This book covers theoretical foundations of the Natural Gas (NG) installations and networks as a part of building logistic system, illustrated with digital examples. It describes the NG oxidation phenomena and appropriate energy converting devices used in the building’s energy centres and basic sizing principals of the related pipe networks. Further, it covers usage of NG devices including system for thermal comfort control, building ventilation, indoor air quality, visual comfort, food preparation and conservation, and hygiene maintenance system. A special attention is given to applications of the NG technological equipment, using gas-driven heat pumps, micro heat and power systems. Aimed at professionals and graduate students in the areas of HVAC, Plumbing, Architecture, Electricians, this book:
- Presents complex, innovative and systematical approach to NG installations in buildings.
- Reviews efficient and environmentally sustainable dementalization approach to building energy supply, using NGmHps v/s central energy supply systems.
- Explains pre-designating calculations of the gas piping networks.
- Illustrates structures, principals of operation and building project implementations of the modern GN energy converters and transformers as fuel cells (SOFC, MOFC, PEFC) and NG driven heat pumps.
- Discusses calculation methods derived from professional case studies.
Table of Contents
1.1 Gas pipe networks and systems as elements of the building logistics
1.2 Fuel gas, current state and perspectives
2. Theoretical foundations of gas pipe networks and installations
2.1 Physico-mechanical properties of fuel gas as a primary energy source.
2.2 Transmission parameters of fuel gas
2.3 Basic terms and laws
2.3.1 Gas flow rate and thermal power. A link between gas flow rate and decrease of gas-dynamic losses – Kirchhoff’s law for gas pipe networks
2.3.2 Law of continuity
2.3.3 Law of balance between intake flow rate and exhaust flow rate at a knot
2.3.4 Bernoulli’s principle (for real fluids)
2.3.5 Law of the gas-dynamic head in a pipe
2.3.6 Darcy’s law (concerning gas-dynamic losses of pressure in linear pipeline sections)
2.3.7 Calculation of the parameters of natural gas - examples
2.4 Fuel gas thermodynamics
2.4.1 Law of gas state
2.4.2 Charle’s law
2.4.3 Boyles law
2.4.3 Graham’s law for gas diffusion
2.5 Fuel gas combustion
2.5.1 Fuel cell classification and characteristics. Advantages and disadvantages
2.5.2 Fuel gas cells in household micro-cogeneration systems (mHPS)
2.5.3 Technical characteristics of mHPS
2.6 Gas flame and combustion devices
2.7 Flameless combustion of fuel gas and combustion devices
3. Gas supply of urbanized regions
3.1 Territorial (state) pipe network of gas transport
3.2 Urban and regional gas networks. Classification. Structure
3.3 Decentralization of building power supply. Energy centers
3.3.1 Gas supply of buildings. Types of gas-supplied energy centers (GEC) of buildings. Classification
3.3.2 Structure of the gas regulating station in a gas EC
3.3.3 Gas boiler / mHPS room
3.4 Systems exhausting gas waste
3.4.1 Open system exhausting gas combustion products via natural convection
3.4.2 Open systems with forced convection
3.4.3 Centralized systems exhausting gas combustion products by means of forced convection
3.4.4 Releasing devices (terminals) installed on the building envelope
3.5 Design of a pipe network
3.5.1 Structure of gas pipe networks in residential and public buildings
3.5.2 Calculation of pipe networks
4. Main building systems operating with fuel gas
4.1 System for thermal comfort control
4.1.1 Need for thermal comfort and accessible levels of thermal loads of occupied areas
4.1.2 Classification of systems providing thermal comfort
4.1.3 Advantages and disadvantages of gas radiant heating installations
4.2 Gas equipment and control of indoor air quality
4.2.1 Indoor air quality and methods of its attainment
4.2.2 Building ventilation and indoor air quality (IAQ)
4.2.3 Gas equipment and building ventilation
4.3 System for visual comfort and gas equipment
4.3.1 Visual comfort in buildings
4.3.2 Visual comfort gas lighting fixtures
4.3.3 Design steps in the calculation of a visual control system
4.4 Gas equipment in a system for food preparation and conservation
4.4.1 System for food preparation and conservation
4.4.2 Household kitchens and gas appliances
4.4.3 Commercial kitchen arrangement
4.5 Hygiene maintenance systems
4.5.1 Structure of a hygiene maintenance system. A domestic hot water system
4.5.2 Gas water heaters of a hygiene maintenance system
4.5.3 Combined schemes of water heating in systems for hygiene maintenance
4.5.4 Gas dryers in systems for hygiene maintenance
4.5.5 Calculation of hygiene maintenance systems
4.6 Gas heat pumps in engineering installations of buildings
4.6.1 Heat pumps operating as increasing thermal transformers. Classification
4.6.2 Gas vapor-compression heat pumps
4.6.3 Operation of a gas heat pump
4.6.4 Heat pumps driven by NG and available on the market- an investment point of view
4.7 Necessity of increasing the share of gas devices in a building
4.7.1 Gas micro-cogenerating systems in domestic autonomous energy centers
4.7.2 Importance of gas micro-cogenerating systems for national energy strategy
5. Conclusions and Acknowledgement
Prof. Alexander V. Dimitrov, DSc., PhD. is a practical engineer with over twenty years of experience in designing installations in buildings located in Bulgaria, Europe and North America. He taught Mechanical Engineering in four major Bulgarian and European universities in Bulgaria. He is very prolific author with over 11 technical books written in English and Bulgarian and published in North America and Europe.
Currently, he also serves as a scientific consultant in Overgas Inc., the biggest Bulgarian natural gas distribution company.
His newest book "Natural Gas Building’s installations and systems" is oriented to present new technologies using natural gas in various building systems, including in the BEC (energy centers), STC(systems for thermal comfort), BVS (ventilation systems), BSHM (system for maintenance and hygiene ), as well BSP&SF(systems for preparing and food preservation). The author gives the theoretical fundamentals of the natural gas installations as well as more than 40 practical examples.
DSc. Dimitrov is passionate about science and math and when he is not busy writing and lecturing is dedicated to teaching science and math to the younger generation.