By covering the science, business, and societal impact of nanomedicine, this book makes a strong case for funding of basic research, for effective translation of scientific breakthroughs into clinical care of patients, and for close collaboration among all stakeholders in the healthcare ecosystem. It covers the underlying science and technology of nanomedicine in detail to help understand the great promise of nanomedicine across all disease areas. Although rich and deep in content, the book attempts to introduce the topic of nanomedicine to a wide audience. Scientific jargon is avoided and advanced terms and concepts are explained from the ground up, whenever first introduced.
The book defines nanomedicine in a broad sense, including diagnostic devices such as DNA sequencing and molecular imaging, and new therapeutic options based on targeted drug delivery, regenerative medicine, immunotherapeutics, the creation of implanted devices such as continuous glucose monitors and deep brain stimulators, and even the 3D printing of new human organs. It also covers the returns of investment in global scientific projects, such as the Human Genome Project, and the historic and emerging importance of philanthropic foundations.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
What is Nanomedicine?
What is Translational Medicine?
What is Innovation?
What is Intellectual Property?
From IP to IPO
What is Impact?
From Atoms to Proteins
Atoms and Molecules
Atoms of Life
Molecules of Life
Genetics and DNA Sequencing
DNA and the Genetic Code
From DNA to Proteins and Cells
History of Genetics
Molecular Basis of Genetics
DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project
Sanger Sequencing, NGS and the $1,000 Genome Challenge
Second Generation DNA Sequencing
Third Generation DNA Sequencing
Fourth Generation DNA Sequencing
Sequencing Data Analysis
Business Aspects of Sequencing Technology and the Human Genome Project
Post Human Genome Project: "Omics"
Stages of Bio-Pharmaceutical Drug Discovery and Clinical Development
Stage 1: Drug Discovery
Stage 2: Pre-Clinical Research
Stages 3–4: Clinical Trials and FDA Review
The Emerging Importance of "Biologics"
Biomarkers and Stratified/Personalized Medicine
The Past and Future of Bio-Pharmaceutical R&D
Semiconductors: Progress through Collaboration
Life Sciences Industry: Exclusive IP Deals and Limited Collaboration
IMI and AMP
Computers in Nanomedicine
Biocompatible Nanoparticles and Targeted Drug Delivery
Targeted Drug Delivery
The Business of Nanotherapeutics
Biomedical and Molecular Imaging
Regenerative Medicine: Stem Cells, Gene Therapy, Immunotherapy
Impact of Nanomedicine
The Gut Microbiome
Central Nervous System: Brain and Spinal Cord
Cancer and Immunology
Tissue and Organ Transplantation
The Healthcare Ecosystem AND BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH FUNDING
It’s all about the Patient/Consumer
The Future of Funding for Basic Biomedical and Translational Research
Public Health and Global Health Economics
Global View of Healthcare Costs, Infant Mortality and Life Expectancy
US Health Statistics
Dr. Michael Hehenberger is founder of HM NanoMed LLC, Connecticut, USA. He retired after a long career with IBM at the end of 2013. He earned a Dipl. Ing. in physics from the Technical University of Vienna, Austria, and obtained his Ph.D. and Dr. Sc. degrees in quantum chemistry from Uppsala University, Sweden, in 1975–79. He also spent two years at the University of Florida, Gainesville, USA, as visiting associate professor. In 1985, he joined IBM in Stockholm, Sweden, to initiate academic partnerships in computational biology, structural engineering, computer networks, and supercomputing. Throughout his IBM career that took him to European Headquarters in Paris, California (Almaden Research, San Jose), and New York, he has led collaborations with academic and global industrial life sciences organizations. The partnerships were based on the joint desire to extend the frontiers of computational chemistry and biology, information-based medicine, biopharmaceutical research, and nanomedicine. His efforts have been documented in over 40 publications and book chapters.
"This is an exceptional book. It is not only written very intelligently but also most impressively in a form that brings into play all the important aspects of modern medicine, connecting them in a remarkably comprehensive fashion. It is an excellent book not just about nanomedicine in particular, but about medicine in general."
