Natural Extracts Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Natural Extracts Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

1st Edition

By Mamata Mukhopadhyay

CRC Press

360 pages

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pub: 2000-06-27
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Description

Synthesizing research from a wide variety of sources, this work offers a convenient guide to a clean, safe, inexpensive, non-toxic, non-polluting solvent that performs better than most conventional solvents. Natural Extracts Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide reviews recent development in the technology and its applications to the food, flavor, fragrance, and pharmaceutical industries. It outlines the many advantages the method has over traditional methods like steam distillation, solvent extraction, and molecular distillation and it supports the popular trend toward the use of natural products in these industries.

Reviews

"… very well written and easy to follow. It covers the current and newer areas of production of extracts from a host of natural products for food, pharmaceutical, and medicinal applications. …A unique feature of this book is the inclusion of a rather large database, covering both the fundamental and application aspects of many extraction processes and their products. The author has also provided some very useful data on economic comparison of the performance of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction processes with the more conventional contemporary processes practiced by various industries. …an excellent source book…"

- S.S.H. Rizvi, Institute of Food Science, Cornell University, in Food Technology

"… provides essential information for scientists interested in extractions in the laboratory or on an industrial scale, using an environmentally friendly option. The book lays the foundation for the potential investigator in the efficient isolation of naturally occurring compounds."

-Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 44, Issue No. 7 (2001)

"This interesting book deals with recent developments in the use of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCFE). It provides the reader with a comprehensive picture of this methodology and its applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries…The book is comprehensive in its approach and supports the use of SCFE as a non-polluting, environmentally friendly process…"

- Phytomedicine

"Dr. Mukhopadhyay is an expert on process design for SCF extraction operations. Industrial engineers will appreciate her discussion on transport processes such as heat and mass transfer involved in extraction of natural products… The remaining 2/3 of the book, having less mathematical information, is written with the general reader in mind. This allows it to be a useful reference for many industries including ours."

Terry Gerstein, Society of Cosmetic Chemists, July/August 2001

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

Importance of Nature Cure

Naturopathy

Natural Extracts

CO2 as an SCF Solvent

SCFE Process

SCFE Applications

References

Figure Captions - Chapter 1

Figures 1.1 - 1.3

FUNDAMENTALS OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA

Process Schemes and Parameters in SCFE

Thermodynamics of SCF State

Variability of Density with P and T

Addition of Cosolvent to SCF Solvent

Solubility Behavior in SCF Solvent

Solubility Isotherms and Cross Over Phenomena

Solubility Isobars

Pressure and Temperature Effects

Solvent Capacity and Selectivity

Cosolvent Effects

SCF Phase Equilibrium Behavior

Liquid-Fluid Phase Equilibria

Solid-Fluid Phase Equilibria

Polymer-Fluid Phase Equilibria

Thermodynamic Modelling

The Equation of State Approach

Solid-Fluid Equilibrium Calculations

Mixing Rules

CS and GC Methods

Solubility Predictions of Solid from Pure Components Properties

Liquid-Fluid Equilibrium Calculations Mixing Rules

Regression of Binary Adjustable Parameters

Prediction of Multicomponent Data from Binary Interaction Constants

Prediction of Phase Boundaries

Mixture Critical Point Calculations

Multiphase (L-L-V) Calculations

Solubility Predictions Using Solvent-Cluster Interaction Model

Solubility Calculations from Correlations

Selectivity of Natural Molecules from Pure Component Solubilities

Thermophysical Properties of CO2 Nomenclature

References

Figure Captions - Chapter 2

Figures 2.1 - 2.27 (b)

FUNDAMENTAL TRANSPORT PROCESES IN SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION

