998, 2011–2013), VP for conferences (1998–2003), distinguished lecturer (2000–present), CPMT Transactions associate editor (1998–present), and co-chair of the CPMT Technical Committee on nanotechnology, and was recognized with the 2005 CPMT David Feldman Outstanding Contribution Award. He serves on the IEEE Nanotechnology Council (NTC) as CPMT representative (2007–present), VP for conferences (2013–2014), and past Awards chair. He has edited or co-authored five books on electronics packaging, including one on nanopackaging.

    Krzysztof (Kris) Iniewski manages R&D at Redlen Technologies, Inc., a startup company in Vancouver, Canada. He is also the president of CMOS Emerging Technologies Research Inc., an organization of high-tech events covering communications, microsystems, optoelectronics, and sensors. Dr. Iniewski has held numerous faculty and management positions at the University of Toronto, University of Alberta, Simon Fraser University, and PMC-Sierra, Inc. He has published more than 100 research papers in international journals and conferences. He holds 18 international patents granted in the United States, Canada, France, Germany, and Japan. He is a frequent invited speaker, has consulted for multiple organizations internationally, and has written and edited several books.

    "... an outstanding, edited collection of state-of-the-art contributions. ... The material provides an excellent overview of the broadly defined field of nanoelectronic devices. ... a comprehensive handbook that is a great resource for students and researchers. Its well-balanced and clear presentations will attract both engineers and scientists of diverse backgrounds."
    —Igor Zutic, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, USA, from ASME's Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine, August 2013, Vol. 4

    "The book covers an extremely large number of topics in nanodevices and their applications. For a person with an engineering background, it will be very useful if he or she wants to start to go in deep and understand the current state of the art of research and technology development in this field. ... I highly recommend it."
    —Johan Liu, Professor and Head, Bionano Systems Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden

    "Nanotechnology has become the foundation for semiconductor logic and memory devices and systems as more and more functionality is desired in smaller and smaller dimensions. This book eloquently describes the fundamental building blocks of future electronic and magnetic devices, providing details on their principles and fabrication and subsequent integration. It is a great resource for researchers and educators in the field of emerging nanoelectronic devices."
    —Santosh K. Kurinec, Rochester Institute of Technology, New York, USA

    "This volume is a unique assembly of topics ranging from present-day nanodevices used commercially today, new nanomaterials such as semiconductor nanowires to carbon-based electronics, and to potential future technologies based on entirely new concepts of information processing such as single electron devices, phase change devices, nanomagnetics, spintronics, and quantum computing. The reader should find a wealth of current topics in nanoelectronics within this handbook, which will serve as an invaluable reference on this ubiquitous technology."
    —From the Foreword by Stephen M. Goodnick, IEEE Nanotechnology Council President (2012–2013)