Nanoparticles in Humans: Experiments, Methods, and Strategies, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Nanoparticles in Humans

Experiments, Methods, and Strategies, 1st Edition

Edited by Lev S. Ruzer

Jenny Stanford Publishing

152 pages | 32 Color Illus.

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Description

A peek into the literature on the environmental health implications of the rapidly developing nanotechnology industry shows that the potential problem of exposure to airborne nanoparticles has not been adequately addressed. The health and safety of nanotechnology workers are of concern because these groups run the greatest risk of exposure to elevated concentrations of nanomaterials. However, a gap exists between the currently available particle measurement methods and those appropriate for the assessment of nanoaerosol exposure.

This book presents new ideas and methods to measure the surface area and local deposition of nanoparticles in the lungs and the true value of respirators. It proposes a nanoparticle dosimetric road map that can be used as a general strategy for the assessment of the dose, which is the most important physical cause of adverse effects on health in the case of nanoparticle exposure. The book suggests the use of 1 nm radioactive particles, called unattached activity of radon progeny, as a safe experimental tool for nanoparticle studies, including human studies. It discusses the problems related to the general strategy of risk assessment in nanoparticle exposure and concrete parameters related to dosage. The ideas presented in this book help close the gaps in our knowledge of aerosols in the nanometer range and improve our understanding of nanoparticle behavior in the air and in the human body.

Table of Contents

Radon Deadlock

Radon and Health

Measurement of the Concentration of Decay Products of Radon, Thoron, and Actinon

Characteristics of Radon Progeny

The Basic Equations for Radon Decay Product Series

The General Activity Methods of Measuring Concentration of Radon Decay Products

Measurement of Radon Decay Products in Air by Alpha and Beta Spectrometry

Absorption of Alpha Radiation in the Sample

Measurement Procedure for Determination of Activity of RaA, RaB, RaC, and RaC′ on Filter by Alpha and Beta Spectrometry

Characteristics of Thoron and Actinon Decay Products

The Basic Equations for Thoron and Actinon Series

Conclusion

Unattached Activity of Radon Progeny

Unattached Activity Properties

Correlation between the Unattached Activity of Radon Decay Products and Aerosol Concentration

Measurements of Other Radon Decay Product Unattached Activity Concentration

The Effect of Recoil Nuclei Being Knocked Off Aerosol Particles Unattached Concentration of Radon Decay Products

Conclusion

Method of Direct Measurement of Activity (Dose) in Miners’ Lungs

Introduction

Theory of the Method

Assessment of the Uncertainties in the Evaluation of the Dose

Correction for the Shift of Equilibrium of Radon Progeny in the Air and in the Lungs

Accounting for Parametric Variations: Variations of Concentrations, Breathing Rate and Deposition Coefficients in Real Working Conditions

Model Measurement

Phantom Measurements and Geometric Corrections

Assessment of the Errors of the Direct Method

Portable Instrument for Direct Measurement of the Activity of Radon Decay Products in the Lungs of Miners

Assessment of the Nanoparticles’ Surface Area by Measuring the Unattached Activity of Radon Progeny

The Unattached Activity of Radon Decay Products

Conclusion

Local Deposition of Nanoparticles in the Human Lung

Safety of Radioactive Markers in Aerosol Exposure Studies

Assessment of Particle Deposition in Lungs

Previous Experiments with This Method

Human Studies

Controlled Protocol for Study of Nanoparticle Lung Deposition in Human Subjects

Discussion and Conclusion

Exposure and Dose in Nanoaerosols Studies

Exposure: Definitions

Examples of Exposure–Effect Study without Dose Assessment

Nanoparticle: Definition

Nanoparticles Dosimetric Road Map

Nanoparticle Surface Area Measurements

Nanoparticle Respirators’ True Effectiveness Measurements

Local Lung Deposition and Dosimetry for Nanoparticles

Human Experiment Safety Problems

Conclusion

About the Editor

Lev S. Ruzer (1922–2014) was a researcher in the Indoor Environment Department, Environment Energy Technologies Division, at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA. He received his education in the former USSR and began his scientific career with research on dose assessment in animals exposed to radon and its decay products. On the basis of this theoretical and experimental work, he obtained his degree as a candidate of physicomathematical sciences (equivalent to a PhD) in 1961 from the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. From 1961 to 1979, he was the founder and chair of the Aerosol Laboratory at the Institute of Physical-Technical and Radiotechnical Measurements, Moscow. The set of installations developed under his supervision for generating and measuring different types of aerosols was certified as the State Standard of Aerosols in the former USSR. This work did not have an equivalent at the time. His book on radioactive aerosols came out in 1968. Dr. Ruzer arrived in the United States in 1987 and joined the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1989. He published more than 130 papers, edited 2 books, authored 3 books, and had 3 patents to his credit. He was on the editorial boards of several international journals.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MED003000
MEDICAL / Allied Health Services / General
MED009000
MEDICAL / Biotechnology
TEC027000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Nanotechnology & MEMS