3rd Edition

Nanotechnology Understanding Small Systems, Third Edition

    432 Pages 182 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    427 Pages 182 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    An Accessible, Scientifically Rigorous Presentation That Helps Your Students Learn the Real Stuff

    Winner of a CHOICE Outstanding Academic Book Award 2011
    "… takes the revolutionary concepts and techniques that have traditionally been fodder for graduate study and makes them accessible for all. … outstanding introduction to the broad field of nanotechnology provides a solid foundation for further study. Highly recommended."
    N.M. Fahrenkopf, University at Albany, CHOICE Magazine 2011

    Give your students the thorough grounding they need in nanotechnology. A rigorous yet accessible treatment of one of the world’s fastest growing fields, Nanotechnology: Understanding Small Systems, Third Edition provides an accessible introduction without sacrificing rigorous scientific details. This approach makes the subject matter accessible to students from a variety of disciplines. Building on the foundation set by the first two bestselling editions, this third edition maintains the features that made previous editions popular with students and professors alike.

    See What’s New in the Third Edition:

    • Updated coverage of the eight main facets of nanotechnology
    • Expanded treatment of health/environmental ramifications of nanomaterials
    • Comparison of macroscale systems to those at the nanoscale, showing how scale phenomena affects behavior
    • New chapter on nanomedicine
    • New problems, examples, and an exhaustive nanotech glossary

    Filled with real-world examples and original illustrations, the presentation makes the material fun and engaging. The systems-based approach gives students the tools to create systems with unique functions and characteristics. Fitting neatly between popular science books and high-level treatises, the book works from the ground up to provide a gateway into an exciting and rapidly evolving area of science.

    Big Picture and Principles of the Small World
    Understanding the Atom: Ex Nihilo Nihil Fit
    Nanotechnology Starts with a Dare: Feynman’s Big Little Challenges
    Why One-Billionth of a Meter Is a Big Deal
    Thinking It Through: The Broad Implications of Nanotechnology
    Gray Goo
    Environmental Impact: Risks to Ecosystems and Human Health
    The Written Word
    The Bus iness of Nanotech: Plenty of Room at the Bottom Line Too
    Homework Exercises
    Recommendations for Further Reading

    Introduction to Miniaturization
    Background: The Smaller, the Better
    Scaling Laws
    The Elephant and the Flea
    Scaling in Mechanics
    Scaling in Electricity and Electromagnetism
    Scaling in Optics
    Scaling in Heat Transfer
    Scaling in Fluids
    Scaling in Biology
    Accuracy of the Scaling Laws
    Homework Exercises
    Recommendations for further reading

    Introduction to Nanoscale Physics
    Background: Newton Never Saw a Nanotub e
    One Hu ndred Hours and Eight Minutes of Nanoscale Physics
    The Basics of Quantum Mechanics
    Atomic Orbitals (Not Orbits)
    EM Waves
    How EM Waves Are Made
    The Quantization of Energy
    Atomic Spectra and Discreteness
    The Photoelectric Effect
    Wave–Particle Duality: The Double-Slit Experiment
    Water Waves
    The Uncertainty Principle
    Particle in a Well
    Homework Exercises

    Background: Matter Matters
    Bonding Atoms to Make Molecules and Solids
    Ionic Bonding
    Covalent Bonding
    Metallic Bonding
    Walking through Waals: van der Waals Forces
    Dispersion Force
    Repulsive Forces
    van der Waals Force versus Gravity
    C rystal Structures
    Structures Small Enough to Be Diff erent (and Usefu l)
    Colloidal Particles
    Films, Layers, and Coatings
    Porous Materials
    Small-Grained Materials
    Carbon Fullerenes and Nanotubes
    Homework Exercises
    Recommendations For Further Reading

