Clinical neuropsychologists frequently evaluate individuals within a forensic context, and therefore must address questions regarding the possible presence of reduced effort, response bias and/or malingering. This volume offers a wide range of instructive real-world case examples involving the complex differential diagnosis where symptom exaggeration and/or malingering cloud the picture.
Written by expert forensic neuropsychologists, the scenarios described provide informed, empirically-based and scientifically-derived opinions on the topic. Issues related to malingering, such as response bias and insufficient effort, are discussed thoroughly with regard to a large number of clinical conditions and assessment instruments. Test data and non-test information are considered and integrated by the numerous experts.
Expert guidance for clinicians who must address the issue of malingering is provided in a straightforward and well-organized format. To date, there has not been a comparable collection of rich case material relevant to forensic practice in clinical neuropsychology.
Table of Contents
R.K. Heaton, Foreword. Part 1. Foundations of Malingering in Neuropsychology. J.J. Sweet, Neuropsychology and the Law: Malingering Assessment in Perspective. W.G. van Gorp, J. Hassenstab, Why Questions Regarding Effort and Malingering are Always Raised in Forensic Neuropsychological Evaluations. S.R. Millis, What Clinicians Really Need to Know about Symptom Exaggeration, Insufficient Effort, and Malingering: Statistical and Measurement Matters. Part 2. Civil Litigation. Traumatic Brain Injury in Adults. R.D. Vanderploeg, H.G. Belanger, Multifactorial Contributions to Questionable Effort and Test Performance within a Military Context. G.J. Larrabee, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Depression, or Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction: Change in Zeitgeist, Change in Diagnosis. M.F. Greiffenstein, Factitious or Fictitious Brain Injury? An Adventure in Applying the DSM–IV. W. Mittenberg, D. Roberts, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Civil Litigation. L.M. Binder, Malingering Brain Injury after Whiplash Trauma. W.J. Baker, Brain Trauma, Psychiatric Disturbance, Premorbid Factors, and Malingering. C. Paniak, Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Probable Malingering ... and then Not. Psychiatric and Medical Disorders. J.E. Morgan, R.O. Gervais, Definite Malingering or Probable Malingering: Multidimensional Symptom Exaggeration in a Case of Depression. P. Green, Questioning Common Assumptions about Depression. R. Rogers, S.D. Bender, Feigning Mental Disorders with Concomitant Cognitive Deficits. J.J. Sweet, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Neuropsychological Malingering: A Complicated Scenario. D.T.R. Berry, R.P. Granacher, Jr., Feigning of Psychiatric Symptoms in the Context of Documented Severe Head Injury and Preserved Motivation on Neuropsychological Testing. B.N. Axelrod, Fabrication of Psychiatric Symptoms: Somatoform and Psychotic Disorders. N.W. Nelson, J.J. Sweet, Malingering of Psychiatric Disorders in Neuropsychological Evaluations: Divergence of Cognitive Effort Measures and Psychological Test Validity Indicators. L. Artiola i Fortuny, Factitious Disorder in Civil Litigation. J.E. Morgan, S.R. Millis, J. Mesnik, Malingered Dementia and Feigned Psychosis. Difficult to Diagnose or Questionable Conditions. J. DeLuca, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Malingering. J. Youngjohn, Lyme Disease: Consideration of Malingered Disability. R.O. Gervais, Fibromyalgia: Resignation, Restitution, and Response Bias. P.R. Lees-Haley, Mold and the Joy of Malingering. L. Artiola i Fortuny, Alleged Mold Toxicity. K.J. Bianchini, K.W. Greve, Chronic Pain as a Context for Malingering. D.S. Bush, Alleged Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. R.L. Mapou, HIV Disease, AIDS, and HIV-Associated Dementia in a Secondary Gain Context. N. Pliskin, Electrical Injury and Malingered Cognitive Dysfunction. Pediatric and Learning/Academic Disorders. L. Flaro, K.B. Boone, Using Objective Effort Measures to Detect Noncredible Test Performance in Children and Adolescents. R.J. McCaffery, J.K. Lynch, Malingering Following Documented Brain Injury: Neuropsychological Evaluation of Children in a Forensic Setting. D.C. Osmon, Q.R. Mano, Malingered Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effort, Depression, and Dependence in the Pursuit of Academic Accommodations. Part 3. Criminal Prosecution. J.E. Morgan, Competency to Stand Trial and the Insanity Defense. R.L. Denney, Evaluating Competency to Stand Trial