This book sets out to build bridges between the domains of photonic device physics and neural networks, providing a comprehensive overview of the emerging field of "neuromorphic photonics." It includes a thorough discussion of evolution of neuromorphic photonics from the advent of fiber-optic neurons to today’s state-of-the-art integrated laser neurons, which are a current focus of international research. Neuromorphic Photonics explores candidate interconnection architectures and devices for integrated neuromorphic networks, along with key functionality such as learning. It is written at a level accessible to graduate students, while also intending to serve as a comprehensive reference for experts in the field.
Table of Contents
Neuromorphic Engineering. Photonic Spike Processing. Technology Platforms for Neuromorphic Architectures. Challenges for Emerging Photonic Platforms. Brief History of Optics in Computing. Optical Logic. Optical Neural Networks. Optical Networks On-Chip. Application Domains. Real-Time Radio Frequency Processing. Nonlinear Programming. Organization of this Book. References. Primer on Spike Processing and Excitability. Introduction to neural networks. Spiking Neural Networks. Spiking Neuron Model. Excitability Mechanisms. References. Primer on Photonics. Waveguides. Bends. Interwaveguide Couplers. Interferometers. Modulators. Multiplexing. Photodetectors. Photodiodes. Detection Noise Optical Resonators. Microring Resonator Analysis. Lasers. Light-Matter Interaction. III-V Platforms Laser Dynamics. References. Spike Processing with SOA Dynamics. SOA Based Photonic Neuromorphic Primitive. Lightwave Neuromorphic Circuits. Barn Owl Auditory Localization Algorithm. Craysh Tail-Flip Escape Response. References. Excitable Laser for Unied Spike Processing. Introduction. Dynamical Model. Excitable Laser Systems. Results. Excitability. Temporal Pattern Recognition. Stable Recurrent Circuit. Discussion. Appendix. Fiber Laser Simulation. Integrated-Device Simulation. Excitable Fiber Ring Laser Cavity. References. Semiconductor Photonic Devices as Excitable Processors. Two-Section Gain and SA Excitable Lasers. Semiconductor Ring and Microdisk Lasers. Semiconductor Ring Lasers. Microdisk Laser. Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Nanocavities. Resonant Tunneling Diode Photodetector and Laser Diode. Injection-Locked Semiconductor Lasers with Delayed Feedback. Semiconductor Lasers Subjected to Optical Feedback. Polarization Switching VCSELs. References Silicon Photonics. SOI Waveguides. O-Chip Couplers. Modulators. Detectors. Hybrid Laser Sources References. Weighted Photonic Network Integration. Broadcast-and-Weight Protocol. Processing-Network Node. WDM Weighted Addition. Total Power Detection. Nonlinear E/O Conversion. Broadcast Loop. Multiple Broadcast Loops. Discussion. Summary. References. Photonic Weight Banks. Demonstration. Control of MRR Weight Banks. Setup and Methods. Single Channel Continuous Control Multi-Channel Simultaneous Control Coherent Effects between MRR Channels. Quantitative Analysis for Photonic Weight Banks. Cross-Weight Power Penalty Metric. Weight Bank Channel Limits. Mathematical Description of WDM Weighting. Simulation Techniques for Tunable Waveguide Devices. Generalized Transmission Theory. Parametric Transmission Simulator. Appendix: Advanced Weight Bank Designs Appendix: Basic Microring Characterization. Optical Characterization. Tuning Efficiency. Failure Characterization. Driver Design. References. Processing-Network Node. Demonstration of a PNN Theoretical Investigation of a PNN. Electronic Junction. Laser Neuron. Discussion. Other PNN formulations. Classication of O/E/O PNNs. Comparison of O/E/O and All-Optical PNNs. All-Optical PNNs References. System Architecture. Broadcast-and-Weight Systems. Broadcast Topologies Weight and Continue with Cascaded Banks. Weight bank control of time-delayed dynamics. A small photonic neural network. Multi-Broadcast Loop Systems. Generalized Interfacial PNN. The Multi-BL as an Embedded Graph. Mapping Multi-BL Embeddings to Functional Netoworks. Mapping Functional Networks to Multi-BL Embeddings. Design Example Using Nengo. Preliminary Structural Guidelines for General Systems. Systems. Fault Tolerance. References. Principles of Neural Network Learning. Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Mathematical Formulation of PCA. Oja's Rule. Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Mathematical Formulation of ICA. Unsupervised Learning with STDP and IP Synaptic Time Dependent Plasticity. Intrinsic Plasticity. Independent Component Analysis with STDP and IP. Experimental Advances on Photonic Learning Circuits. Photonic PCA. Photonic STDP. References Photonic Reservoir Computing. Reservoir Computing. Linear classiers and reservoirs. LIST OF CORRECTIONS. Network-based reservoir computing. Delay-Based Reservoir Computing. Photonic Reservoir Computing. Reservoir Computing with a Single Dynamical Node. Reservoir Computing with a Silicon Photonics Chip. Discussion. References. Neuromorphic Platforms Comparison. Introduction Technology Comparison. Electronic and Photonic Neurohardware Architectures. Speed: Bandwidth and Latency. Power Consumption: Energy and Noise. Size: Device Density and Scalability. Networking: Channel and Topology Limits. References.
Paul R. Prucnal Paul Prucnal is a Professor of Electrical Engineering at Princeton University. In 1988, he joined the faculty at Princeton University, where he served as the Founding Director of Princeton's Center for Photonics and Optoelectronic Materials, and is currently the Director of the Center for Network Science and Applications. He has authored or co-authored more than 350 journal papers and book chapters and holds 22 U.S. patents. He is a Fellow of both the Optical Society of America (OSA) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), for his contributions to the field.
Bhavin J. Shastri is currently an Associate Research Scholar at Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA. His research interests include: beyond-CMOS and More-than-Moore devices; excitable (graphene) lasers; programmable photonic integrated circuits; photonic interconnects; beyond von Neumann architectures; ultrafast cognitive (neuromorphic) computing; photonic spike processing; and high-speed RF circuits. Dr. Shastri is Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Optical Society of America (OSA).
Featured Author Profiles
"Photonic neuromorphic processing is a hot topic, and as such this book is very timely. It serves as an excellent introduction to this exciting field and the extremely relevant work done by the authors."
— Peter Bienstman, Ghent University, Belgium
"The authors follow a very structured and well-thought approach, allowing novices to the field to learn about the different aspects involved in this interdisciplinary concept without having to go to specialized literature in the individual fields, and experts to find details and inspiration regarding methods, devices and technologies. The authors introduce the topic from different perspective with a unique in-depth knowledge. The covered aspects, as well as the extended list of up-to-date references, are impressive. Overall, the authors present not only the state-of-the-art but, moreover, provide a fascinating perspective for future research. This is a must-have book for everyone working in photonic information processing."
— Ingo Fischer, Institute for Cross-Disciplinary Physics and Complex Systems IFISC (UIB-CSIC), Palma de Mallorca, Spain
"The material is well presented, and sufficiently allows a non-technical reader to familiarize him/herself with the topic. Simultaneously, the book provides details for a technical person in the field."
—Volker Sorger, The George Washington University, Washington D.C., USA
"Beautifully edited with figures in color, the text is written in a clear manner, and contains references at each chapter’s end. This book is a must for anybody working in modern optics, since it describes a new area of research in photonics dealing with analogies between optical and brain computations."
—Optics & Photonics News, September 2017