    Background: The Universe Mechanism
    Nanomechanics: Which Motions and Forces Make the Cut?
    A High-Speed Review of Motion: Disp lacement, Velocity, Acceleration, and Force
    N anomechanical Os cillators: A Tale of Beams and Atoms
    Free Oscillation
    Free Oscillation from the Perspective of Energy (and Probability)
    Forced Oscillation
    Lennard-Jones Interaction: How an Atomic Bond Is Like a Spring
    Quantum Mechanics of Oscillating Atoms
    Schrödinger Equation and Correspondence Principle
    Nanomechanical Oscillator Applications
    Nanomechanical Memory Elements
    Nanomechanical Mass Sensors: Detecting Low Concentrations
    Feeling Faint Forces
    Scanning Probe Microscopes
    Pushing Atoms around with the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    Skimming across Atoms with the Atomic Force Microscope
    Pulling Atoms Apart with the AFM
    Rubbing and Mashing Atoms with the AFM
    Mechanical Chemistry: Detecting Molecules with Bending Beams
    Homework Exercises
    Recommendations for Further Reading

    Background: The Problem (Opp ortunity)
    Electron Energy Bands
    Electrons in Solids: Conductors, Insu lators, and Semiconductors
    Fermi Energy
    ensity of States for Solids
    Electron Density in a Conductor
    Turn Down the Volume! (How to Make a Solid Act More Like an Atom)
    Quantum Confinement
    Quantum Structures
    Uses for Quantum Structures

    How Small Is Small Enough for Confinement?
    Conductors: The Metal-to-Insulator Transition
    Semiconductors: Confining Excitons
    Band Gap of Nanomaterials
    Electrons Tunnel
    s ingle Electron Phenomena
    Two Rules for Keeping the Quantum in Quantum Dot
    Rule : The Coulomb Blockade

    Rule : Overcoming Uncertainty
    Single-Electron Transistor
    . M olecular Electronics
    .Molecular Switches and Memory Storage
    . Summary
    Homework Exercises

    Nanoscale Heat Transfer
    Background: Hot Topic
    A ll Heat Is Nanoscale Heat
    Boltzmann’s Constant
    Thermal Conductivity of Nanoscale Structures
    Mean Free Path and Scattering of Heat Carriers
    Thermoelectrics: Better Energy Conversion with Nanostructures
    Quantum of Thermal Conduction
    Increased Radiation Heat Transfer: Mind the Gap!
    Homework Exercises
    Recommendations for Further Reading

    Background: The Lycurgus Cup and the Birth of the Photon
    Photonic Properties of Nanomaterials
    Photon Absorption
    Photon Emission
    Photon Scattering
    Permittivity and the Free Electron Plasma

    The Extinction Coefficient of Metal Particles
    Colors and Uses of Gold and Silver Particles
    Tuning the Band Gap of Nanoscale Semiconductors
    The Colors and Uses of Quantum Dots
    Lasers Based on Quantum Confinement
    N ear-Field Light
    The Limits of Light: Conventional Optics
    Near-Field Optical Microscopes
    Optical Tw eezers
    Photonic Crystals: A Band Gap for Photons
    Homework excercise
    Recommendations for Further Reading

    Nanoscale Fluid Mechanics
    Background: Becoming Fluent in Fluids
    Treating a Fluid the Way It Should Be Treated: The Concept of a Continuum
    Fluid Motion, Continuum Style: The Navier–Stokes Equations

    Fluid Motion: Molecular Dynamics Style
    Fluids at the Nanoscale: Major Concepts
    Swimming in Molasses: Life at Low Reynolds Numbers
    Reynolds Number

    Surface Charges and the Electrical Double Layer
    Surface Charges at Interfaces
    Gouy–Chapman–Stern Model and Electrical Double Layer
    Electrokinetic Phenomena
    Small Particles in Small Flows: Molecular Diffusion
    How Fluids Flow at the Nanoscale
    Pressure-Driven Flow
    Gravity-Driven Flow
    Superposition of Flows
    Ions and Macromolecules Moving through a Channel
    Stokes Flow around a Particle

    The Convection–Diffusion–Electromigration Equation: Nanochannel Electrophoresis
    Macromolecules in a Nanofluidic Channel
    Applications of Nanofluidics
    Analysis of Biomolecules: An End to Painful Doctor Visits?
    Electroosmotic Pumps: Cooling Off Computer Chips
    Other Applications
    Homework Exercises

