Nanoelectronic Device Applications Handbook: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Nanoelectronic Device Applications Handbook

1st Edition

Edited by James E. Morris, Krzysztof Iniewski

CRC Press

940 pages | 649 B/W Illus.

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Nanoelectronic Device Applications Handbook gives a comprehensive snapshot of the state of the art in nanodevices for nanoelectronics applications. Combining breadth and depth, the book includes 68 chapters on topics that range from nano-scaled complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) devices through recent developments in nano capacitors and AlGaAs/GaAs devices. The contributors are world-renowned experts from academia and industry from around the globe.

The handbook explores current research into potentially disruptive technologies for a post-CMOS world. These include:

  • Nanoscale advances in current MOSFET/CMOS technology
  • Nano capacitors for applications such as electronics packaging and humidity sensors
  • Single electron transistors and other electron tunneling devices
  • Quantum cellular automata and nanomagnetic logic
  • Memristors as switching devices and for memory
  • Graphene preparation, properties, and devices
  • Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), both single CNT and random network
  • Other CNT applications such as terahertz, sensors, interconnects, and capacitors
  • Nano system architectures for reliability
  • Nanowire device fabrication and applications
  • Nanowire transistors
  • Nanodevices for spintronics

The book closes with a call for a new generation of simulation tools to handle nanoscale mechanisms in realistic nanodevice geometries.

This timely handbook offers a wealth of insights into the application of nanoelectronics. It is an invaluable reference and source of ideas for anyone working in the rapidly expanding field of nanoelectronics.


"… an outstanding, edited collection of state-of-the-art contributions. … The material provides an excellent overview of the broadly defined field of nanoelectronic devices. … a comprehensive handbook that is a great resource for students and researchers. Its well-balanced and clear presentations will attract both engineers and scientists of diverse backgrounds."

—Igor Zutic, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, USA, from ASME's Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine, August 2013, Vol. 4

"The book covers an extremely large number of topics in nanodevices and their applications. For a person with an engineering background, it will be very useful if he or she wants to start to go in deep and understand the current state of the art of research and technology development in this field. … I highly recommend it."

—Johan Liu, Professor and Head, Bionano Systems Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden

"Nanotechnology has become the foundation for semiconductor logic and memory devices and systems as more and more functionality is desired in smaller and smaller dimensions. This book eloquently describes the fundamental building blocks of future electronic and magnetic devices, providing details on their principles and fabrication and subsequent integration. It is a great resource for researchers and educators in the field of emerging nanoelectronic devices."

—Santosh K. Kurinec, Rochester Institute of Technology, New York, USA

"This volume is a unique assembly of topics ranging from present-day nanodevices used commercially today, new nanomaterials such as semiconductor nanowires to carbon-based electronics, and to potential future technologies based on entirely new concepts of information processing such as single electron devices, phase change devices, nanomagnetics, spintronics, and quantum computing. The reader should find a wealth of current topics in nanoelectronics within this handbook, which will serve as an invaluable reference on this ubiquitous technology."

—From the Foreword by Stephen M. Goodnick, IEEE Nanotechnology Council President (2012–2013)

Table of Contents

Section I Nano-CMOS Modeling

Validation of Nano-CMOS Predictive Technology Model Tool on

Alejandro Rodriguez and Hasina F. Huq

Comparative Analysis of Mobility and Dopant Number Fluctuation Models for the Threshold Voltage Fluctuation Estimation in 45 nm Channel Length MOSFET Device

Nabil Ashraf, Dragica Vasileska, Gilson Wirth, and Purushothaman Srinivasan

Impact of Random Interface Traps on Asymmetric Characteristic Fluctuation of 16-nm-Gate MOSFET Devices

Yiming Li

Section II Nano-CMOS Technology

Bottom-Up Approaches for CMOS Scaling in the Nanoscale Era

Mrunal A. Khaderbad and V. Ramgopal Rao

Study of Lanthanum Incorporated HfO2 Nanoscale Film Deposited as an MOS Device Structure Using a Dense Plasma Focus Device

A. Srivastava and Y. Malhotra

Low-Power Reliable Nano Adders

Azam Beg, Mawahib Hussein Sulieman, Valeriu Beiu, and Walid Ibrahim

Section III Nano Capacitors

Package-Compatible High-Density Nano-Scale Capacitors with Conformal Nano-Dielectrics

Himani Sharma, P. Markondeya Raj, Parthasarathi Chakraborti, Yushu Wang, and Rao Tummala