— Gerd Binnig - Nobel Laureate and Founder, Definiens, Germany
"Michael Hehenberger is a master chef, blending clear explanations of scientific concepts with historical accounts of discovery and commercialization efforts, accounts that are spiced with observations on the political and economic environment in which this is occurring, to create an informative, interesting, and thought-provoking book. Nanomedicine: Science, Business, and Impact will appeal to a wide range of readers, including scientists, investors, politicians—in short, anyone interested in the impact that emerging nanotechnologies will have on the practice of medicine."
— Christopher K. McLeod, Angel Investor, Ex-President and CEO, Roche 454 Life Sciences, USA
"I am grateful and amazed that the book goes beyond science and business by also covering societal, ethical, and regulatory aspects. Dr. Hehenberger deserves commendation for capturing the unique interdisciplinary character of nanomedicine. I strongly recommend the book to both experts and non-experts, who will get new and broader insights into this field."
— Dr. Beat Löffler, CEO, European Foundation for Clinical Nanomedicine, Switzerland
"Nanomedicine by Michael Hehenberger is an amazing book which should be read again and again: just like a genome, (well) organized and (very) accurate, beautiful and meaningful."
— Prof. Huanming (Henry) Yang, Chairman and Co-founder, BGI, China
"A fascinating page-turner like the latest thriller—and one of the very few books in science and technology that cover equally well all three aspects of progress: scientific invention, science developed into new technology, and business as the result of creating customer (patient) benefit. A very remarkable piece of work that will get a preferred place in my library, because it is easy to read, yet always solid and correct."
— Dr. Manfred Baier, Former General Manager of Roche Applied Science, Germany
"The author gives investors the tools they need to understand science as an investment. His incisiveness into medical technologies within a business modality makes this a fascinating read."
— Lewis C. Pell, Medical Technology Entrepreneur and Angel Investor, New York City, USA
"Michael Hehenberger provides a comprehensive encyclopedia of nanomedicine and its sites of intersection with novel cutting-edge technologies, major diseases and applications as well as with business, ethical, regulatory, and societal aspects. I am particularly thrilled that the book covers the connections between nanomedicine, next-generation sequencing, and genomics, the key elements on the road to precision (personalized) medicine."
— Prof. Jan Mollenhauer, Editor-in-Chief, European Journal of Nanomedicine
"This is an interesting attempt by the author to view the development of nanomedicine science from a different angle and give us the bigger picture. The book, written for non-specialists, takes us, in some detail, through the basics of various fields of science, which through interdisciplinary interaction form the complex network that today is the basis of state-of-the-art medicine. Additionally, it lets us understand how research projects evolve in the presence of federal and private funding, and how the business aspects interact to form a successful outcome. This subject is of interest to the layperson, the scientist, the businesspeople, and the politicians in order to understand the context in which 21st-century medicine operates. If we are to be successful in our quest to cure the diseases of modern society, this understanding is instrumental for efficient progress. Personally, I found it to be enjoyable reading and it taught me a lot about aspects which I, as a scientist, normally would not consider."
— Prof. Roland Lindh, Uppsala University, Sweden
"Michael Hehenberger has written a comprehensive and very readable description covering the science, business, and impact of nanotechnology’s intersection with chemistry, biology, and healthcare. He tackles a scope that is staggering and almost beyond the reach of any individual practitioner of these disciplines. Therefore, the synthesis achieved in this book is remarkably lucid and useful. Particularly unique and enjoyable is the blend of science and business. The section on biopharmaceutical R&D is a comprehensive walk through the traditional aspects of drug discovery and drug development and blends insightful commentary on business aspects. For example, the business pressures of biopharmaceutical industry are wonderfully narrated with Sanofi as a case study. Another in-depth and enjoyable treatment is of the spectrum of companies in the area of regenerative medicine. To scientists and students of these scientific disciplines this book provides a very useful and comprehensive extension into the business impact of their domain. To business students and business executives, this book provides an interesting and deep connection to the science and history that drives these industries."
— Dr. Ajay K. Royyuru, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, USA
"The book describes the history, the developments, the frontiers, and the future of nanomedicine and is highly recommended for scientists, medical professionals, politicians, investors, drug and medical device developers, regulatory authorities, and bioethicists interested in translational issues in medicine."
— Prof. Gerd Schmitz, University Hospital Regensburg, Germany