Nanoparticles in Humans : Experiments, Methods, and Strategies book cover
1st Edition

Nanoparticles in Humans
Experiments, Methods, and Strategies

Edited By

Lev S. Ruzer

ISBN 9789814463164
Published December 9, 2016 by Jenny Stanford Publishing
152 Pages 32 Color Illustrations

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Book Description

A peek into the literature on the environmental health implications of the rapidly developing nanotechnology industry shows that the potential problem of exposure to airborne nanoparticles has not been adequately addressed. The health and safety of nanotechnology workers are of concern because these groups run the greatest risk of exposure to elevated concentrations of nanomaterials. However, a gap exists between the currently available particle measurement methods and those appropriate for the assessment of nanoaerosol exposure.

This book presents new ideas and methods to measure the surface area and local deposition of nanoparticles in the lungs and the true value of respirators. It proposes a nanoparticle dosimetric road map that can be used as a general strategy for the assessment of the dose, which is the most important physical cause of adverse effects on health in the case of nanoparticle exposure. The book suggests the use of 1 nm radioactive particles, called unattached activity of radon progeny, as a safe experimental tool for nanoparticle studies, including human studies. It discusses the problems related to the general strategy of risk assessment in nanoparticle exposure and concrete parameters related to dosage. The ideas presented in this book help close the gaps in our knowledge of aerosols in the nanometer range and improve our understanding of nanoparticle behavior in the air and in the human body.

Table of Contents

Radon Deadlock
Radon and Health

Measurement of the Concentration of Decay Products of Radon, Thoron, and Actinon
Characteristics of Radon Progeny
The Basic Equations for Radon Decay Product Series
The General Activity Methods of Measuring Concentration of Radon Decay Products
Measurement of Radon Decay Products in Air by Alpha and Beta Spectrometry
Absorption of Alpha Radiation in the Sample
Measurement Procedure for Determination of Activity of RaA, RaB, RaC, and RaC′ on Filter by Alpha and Beta Spectrometry
Characteristics of Thoron and Actinon Decay Products
The Basic Equations for Thoron and Actinon Series

Unattached Activity of Radon Progeny
Unattached Activity Properties
Correlation between the Unattached Activity of Radon Decay Products and Aerosol Concentration
Measurements of Other Radon Decay Product Unattached Activity Concentration
The Effect of Recoil Nuclei Being Knocked Off Aerosol Particles Unattached Concentration of Radon Decay Products

Method of Direct Measurement of Activity (Dose) in Miners’ Lungs
Theory of the Method
Assessment of the Uncertainties in the Evaluation of the Dose
Correction for the Shift of Equilibrium of Radon Progeny in the Air and in the Lungs
Accounting for Parametric Variations: Variations of Concentrations, Breathing Rate and Deposition Coefficients in Real Working Conditions
Model Measurement
Phantom Measurements and Geometric Corrections
Assessment of the Errors of the Direct Method
Portable Instrument for Direct Measurement of the Activity of Radon Decay Products in the Lungs of Miners

Assessment of the Nanoparticles’ Surface Area by Measuring the Unattached Activity of Radon Progeny
The Unattached Activity of Radon Decay Products

Local Deposition of Nanoparticles in the Human Lung
Safety of Radioactive Markers in Aerosol Exposure Studies
Assessment of Particle Deposition in Lungs
Previous Experiments with This Method
Human Studies
Controlled Protocol for Study of Nanoparticle Lung Deposition in Human Subjects
Discussion and Conclusion

Exposure and Dose in Nanoaerosols Studies
Exposure: Definitions
Examples of Exposure–Effect Study without Dose Assessment
Nanoparticle: Definition
Nanoparticles Dosimetric Road Map
Nanoparticle Surface Area Measurements
Nanoparticle Respirators’ True Effectiveness Measurements
Local Lung Deposition and Dosimetry for Nanoparticles
Human Experiment Safety Problems

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Lev S. Ruzer (1922–2014) was a researcher in the Indoor Environment Department, Environment Energy Technologies Division, at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA. He received his education in the former USSR and began his scientific career with research on dose assessment in animals exposed to radon and its decay products. On the basis of this theoretical and experimental work, he obtained his degree as a candidate of physicomathematical sciences (equivalent to a PhD) in 1961 from the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. From 1961 to 1979, he was the founder and chair of the Aerosol Laboratory at the Institute of Physical-Technical and Radiotechnical Measurements, Moscow. The set of installations developed under his supervision for generating and measuring different types of aerosols was certified as the State Standard of Aerosols in the former USSR. This work did not have an equivalent at the time. His book on radioactive aerosols came out in 1968. Dr. Ruzer arrived in the United States in 1987 and joined the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1989. He published more than 130 papers, edited 2 books, authored 3 books, and had 3 patents to his credit. He was on the editorial boards of several international journals.