Neurology for the Small Animal Practitioner: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Neurology for the Small Animal Practitioner

1st Edition

By Cheryl Chrisman, Christopher Mariani, Simon Platt, Rodger Clemmons

Teton NewMedia

353 pages

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Paperback: 9781893441828
pub: 2002-11-07
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Description

Neurology for the Small Animal Practitioner is a practical presentation of common neurological conditions seen in a small animal practice. The book includes clear guidelines for effective diagnosis and treatment protocols for common neurologic conditions in dogs and cats. Important neurologic pathways and diagnostic procedures are illustrated by original, anatomic drawings and step-by-step procedural figures. Tables and algorithms are used to focus the reader on critical steps in patient evaluation and differential diagnosis. Color illustrations facilitate localization of lesions and patient assessment. The consistent layout, 157 illustrations (102 color), 25 diagnostic images, and 57 tables facilitate the rapid acquisition of information.

Published by Teton New Media in the USA and distributed by Manson Publishing outside of North America.

Table of Contents

Section 1 Introduction

Introduction

Some Helpful Hints

Neuroanatomy

Overview of the Patient Evaluation

The Neurologic Examination Overview

and Form

Neurologic Examination Techniques

and Lesion Localization

Evaluation of the Head

Evaluation of the Gait

Evaluation of the Neck, Thoracic Limbs,

Back, Pelvic Limbs, Tail, and Anus

Postural Reactions

Spinal Cord Reflexes

Miscellaneous

Pain Perception

Lesion Localization

Section 2 Dementia, Stupor, and Coma

Definitions

Lesion Localization

Differentiation of Lesions Causing

Stupor or Coma

Differential Diagnosis

Common and Occasional Disorders

Rare Causes of Stupor and Coma

Diagnostic Evaluation

Important Historical Questions

Physical Examination

Neurologic Examination

Applicable Diagnostic Tests

Common and Occasional Disorders

Head Trauma

Intoxication

Hypoglycemia

Hepatic Encephalopathy

Meningoencephalitis

Hydrocephalus

Neoplasia

Cerebrovascular Disorders

Hypoxia and Anoxia

Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome

Rare Causes of Stupor and Coma

Diabetes Mellitus

Hypothyroidism

Hyponatremia

Hypernatremia

Uremic Encephalopathy

Thiamine Deficiency

Lysosomal Storage Disorders

Epidermoid, Dermoid, and Arachnoid Cysts

Lissencephaly

Section3 Seizures

Definitions

Lesion Localization

Differential Diagnosis by Age Group

Younger Than 1 Year of Age

1 to 5 Years of Age

Older Than 5 Years of Age

Diagnostic Evaluation

Important Historical Questions

Physical and Neurologic Examinations

Applicable Diagnostic Tests

Seizure Disorders

Probable Symptomatic Epilepsy

Idiopathic Epilepsy

Status Epilepticus Therapy

Maintenance Anticonvulsant Therapy

Phenobarbital

Potassium Bromide

Monitoring Therapy

Diazepam

Adding a Second Drug

Other Rarely Used Anticonvulsant Drugs

At-home Therapy to Control Cluster Seizures

Section 4 Tremors

Definitions

Lesion Localization

Differential Diagnosis

Diagnostic Evaluation

Important Historical Questions

Physical and Neurologic Examinations

Applicable Diagnostic Tests

Tremor Disorders

Hypocalcemia

Hypoglycemia

Intoxications

Nonsuppurative Meningoencephalomyelitis and

Idiopathic Tremors of Adult Dogs

Idiopathic Tremors of Geriatric Dogs

Episodic Idiopathic Head Tremors or Bobbing

Hypomyelination or Dysmyelination

Section 5 Head Tilt, Dysequilibrium

and Nystagmus

Definitions

Lesion Localization

The Vestibular System

Differentiation of Vestibular Lesions

Vestibular Labyrinth and Nerves (CN 8)

Vestibular Nuclei and the Medulla Oblongata

Flocculonodular Lobe of the Cerebellum

Differential Diagnosis

Vestibular Labyrinth and Nerve (PNS) Disorders

Medulla Oblongata and Cerebellar (CNS) Disorders

Diagnostic Evaluation

Important Historical Questions

Physical Examination

Neurologic Examination

Applicable Diagnostic Tests

Vestibular Labyrinth and Nerve Disorders

Idiopathic Vestibular Syndrome

Otitis Interna

Head Trauma

Iatrogenic Vestibular Syndrome from Ear Cleaning

Polyps and Neoplasia

Hypothyroidism

Aminoglycoside Intoxication

Medulla Oblongata and Cerebellar Disorders

Meningoencephalitis

Trauma

Cerebrovascular Disorders

Metronidazole Intoxication

Neoplasia

Parasite Migration

Section 6 Cranial Neuropathies

and Myopathies

Clinical Signs

Definitions

Lesion Localization

Differentiation of Peripheral and Central Cranial

Nerve Lesions

Differential Diagnosis

Peripheral Nerve and Muscle Disorders

Central Nervous System Disorders (Any Cranial

Nerve Sign)