Transport Properties of SCFs

Viscosity

Diffusivity

Thermal Conductivity

Interfacial Tension

Mass Transfer Behavior

SCFE From Solid Feed

Mechanism of Transport from Solids

Stages of Extraction from Different Natural Materials

SCFF from Liquid Feed

Fractionation of Liquids by SFC

Mass Transfer Modelling For SCFE from Solids

Process Parameters

Mass Transfer Coefficients

Effect of Axial Dispersion and Convective Flows

Shrinking Core Leaching Model

Heat Transfer in SCFs

Heat Transfer Coefficients

Effects of Free Convective Flow

Heat Transfer Coefficient for Two Phase Flow

Heat Exchanger Specifications

Nomenclature

References

Figure Captions - Chapter 3

Figures 3.1(a) - 3.16

FLAVOR AND FRAGRANCE EXTRACTS

Market Demand

Natural Essential Oils

Methods of Recovery of Natural Essential Oils

Steam Distillation

Maceration

Enfleurage

Cold Expression

Extraction with Volatile Organic Solvents

Choice of Solvents

Purification of Crude Extract

Vacuum Distillation

Molecular Distillation

Liquid-Liquid Fractionation

Supercritical CO2 Extraction

Commercial Advantage

SC CO2 Extracted Floral Fragrance

Jasmine Fragrance

Rose Fragrance

Bitter Orange Flower Fragrance

Lavender Inflorescence Fragrance

Marigold Fragrance

Sandalwood Fragrance

Vetiver Fragrance

References

Figure Captions - Chapter 4

Figures 4.1 - 4.7(b)

FRUIT EXTRACTS

Importance of Recovery

Citrus Oil Recovery During Juice Extraction

Flavoring Components in Fruits

Stability and Quality

CO2 Extraction Processes

Deterpenation of Citrus Oil by SC CO2

Dealcoholation of Fruit Juice by SC CO2

Enzyme Inactivation and Sterilization by +SC CO2

References

Figure Captions - Chapter 5

Figures 5.1 - 5.6

SPICE EXTRACTS

Importance of Recovery

Classification of Spices

Therapeutic Properties of Spices

Spice Constituents

Production of Spice Extracts

SC CO2 Extraction and Fractionation

Celery Seeds

Red Chili

Paprika

Ginger

Nutmeg

Pepper

Vanilla

Cardamom

Fennel, Caraway and Coriander

Garlic

Cinnamon

Market Trends

References

Figure Captions - Chapter 6

Figure 6.1

HERBAL EXTRACTS

Importance of Recovery

Herbal Remedies

Recovery Methods

Antioxidative and Antimicrobial Constituents

Anti-inflammatory Constituents

Anti-Cancerous Alkaloids

Anti-Carcinogenic Polyphenols

Medicinal Constituents of Tea Extract

Fat Regulating Agent

Therapeutic Oils and Fatty Acids

References

NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS

Importance of Recovery

Classification

Botanicals with Antioxidative Activity

Tocopherols as Antioxidants

Recovery by SC CO2

Spice and Herbal Extracts as Antioxidants

Recovery by SC CO2

Plant Leaf Extracts as Antioxidants

Flavonoids

Recovery of Flavonoids

Carotenoids as Antioxidants

Recovery of ? Carotene by SC CO2

Solubility of Antioxidants in SC CO2

References

Figure Captions - Chapter 8

Figures 8.1 - 8.7

NATURAL FOOD COLORS

Carotenoids as Food Colors

Recovery of Carotenoids by SC CO2

Grass

Orange Peel

Turmeric

Paprika

Red Chili

Carrot

Marigold Flowers

Annatto

Other Natural Colors

Anthocyanins as Food Colors

Classification of Anthocyanins

Recovery of Anthocyanins

Commercial Anthocyanin-based Food Colors

Betacyanins

References

Figure Captions - Chapter 9

Figures 9.1 - 9.2

PLANT AND ANIMAL LIPIDS

Importance of Recovery

Recovery Methods

Separation of FFA from Vegetable Oil by SC CO2

Fractionation of PUFA from Animal Lipids

Refining and Deodorisation of Vegetable Oil

Fractionation of Glycerides

Extraction of Oil from Oil Bearing Materials

Sunflower Oil

Corn Germ Oil

Soybean Oil

Olive Husk Oil

Grape Seed Oil

Animal Lipids

Deoiling of Lecithin by SC CO2

Soya Phospholipids

Oat Lecithin

Canola Lecithin

PC from Deoiled Cottonseed

PC from Egg Yolk

Dilipidation and Decholesterification of Food

Butter

Egg Yolk Powder

Fish and Meat Muscles

References

Figure Captions - Chapter 10

Figures 10.1 - 10.12

NATURAL PESTICIDES

Importance of Recovery

Bioactivity of Neem

Neem Based Pesticides

Azadirachtin-based Formulations

Commercial Production

Recovery of Azadirachtin from Neem Kernel

Conventional Processes

Supercritical CO2 Extraction

Pyrethrum Based Pesticides

Recovery of Pyrethrins

Nicotine Based Pesticides

Reovery of Nicotine by SC CO2

References

APPENDICES

Thermophysical Properties of Carbon Dioxide

Definitions of Fatty Acids and Their Compositions in Various Oils

Some Statistics on Major Vegetable Oils and Oilseeds

INDEX

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MED071000
MEDICAL / Pharmacology
SCI013000
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
TEC012000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Food Science