    Background: Our World in a Cell
    I ntroduction: How Biology "Feels" at the Nanometer Scale
    Biological Shapes at the Nanoscale: Carbon and Water Are the Essential Tools
    Inertia and Gravity Are Insignificant: The Swimming Bacterium
    Random Thermal Motion
    The Machinery of the Cell
    Sugars Are Used for Energy (but also Structure)

    Fatty Acids Are Used for Structure (but also Energy)
    Nucleotides Are Used to Store Information and Carry Chemical Energy
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid

    Adenosine Triphosphate
    Amino Acids Are Used to Make Proteins
    ATP Synthase
    Applications of Nanobiotechnology
    Biomimetic Nanostructures
    Molecular Motors
    Homework excercises
    Recommendations for Further Reading

    What Is Nanomedicine?
    Medical Nanoparticles
    Lipid-Based Nanoparticles
    Polymer-Based Nanoparticles and Polymer Therapeutics
    Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery
    Nanomedicine and Cancer
    Biomimicry in Nanomedicine
    Commercial Ex Ploration
    Homework Exercises
    Recommendations for Further Reading


    Ben Rogers is a writer and an engineer (BS 2001; MS 2002, University of Nevada, Reno). He has done research at Nanogen, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and published many technical papers, as well as fictional works and essays (which can be found at http://readrogers.com/). He is currently the principal engineer at NevadaNano and lives in Reno with his wife and two daughters.
    Jesse Adams (BS 1996, University of Nevada; MS 1997 and PhD 2001, Stanford University) is the vice president and CTO of NevadaNano. He is working to bring multifunctional microsensor technology to the chemical sensing market space.
    Sumita Pennathur is an associate professor of mechanical engineering at the University of California, Santa Barbara (BS 2000, MS 2001, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; PhD 2005, Stanford University). She has been actively contributing to the fields of nanofluidics and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), and has spent some time at both Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, California, and the University of Twente MESA+ research facility in the Netherlands. When not enveloped in her research work, she can be found either spending time with her husband and two kids or at a local club wailing on her saxophone.

    "I use this book for undergrad freshmen and sophomore students. This book is useful to introduce the concept of nanotechnology to undergrad students in their very early stage of study."
    —Eui-Hyeok Yang, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA

    "The book is well-written with lots of examples and historic perspectives that certainly make reading more enjoyable and stimulating."
    —Dr. Prabhu Arumugam, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, USA

    "The main strengths of this book are its illustrations, which are well conceived and layered from the viewpoint of attracting student attention, while also containing a sufficient level of detail to warrant repeated reference. While the "back of the envelope" calculations can come across as rather simplistic, I like it from the viewpoint that it helps students identify a degree of personal connection to the concept. The connection to emerging research ideas and even some example commercial products helps highlight the dynamic coverage of the topics. Through classifying chapters as per the areas of mechanics, fluidics, electronics, biology and medicine, the authors are able to relate their material to core disciplines, while emphasizing unifying and converging ideas."
    —Nathan S. Swami, Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, USA

    "Overall, this book takes engaging and entertaining style, which makes this book very readable, and provides a gateway into an exciting and rapidly evolving area of science."
    —Mei Zhang, Florida State University

    "… a comprehensive overview of nearly all aspects of modern and meaningful nano science and technology. … accessible to students with a wide variety of backgrounds, strengths, and disciplines, especially within a full semester course on nano science and technology."
    —Michael J. Escuti, North Carolina State University

    "… describes the plurality of nanotechnology in a good manner, both from its historical, chemical, physical and biological aspects …"
    —Ola Nilsen, University of Oslo, Norway

    "… an excellent introduction to a wide range of nanotechnology topics and the authors make the material fun to learn. … The authors are able to strip down difficult topics and present them in an easy to read formula."
    —Donald J. Sirbuly, Department of NanoEngineering, UC San Diego