Diagnostic Evaluation

Important Historical Questions

Physical Examination

Neurologic Examination

Applicable Diagnostic Tests

Peripheral Nerve and Muscle Disorders

Blindness

Anisocoria

Strabismus

Jaw Paralysis

Temporalis and Masseter Muscle Atrophy

Facial Nerve Paralysis

Deafness

Dysphagia, Megaesophagus, Dysphonia, and Stridor

Tongue Paralysis or Atrophy

Cranial Polyneuropathies

Dysautonomia

Central Nervous System Disorders

Section 7 Neck or Back Pain

Definitions

Lesion Localization

Differential Diagnosis

Diagnostic Evaluation

Important Historical Questions

Physical and Neurologic Examinations

Applicable Diagnostic Tests

Disorders That Cause Neck or Back Pain

Degenerative Intervertebral Disk Disease

Diskospondylitis and Spondylitis

Meningitis

Vertebral Fractures

Lumbosacral Degeneration

Atlantoaxial Subluxation

Caudal Cervical Spondylomyelopathy

Spondylosis Deformans

Vertebral Neoplasia

Nerve Root and Spinal Cord Neoplasia

Polymyositis and Other Polymyopathies

Polyarthritis

Intracranial Disease

Section 8 Ataxia

Definitions

Lesion Localization

Differentiation of Lesions Causing Ataxia

Cerebellar Lesions

Brainstem Lesions

Spinal Cord Lesions

Sensory Nerve Lesions

Vestibular System Lesions

Differential Diagnosis

Cerebellar Disorders

Spinal Cord Disorders

Sensory Nerve Disorders

Diagnostic Evaluation

Important Historical Questions

Physical and Neurologic Examinations

Applicable Diagnostic Tests

Cerebellar Disorders

Trauma

Meningoencephalitis

Cerebrovascular Disorders

Intoxication

Neoplasia

In-Utero Cerebellar Degeneration and Hypoplasia

Cerebellar Abiotrophy, and other Degenerations

Neuroaxonal Dystrophy

Brain Cysts

Spinal Cord Disorders

Degenerative Intervertebral Disk Disease

Caudal Cervical Spondylomyelopathy

Trauma

Meningomyelitis

Diskospondylitis

Atlantoaxial Subluxation

Neoplasia

Spinal Cord Cysts

Sensory Nerve Disorders

Sensory Polyneuropathy

Section 9 Acute Quadriparesis,

Quadriplegia, Hemiparesis,

or Hemiplegia

Definitions

Lesion Localization

Differentiation of Spinal Cord and

Neuromuscular Lesions

C1-C5 Spinal Cord Lesions

C6-T2 Spinal Cord Lesions

Neuromuscular Lesions

Differential Diagnosis

Spinal Cord Disorders

Neuromuscular Disorders

Diagnostic Evaluation

Important Historical Questions

Physical and Neurologic Examinations

Applicable Diagnostic Tests

Spinal Cord Disorders

Degenerative Intervertebral Disk Disease

Caudal Cervical Spondylomyelopathy

Trauma

Fibrocartilaginous Embolism

Meningomyelitis

Atlantoaxial Subluxation

Neoplasia

Spontaneous Hemorrhage

Syringomyelia

Neuromuscular Disorders

Acute Polyradiculoneuritis

Tick Paralysis

Snake Envenomation

Myasthenia Gravis

Botulism

Acute Polyneuropathies

Aminoglycoside Intoxication

Section 10 Chronic Quadriparesis

Definitions

Lesion Localization

Differentiation of Spinal Cord and

Neuromuscular Lesions

C1-C5 Spinal Cord Lesions

C6-T2 Spinal Cord Lesions

Neuromuscular Lesions

Differential Diagnosis

Spinal Cord Disorders

Neuromuscular Disorders

Diagnostic Evaluation

Important Historical Questions

Physical and Neurologic Examinations

Applicable Diagnostic Tests

Spinal Cord Disorders

Degenerative Intervertebral Disk Disease

Caudal Cervical Spondylomyelopathy

Meningomyelitis

Diskospondylitis

Neoplasia

Lysosomal Storage Disorders

Spinal Cord Cysts

Leukoencephalomyelopathy

Neuromuscular Disorders

Hypothyroid Neuromyopathy

Chronic Idiopathic Polyneuropathy

Protozoal Polyradiculoneuritis/Polymyositis

Polymyopathies

Myasthenia Gravis

Diabetic Polyneuropathy

Insulinoma Polyneuropathy

Paraneoplastic Polyneuropathy

Toxic Polyneuropathy

Congenital or Hereditary Polyneuropathies

