1st Edition

Necrotizing Enterocolitis
pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment

Edited By

David J. Hackam




ISBN 9781138343245
Published March 15, 2021 by CRC Press
302 Pages

USD $200.00

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Book Description

This is the first textbook devoted entirely to understanding and treating necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), one of the leading causes of death and disability in premature infants. NEC continues to occur in neonatal units across the world, and the overall mortality has remained stubbornly high since its first description decades ago. Despite significant research into NEC, and a greater understanding of its underlying causes, there is no single source of information to which the care team can turn for guidance. This book fills that important gap in clinical care.

In selecting the topics for this inaugural textbook, three guiding principles have been followed. First, to include chapters that provide detailed information for the medical team – the doctors and nurses, the therapists and pharmacists, the chaplains and the child life workers – so that each team member can optimally recognize, prevent and treat patients with this disease. Second, to ensure that chapters cover the depth and breadth of the latest clinical and scientific research into NEC, each selected to identify specific preventative strategies or therapies for this disease. Third, and perhaps most importantly, to focus not only on the child with NEC, but also on the child’s family, in order to provide comprehensive information about a disease that families have barely heard about, until the jarring day when their precious infant is affected by it.

This book therefore:

  • serves as a "how-to guide" for the care of the infant with NEC
  • summarises critical new research and offers guidelines for future key research areas
  • addresses the complex and difficult issues surrounding care of the critically ill infant suffering from NEC

Written for the entire health care team including paediatric surgeons, neonatologists, developmental paediatricians, epidemiologists, ethicists, child life professionals, therapists and specialist nurses, each team member will find this book of value. This book was written to demystify this cruel disease, and to unlock its closely held secrets of pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors

1. Introduction: Necrotizing Enterocolitis, The Stories of Its Tiny Patients, and the Journey Ahead

David J. Hackam

2. Nursing Considerations in Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Management of Infant Stomas

Margaret Birdsong and Michelle Felix

3. Nursing Considerations in Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Management of Central Venous Catheters

Margaret Birdsong and Michelle Felix

4. An Updated Overview of the Medical Management of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Lila S. Nolan, Martin Goree, and Misty Good

5. Clinical Clues, Biochemical Indices, and Biomarkers: Diagnostic Considerations in Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Karl G. Sylvester and Enrico Danzer

6. Imaging Considerations in NEC Diagnosis: Plain Films, Ultrasound, and Everything Else

Emily A. Dunn

7. Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation (SIP) Is Not Necrotizing Enterocolitis but Remains the Major Confounder of NEC Data

Phillip V. Gordon, Jonathan R. Swanson, and Reese H. Clark

8. International Practice Patterns in NEC Management: North America, Europe, and Australasia

Maarten Janssen Lok, Carlos Zozaya, Sinobol Chusilp, and Agostino Pierro

9. Feeding Strategies in the Patient with Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Krista E. Cooksey, Olivia B. Parks, Angela N. Lewis, and Misty Good

10. Surgery for Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes

David J. Hackam

11. Major Issues Related to Progress in NEC

Josef Neu

12. Probiotics in the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Mark A. Underwood

13. Cardiovascular, Hemodynamic, and Critical Care Considerations in the Patient with Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Christine M. Cortelyou, Zachary A. Vesoulis, and Misty Good

14. Neurodevelopmental Considerations in the Patient with Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Panagiotis Kratimenos and Frances J. Northington

15. Lung Disease and Ventilator Strategies in Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Jegen Kandasamy and Namasivayam Ambalavanan

16. Clinical Trials in NEC Research: Advances, Perils, and Pitfalls

Cheryl Battersby, Chris Gale, and Neena Modi

17. Management of Short Bowel Syndrome after Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Ross Beckman and Samuel Alaish

18. Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Unusual Cases: Term Infants, Congenital Anomalies, and Comorbidities

Spencer W. Beasley

19. Intestinal Transplantation for Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Geoffrey Bond

20. Optical Spectroscopy for the Detection of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Seth D. Goldstein

21. Anesthetic Management of the Neonate with Necrotizing Enterocolitis

John J. McCloskey

22. Novel and Alternative Techniques in Surgery for Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Maame Efua S. Sampah and David J. Hackam