Modified Carbon Nanostructures for Display and Energy Storage

Sivaram Arepalli

Production and Characterization of Nanoparticle Dispersions of Organic Semiconductors for Potential Applications in Organic Electronics

Muhammad Hassan Sayyad, Fazal Wahab, Munawar Ali Munawar, Muhammad Shahid, Jamil Anwar Chaudry, Khaulah Sulaiman, Zubair Ahmad, and Abdullah Mohamed Asiri

Investigation of Charge Accumulation in Si3N4/SiO2 Dielectric Stacks for Electrostatically Actuated NEMS/MEMS Reliability

Gang Li, Ulrik Hanke, and Xuyuan Chen

Section IV Terahertz Systems and Devices

Nano Antennas for Energy Conversion

Mario Bareiß, Andreas Hochmeister, Gunther Jegert, Gregor Koblmüller, Ute Zschieschang, Hagen Klauk, Bernhard Fabel, Giuseppe Scarpa, Wolfgang Porod, and Paolo Lugli

Ballistic Transistor Logic for Circuit Applications

David Wolpert and Paul Ampadu

Section V Single Electron Transistors and Electron Tunneling Devices

Simultaneously Controlled Tuning of Tunneling Properties of Integrated Nanogaps Using Field-Emission-Induced Electromigration

Mitsuki Ito, Shunsuke Akimoto, Ryutaro Suda, and Jun-Ichi Shirakashi

High-Resistive Tunnel Junctions for Room-Temperature-Operating Single-Electron Transistors Fabricated Using Chemical Oxidation of Tungsten Nanoparticles

P. Santosh Kumar Karre, Daw Don Cheam, Manoranjan Acharya, and Paul L. Bergstrom

Axon-Inspired Communication Systems

Valeriu Beiu, Liren Zhang, Azam Beg, Walid Ibrahim, and Mihai Tache

Electromechanical Modeling of GNP Nanocomposites for Integrated Stress Monitoring of Electronic Devices

Alessandro Giuseppe D’Aloia, Alessio Tamburrano, Giovanni De Bellis, Jacopo Tirillò, Fabrizio Sarasini, and Maria Sabrina Sarto

Section VI Quantum Cellular Automata

An HDL Model of Magnetic Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Devices and Circuits

Marco Ottavi, Salvatore Pontarelli, Adelio Salsano, and Fabrizio Lombardi

Restoring Divider Design for Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata

Seong-Wan Kim and Earl E. Swartzlander, Jr.

LINA-QCA: Theory, Design, and Viable Implementation Strategies

Loyd R. Hook IV and Samuel C. Lee

Minimal Majority Gate Mapping of Four-Variable Functions for Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata

Peng Wang, Mohammed Niamat, and Srinivasa Vemuru

Section VII Memristors, Resistive Switches, and Memory

Nanodevices: Describing Function and Liénard Equation

Alberto Delgado

Sensing and Writing Operations of Nano-Crossbar Memory Arrays

An Chen

Modeling of Complementary Resistive Switches

E. Linn, S. Menzel, R. Rosezin, U. Böttger, R. Bruchhaus, and R. Waser

Hybrid Design of a Memory Cell Using a Memristor and Ambipolar Transistors

Pilin Junsangsri and Fabrizio Lombardi

Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity Using Memristors and Nano-Crystalline Silicon TFT Memories

Kurtis D. Cantley, Anand Subramaniam, and Eric M. Vogel

Thermally Actuated Nanoelectromechanical Memory: A New Memory Concept for Spacecraft Application

Elham Maghsoudi and Michael James Martin

Section VIII Graphene Preparation and Properties

Low-Stress Transfer of Graphene and Its Tunable Resistance by Remote Plasma Treatments in Hydrogen

Waileong Chen, Chia-Hao Tu, Keng-Chih Liang, Chih-Yi Liu, Chuan-Pu Liu, and Yonhua Tzeng

High-Yield Dielectrophoretic Deposition and Ion Sensitivity of Graphene

Pengfei Li, Nan Lei, Jie Xu, and Wei Xue

Multilayer Graphene Grid and Nanowire Fabrication and Printing

Masudur Rahman and Michael L. Norton

Section IX Graphene Devices

Nanotransistors Using Graphene Interfaced with Advanced Dielectrics for High-Speed Communication

Osama M. Nayfeh, Ki Kang Kim, and Jing Kong

Graphene-on-Diamond Devices and Interconnects: Carbon sp2-on-sp3 Technology

Jie Yu, Guanxiong Liu, Alexander A. Balandin, and Anirudha V. Sumant

Graphene Band Gap Modification via Functionalization with Metal-Bis-Arene Molecules

