Nanoelectronics : Quantum Engineering of Low-Dimensional Nanoensembles book cover
1st Edition

Quantum Engineering of Low-Dimensional Nanoensembles

ISBN 9781498705752
Published February 18, 2015 by CRC Press
430 Pages - 195 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Brings the Band Structure of Carbon-Based Devices into the Limelight

A shift to carbon is positioning biology as a process of synthesis in mainstream engineering. Silicon is quickly being replaced with carbon-based electronics, devices are being reduced down to nanometer scale, and further potential applications are being considered. While traditionally, engineers are trained by way of physics, chemistry, and mathematics, Nanoelectronics: Quantum Engineering of Low-Dimensional Nanoensembles establishes biology as an essential basic science for engineers to explore.

Unifies Science and Engineering: from Quantum Physics to Nanoengineering

Drawing heavily on published papers by the author, this research-driven text offers a complete review of nanoelectronic transport starting from quantum waves, to ohmic and ballistic conduction, and saturation-limited extreme nonequilibrium conditions. In addition, it highlights a new paradigm using non-equilibrium Arora’s Distribution Function (NEADF) and establishes this function as the starting point (from band theory to equilibrium to extreme nonequilibrium carrier statistics). The author focuses on nano-electronic device design and development, including carbon-based devices, and provides you with a vantage point for the global outlook on the future of nanoelectronics devices and ULSI.

Encompassing ten chapters, this illuminating text:

  • Converts the electric-field response of drift velocity into current–voltage relationships that are driven by the presence of critical voltage and saturation current arising from the unidirectional drift of carriers
  • Applies the effect of these scaled-down dimensions to nano-MOSFET (metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor)
  • Considers specialized applications that can be tried through a number of suggested projects that are all feasible with MATLAB® codes

Nanoelectronics: Quantum Engineering of Low-Dimensional Nanoensembles contains the latest research in nanoelectronics, identifies problems and other factors to consider when it comes to nanolayer design and application, and ponders future trends.

Print Versions of this book also include access to the ebook version.

Table of Contents

Nanoengineering Overview

Quantum Waves

Nanoengineering Circuits


Growth and Decay




CAD/CAE Projects


Atoms, Bands, and Quantum Wells

Birth of a Quantum Era

Hydrogen-Like Atom

Photon Emission and Absorption

Spherical Hydrogen-Like Atom

Atoms to Crystals—Bands and Bonds

Thermal Band/Bond Tempering

Impurity Band/Bond Tempering

Compound Semiconductors

Bands to Quantum Wells

A Prototype Quantum Well

D (Bulk) Density of States

D Quantum Well

D Quantum Well

Quantum Dots: QOD Systems

Generalized DOS

Ellipsoidal Conduction Band Valleys

Heavy/Light Holes

Electrons in a Magnetic Field

Triangular Quantum Well

QD Electrons in a MOSFET

Carbon Allotropes

Graphene to CNT

Bandgap Engineering of Carbon Allotropes

Tunneling through a Barrier

WKB Approximation



CAD/CAE Projects

Appendix A: Derivation of the Density of States Using δ-Function


Carrier Statistics

Fermi–Dirac Distribution Function

Bulk (D) Carrier Distribution

Bulk (D) ND Approximation

Intrinsic Carrier Concentration

Charge Neutrality Compensation

Strong D (Bulk) Degenerate Limit

Carrier Statistics in Low Dimensions

The Velocity and the Energy Averages

Graphene/CNT Nanostructures



CAD/CAE Projects

Appendix A: Distribution Function

Appendix B: Electron Concentration for D and D Nanostructures

Appendix C: Intrinsic Velocity


Nonequilibrium Carrier Statistics and Transport

Tilted Band Diagram in an Electric Field

Velocity Response to an Electric Field

Ballistic Mobility

Quantum Emission

High-Field Distribution Function

ND Drift Response

Degenerate Drift Response

Direct and Differential Mobility

Bandgap Narrowing and Carrier Multiplication



CAD/CAE Projects

Appendix A: Derivation of Velocity-Field Characteristics


Charge Transport


Ohmic (Linear) Transport

Discovery of Sat Law

Charge Transport in D and D Resistors

Charge Transport in a CNT

Power Consumption

Transit Time Delay

RC Time Delay

L/R Transient Delay

Voltage and Current Division



CAD/CAE Projects

Appendix A: Derivation of the L/R Time Constant


Nano-MOSFET and Nano-CMOS


MOS Capacitor

I–V Characteristics of Nano-MOSFET

Long- (LC) and Short-Channel (SC) MOSFET

Model Refinements for Nano-CMOS Application

CMOS Design



CAD/CAE Projects

Appendix A: Properties of Airy Function


Nanowire Transport


Ballistic Quantum Conductance

Quantum Emission

Stochastic to Streamlined Unidirectional Velocity

NEADF Application to NW

NW Transistor

CAD/CAE Projects


Quantum Transport in Carbon-Based Devices

High-Field Graphene Transport

Application to Experimental Data for Graphene

High-Field Transport in Metallic CNT

High-Field GNR Transport

Ballistic Transport in Graphene, CNT, and GNR

CAD/CAE Projects


Magneto- and Quantum-Confined Transport

Classical Theory of MR

Rationale for Density Matrix

Density Matrix


An Application

Other Types of MR

NW Effect in High Electric and Magnetic Fields

Quantum-Confined Transport

CAD/CAE Projects


Drift-Diffusion and Multivalley Transport


Simplified Drift-Diffusion

Einstein Ratio

A Refined Model

Multivalley Transport

CAD/CAE Projects




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Professor Arora, noted international educator and IEEE-EDS Distinguished Lecturer, obtained his Ph.D from the University of Colorado. He has held distinguished appointments at the University of Tokyo, National University of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, University of Western Australia, and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. His publications include more than 100 papers in reputed journals and many uncounted publications in conference proceedings. Professor Arora serves on the editorial board of a number of journals. He was chair of Nano Singapore 2006, Nanotech Malaysia 2010, and Escience Nano 2012 conferences.


"I expect Nanoelectronics: Quantum Engineering of Low-Dimensional Nanoensembles will become a favorite of many students, instructors, and more important future purveyors and custodians of nanoelectronics. Professor Arora’s book… plugs the void left by novel expensive computational methods…[and] challenges brilliant, maverick minds, determined to study what they find interesting no matter where they find it…"
—Dr. Michael Loong Peng Tan, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

"This textbook is ideal for students wishing to gain a firm grasp of the core ideas in modern nanoelectronic devices. Building up from atoms to bands and carrier statistics, this textbook leads on to the study of transport in quantum wells, carbon nanotubes and graphene. Specific issues with short channel devices, high field transport and transport in nanotubes and graphene is particularly timely."
—David Carey, University of Surrey