23. Supporting NEC Risk Awareness with Bedside Tools Like GutCheckNEC

Sheila M. Gephart

24. Health Economics and Care Delivery Issues in Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Meredith E. Mowitz and John A. F. Zupancic

25. Quality Improvement and Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Minesh Khashu and Sunitha Vimalesvaran

26. Implementation Strategies for Quality Improvement to Avoid Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Sheila M. Gephart

27. Clinical Outcomes in Children with NEC

Mark D. Stringer

28. Contextualizing Necrotizing Enterocolitis within Health Disparities Research

Amaris M. Keiser

29. Ethical Issues in the Care of Children with Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Margaret R. Moon and Renee D. Boss

30. Family Perspective of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Jennifer Canvasser

31. The Role of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling in the Pathogenesis of NEC

Maame Efua Sampah and David J. Hackam

32. The Role of Growth Factor Signaling in the Development and Treatment of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Rita D. Shelby, Terrence M. Rager, Barrett P. Cromeens, and Gail E. Besner

33. The Role of Platelet-Activating Factor in the Pathogenesis of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Michael Caplan

34. The Role of Vascular Development in the Pathogenesis of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Isabelle G. De Plaen, Elizabeth Managlia, and Xiaocai Yan

35. Bile Acids in the Pathogenesis of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Melissa D. Halpern

36. Bacterial Communities in the Pathogenesis of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Brigida Rusconi, Misty Good, and Barbara Warner

37. The Importance of Immune Cells in the Pathogenesis of NEC

Andres Gonzalez Salazar and David J. Hackam

38. The Role of Nitric Oxide Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Anatoly Grishin, Patrick T. Delaplain, Jin Wang, Michael Mallicote, Michelle Nguyen, Michael Philippe-Auguste, Christopher P. Gayer, and Henri R. Ford

39. The Silver Lining: The Small Intestinal Epithelial Barrier and Its Role in Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Mark R. Frey, Misty Good, and Steven J. McElroy

40. Innate and Adaptive Immune Dysfunction and Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Paula Osterhout, Christina S. Kim, and Erika C. Claud

41. Intestinal Immune Adaptation and Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Mathias W. Hornef

42. Advancements in Research on Necrotizing Enterocolitis Pathogenesis and Prevention Using Pigs

Douglas Burrin, Juan Marini, Murali Premkumar, Barbara Stoll, and Per Torp Sangild

43. Small Animal Models for the Study of Necrotizing Enterocolitis and "NEC-in-a-Dish"

Mark L. Kovler, Chhinder P. Sodhi, and David J. Hackam

44. Nutritional Considerations in Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Jae H. Kim

45. The Paneth Cell and Its Role in the Development of NEC

Brian A. Juber and Steven J. McElroy

46. Human Donor Milk and Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Maggie Meeks and Rachael Lamb

47. The Genetic Basis of NEC Susceptibility

Lovya George, Wei Yu, Alain Cuna, and Venkatesh Sampath

48. Anemia as a Modifiable Risk Factor for NEC

Ravi Mangal Patel

49. Lipids and Lipid Metabolism in Postnatal Gut Development and Risk of Intestinal Injury

Camilia R. Martin

50. Machine Learning in Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Challenges and Opportunities

Jennine Weller and David J. Hackam

51. Necrotizing Enterocolitis Risk from a Maternal-Fetal Medicine Perspective

Mark L. Kovler, Savannah Ireland, Angie C. Jelin, and Eric B. Jelin

52. Future Directions and Research Opportunities in NEC: The Top Ten Unanswered Questions and Top Five Areas of Research Focus

David J. Hackam

Index

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Editor(s)

Biography

David J. Hackam, MD, PhD, FACS.
Pediatric Surgeon-in-Chief and Co-Director, The Johns Hopkins Children’s Center
Garrett Professor and Chief of Pediatric Surgery,
Professor of Surgery, Pediatrics, Cell Biology, and Genetic Medicine
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Baltimore, Maryland , USA