Paul Plachinda, David R. Evans, and Raj Solanki

Section X Carbon Nanotube Applications

Integrating Low-Temperature Carbon Nanotubes as Vertical Interconnects in Si Technology

Sten Vollebregt, Ryoichi Ishihara, Jaber Derakhshandeh, Johan van der Cingel, Hugo Schellevis, and C.I.M. Beenakker

Readout Circuit Design for MWCNT Infrared Sensors

Liangliang Chen, Ning Xi, Hongzhi Chen, and King Wai Chiu Lai

Use of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors

Adrianus I. Aria, Mélanie Guittet, and Morteza Gharib

Spray Deposition of Carbon Nanotube Thin Films

Alaa Abdellah, Paolo Lugli, and Giuseppe Scarpa

Electrical Control of Synthesis Conditions for Locally Grown CNTs on a Polysilicon Microstructure

Knut E. Aasmundtveit, Bao Quoc Ta, Nils Hoivik, and Einar Halvorsen

Section XI Carbon Nanotube Transistor Modeling

A Qualitative Comparison of Energy Band Gap Equations with a Focus on Temperature and Its Effect on CNTFETs

Jesus Torres and Hasina F. Huq

Real-Time Quantum Simulation of Terahertz Response in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube

Zuojing Chen, Eric Polizzi, and Sigfrid Yngvesson

Section XII Carbon Nanotube Transistor Fabrication

Fabrication of Stable n-Type Thin-Film Transistor with Cs Encapsulated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Toshiaki Kato, Rikizo Hatakeyama, and Yosuke Osanai

Printing Technology and Advantage of Purified Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes for Thin Film Transistors

Hideaki Numata, Kazuki Ihara, Takeshi Saito, and Fumiyuki Nihey

Section XIII Random CNT Network Transistors

Solution-Processed Random Carbon Nanotube Networks Used in a Thin-Film Transistor

Qingqing Gong, Edgar Albert, Bernhard Fabel, Alaa Abdellah, Paolo Lugli, Giuseppe Scarpa, and Mary B. Chan-Park

Analysis of Yield Improvement Techniques for CNFET-Based Logic Gates

Rehman Ashraf, Malgorzata Chrzanowska-Jeske, and Siva G. Narendra

Low-Power and Metallic-CNT-Tolerant CNTFET SRAM Design

Zhe Zhang and José G. Delgado-Frias

Section XIV Nano-Redundant Systems

Optimized Built-In Self-Test Technique for CAEN-Based Nanofabric Systems

Maciej Zawodniok and Sambhav Kundaikar

Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Architecture for Unreliable Device Technologies

Nivard Aymerich, Sorin Cotofana, and Antonio Rubio

Section XV Nanowire Fabrication

Growth and Characterization of GaAs Nanowires Grown on Si Substrates

Jung-Hyun Kang, Qiang Gao, Hark Hoe Tan, Hannah J. Joyce, Yong Kim, Yanan Guo, Hongyi Xu, Jin Zou, Melodie A. Fickenscher, Leigh M. Smith, Howard E. Jackson, Jan M. Yarrison-Rice, and Chennupati Jagadish

Synthesis and Characterization of n- and p-Doped Tin Oxide Nanowires for Gas Sensing Applications

Hoang A. Tran and Shankar B. Rananavare

Cu Silicide Nanowires: Fabrication, Characterization, and Application to Li-Ion Batteries

Poh Keong Ng, Reza Shahbazian-Yassar, and Carmen Maria Lilley

High-Aspect-Ratio Metallic Nanowires by Pulsed Electrodeposition

Matthias Graf, Alexander Eychmüller, and Klaus-Jürgen Wolter

Section XVI Nanowire Applications

Zinc Oxide Nanowires for Biosensing Applications

Anurag Gupta, Bruce C. Kim, Dawen Li, Eugene Edwards, Christina Brantley, and Paul Ruffin

Aqueous Synthesis of n-/p-type ZnO Nanorods on Porous Silicon for the Application of p–n Junction Device

Eunkyung Park, Jungwoo Lee, Taehee Park, Jongtaek Lee, Donghwan Lee, and Whikun Yi

High Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) as an Analytical Tool Using Silver Nanoparticles on GaN Nanowires