Section 11 Episodic and Exerciseinduced

Weakness

Definitions

Lesion Localization

Differential Diagnosis

Systemic Disorders

Neuromuscular Disorders

Miscellaneous Disorders

Differential Diagnosis of Ventral

Neck Flexion in Cats

Diagnostic Evaluation

Important Historical Questions

Physical Examination

Neurologic Examination

Applicable Diagnostic Tests

Systemic Disorders

Neuromuscular Disorders

Iatrogenic Corticosteroid Myopathy

Polymyositis

Myasthenia Gravis

Hypokalemic Polymyopathy

Subacute Organophosphate Intoxication

Other Intoxications

Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s Myopathy)

Hypoadrenocorticism

Hypothyroid Neuromyopathy

Hyperthyroid Neuromyopathy

Exercise-induced Collapse of Labrador Retrievers

Congenital and Inherited Myopathies

Lipid Storage Myopathy

Mitochondrial Myopathies

Nutritional Polymyopathies

Paraneoplastic Polymyopathy

Thiamine Deficiency

Miscellaneous Disorders

Cataplexy

Section 12 Acute Paraparesis or

Paraplegia

Definitions

Lesion Localization

Differentiation of Upper Motor Neuron and Lower

Motor Neuron Lesions

T3-L3 Spinal Cord Segments (UMN Lesion)

L4-S2 Spinal Cord Segments or Nerve Roots (LMN

lesion) and Lumbosacral Neuromuscular Lesions

Differential Diagnosis

Diagnostic Evaluation

Important Historical Questions

Physical and Neurologic Examination

Applicable Diagnostic Tests

Neuromuscular Disorders

Aortic Thromboembolism

Spinal Cord Disorders

Degenerative Intervertebral Disk Disease

Spinal Cord Trauma

Fibrocartilaginous Embolism

Meningomyelitis

Neoplasia

Section 13 Chronic Paraparesis

Definitions

Lesion Localization

Differentiation of Upper Motor Neuron and Lower

Motor Neuron Lesions

T3-L3 Spinal Cord Segments (UMN Lesion)

L4-S2 Spinal Cord Segments (LMN Lesion)

and Lumbosacral Neuromuscular Lesions

Differential Diagnosis

Diagnostic Evaluation

Important Historical Questions

Physical and Neurologic Examinations

Applicable Diagnostic Tests

Spinal Cord Disorders

Degenerative Intervertebral Disk Disease

Degenerative Myelopathy

Lumbosacral Degeneration

Meningomyelitis

Diskospondylitis

Hemivertebra and Other Vertebral Malformations

Neoplasia

Spinal Cord Cysts

Lysosomal Storage Disorders

Neuromuscular Disorders

Polyradiculoneuritis/Myositis

Other Polyneuropathies and Polymopathies

Section 14 Monoparesis and

Monoplegia

Definitions

Lesion Localization

Differential Diagnosis

Acute Nonprogressive Monoparesis or Monoplegia

Chronic Progressive Monoparesis or Monoplegia

Diagnostic Evaluation

Important Historical Questions

Physical Examination

Neurologic Examination

Applicable Diagnostic Tests

Disorders Causing Monoplegia or Monoparesis

Nerve Root, Plexus, or Nerve Trauma

Fibrocartilaginous Embolism

Thromboembolism

Degenerative Intervertebral Disk Disease

Neoplasia

Section 15 Flaccid Tail, Anus,

and Bladder

Definitions

Lesion Localization

Differential Diagnosis

Diagnostic Evaluation

Important Historical Questions

Physical Examination

Neurologic Examination

Applicable Diagnostic Tests

Lumbosacral Disorders

Nerve Root Trauma

Lumbosacral Degeneration

Fibrocartilaginous Embolism

Diskospondylitis

Sacrocaudal Agenesis

Bite Wound Abscess

Neoplasia

Section 16 Miscellaneous

Neurologic Syndromes

Definitions

Lesion Localization

Diagnostic Evaluation

Miscellaneous Disorders

Tetanus

Canine Distemper Myoclonus

Muscle Cramping Syndromes

Hyperesthesia and Self-Mutilation

Dancing Doberman Disease

Narcolepsy

Rapid-Eye-Movement Behavior Disorder

Recommended Readings

About the Series

Made Easy Series

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MED089000
MEDICAL / Veterinary Medicine / General
MED089020
MEDICAL / Veterinary Medicine / Food Animal