Nitzan Dar, Wen-Jing Wang, Kuo-Hao Lee, Yung-Tang Nien, and In-Gann Chen

Section XVII Nanowire Transistors

High-Speed and Transparent Nanocrystalline ZnO Thin Film Transistors

Burhan Bayraktaroglu and Kevin Leedy

First-Principle Study of Energy-Band Control by Cross-Sectional Morphology in [110]-Si Nanowires

Shinya Kyogoku, Jun-Ichi Iwata, and Atsushi Oshiyama

Interplay of Self-Heating and Short-Range Coulomb Interactions Due to Traps in a 10 nm Channel Length Nanowire Transistor

Arif Hossain, Dragica Vasileska, Katerina Raleva, and Stephen M. Goodnick

Impact of Phonon Scattering in an Si GAA Nanowire FET with a Single Donor in the Channel

Antonio Martinez, Manuel Aldegunde, and Karol Kalna

Modeling and Minimizing Variations of Gate-All-Around Multiple-Channel Nanowire TFTs

Po-Chun Huang, Lu-An Chen, C.C. Chen, and Jeng-Tzong Sheu

Characterization of Gate-All-Around Si-Nanowire Field-Effect Transistor: Extraction of Series Resistance and Capacitance–Voltage Behavior

Yoon-Ha Jeong, Sang-Hyun Lee, Ye-Ram Kim, Rock-Hyun Baek, Dong-Won Kim, Jeong-Soo Lee, and Dae Mann Kim

Section XVIII Nanomagnetic Logic

Nonvolatile Logic-in-Memory Architecture: An Integration between Nanomagnetic Logic and Magnetoresistive RAM

Jayita Das, Syed M. Alam, and Sanjukta Bhanja

Implementation of a Nanomagnet Full Adder Circuit

Edit Varga, György Csaba, G. H. Bernstein, and Wolfgang Porod

Investigations on Nanomagnetic Logic by Experiment-Based Compact Modeling

Stephan Breitkreutz, Josef Kiermaier, Irina Eichwald, Xueming Ju, György Csaba, Doris Schmitt-Landsiedel, and Markus Becherer

Parallel Energy Minimizing Computation via Dipolar Coupled Single Domain Nanomagnets

Javier Pulecio, Sanjukta Bhanja, and Sudeep Sarkar

Section XIX Spintronics

On Physical Limits and Challenges of Graphene Nanoribbons as Interconnects for All-Spin Logic

Shaloo Rakheja and Azad Naeemi

Influence of Impurity and Dangling Bond Scattering on the Conductance Anomalies of Side-Gated Quantum Point Contacts

J. Wan, J. Charles, M. Cahay, P.P. Das, N. Bhandari, and R.S. Newrock

Electric Field-Controlled Spin Interactions in Quantum Dot Molecules

Kushal C. Wijesundara and Eric A. Stinaff

Material Issues for Efficient Spin-Transfer Torque RAMs

Kamaram Munira, William A. Soffa, and Avik W. Ghosh

Section XX Nanodevice Modeling

Atomic-Scale Modeling of Nanoscale Devices

Anders Blom and Kurt Stokbro


About the Editors

James (Jim) E. Morris is an electrical and computer engineering professor at Portland State University, Oregon, and professor emeritus at SUNY-Binghamton, having served as department chair at both. Dr. Morris has served the IEEE Components Packaging and Manufacturing Technology (CPMT) Society as a treasurer (1991–1997), BoG member (1996–1998, 2011–2013), VP for conferences (1998–2003), distinguished lecturer (2000–present), CPMT Transactions associate editor (1998–present), and co-chair of the CPMT Technical Committee on nanotechnology, and was recognized with the 2005 CPMT David Feldman Outstanding Contribution Award. He serves on the IEEE Nanotechnology Council (NTC) as CPMT representative (2007–present), VP for conferences (2013–2014), and past Awards chair. He has edited or co-authored five books on electronics packaging, including one on nanopackaging.

Krzysztof (Kris) Iniewski manages R&D at Redlen Technologies, Inc., a startup company in Vancouver, Canada. He is also the president of CMOS Emerging Technologies Research Inc., an organization of high-tech events covering communications, microsystems, optoelectronics, and sensors. Dr. Iniewski has held numerous faculty and management positions at the University of Toronto, University of Alberta, Simon Fraser University, and PMC-Sierra, Inc. He has published more than 100 research papers in international journals and conferences. He holds 18 international patents granted in the United States, Canada, France, Germany, and Japan. He is a frequent invited speaker, has consulted for multiple organizations internationally, and has written and edited several books.

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Devices, Circuits, and Systems

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / Circuits / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / Microelectronics