and Sanity in the Face of Marked Amnesia and Claimed Psychosis. R. Frederick, The Malingering Incompetent Defendant. R.L. Heilbronner, Malingering, Mental Retardation, and the Death Penalty. Part 4. The Perspective of Legal Experts and Disability Decision Makers. J. Green, Disability Insurance Case Management: External Consultant. J.E. Sargent, M. Fuller, Disability Insurance Case Management: Insurance Company. M.D. DeBofsky, Social Security Adjudication: Attorney Representing Disability Claimants. H.G. Conroe, Social Security Adjudication: Regional Consultant. J. Krakora, Criminal Court: Defense Attorney. Part 5. Ethics and Professional Issues. J.D. Seward, D.J. Connor, Ethical Issues in Assigning (or Withholding) a Diagnosis of Malingering. S.S. Bush, What to do after Making a Determination of Malingering. Part 6. Current Status and Future Directions. M. Bergman, J.J. Sweet, Complexities of the Differential Diagnosis of Malingering: Arguments for the Use of Effort Tests with Patients. J.J. Sweet, J.E. Morgan, What We Currently Know About Malingering "to a Reasonable Degree of Neuropsychological Certainty" vs. What We Would Like to Know in the Future. Appendices. J.J. Sweet, Appendix A: Measures Specifically Intended to Detect Insufficient Effort and Motivation: A Cross-Referenced Bibliography. Appendix B: Neuropsychological and Psychological Measures Used to Identify Insufficient Effort and Malingering: A Cross-Referenced Bibliography. Appendix C: Additional Articles Pertinent to Malingering. Appendix D: Topics Common to Forensic Neuropsychology Consultation. Appendix E: General References. D.J. Slick, E.M.S. Sherman, G.I. Iverson, Appendix F: Diagnostic Criteria for Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction: Proposed Standards for Clinical Practice and Research (reprinted from The Clinical Neuropsychologist).
Joel E. Morgan has been active in professional neuropsychology for over 20 years as teacher, clinician, and journal editor. He is board certified by the American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology of ABPP and currently serves as an oral examiner. Dr. Morgan is active in professional affairs having served on the BOD of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and Division 40 of APA where he is currently a representative to APA Council. He maintains an active forensic private practice in addition to his editorial, board, and other professional activities.
Jerry J. Sweet is Director of the Neuropsychology Service, Head of the Psychology Division, and Vice Chair of the Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences Department at Evanston Northwestern Healthcare, Evanston, IL. He holds the academic rank of Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences of the Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, and is board certified in clinical neuropsychology and clinical psychology by the American Board of Professional Psychology. Dr. Sweet edited the textbook Forensic Neuropsychology: Fundamentals and Practice, co-authored the text Psychological Assessment in Medical Settings, and co-edited Handbook of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings. He has served on numerous journal editorial boards and is currently Co-Editor of The Clinical Neuropsychologist (official journal of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology). Dr. Sweet has published numerous peer-reviewed articles on psychological and neuropsychological assessment, including a large collection of studies relevant to forensic neuropsychology. He has been active in a number of professional societies and is Past President of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology.
"The Neuropsychology of Malingering Casebook provides a wealth of additional features such as discussions of statistical and measurement matters, ethical and professional concerns, perspectives from those outside of the profession, and numerous invaluable appendices. The clinical neuropsychologist who is frequently engaged in professional work in which malingering is a common question will likely want to read this book cover-to-cover. For those neuropsychologists who face questions of malingering less often, this book will serve as an excellent reference that they undoubtedly will want on their shelf." - Thomas J. Deters, Harvard Medical School, in The Clinical Neuropsychologist
"The case study format using real forensic examinees to illustrate the complexities of effort evaluation in neuropsychological testing is utterly captivating and highly effective… Not only is it exceedingly informative, it is a fascinating and entertaining read that makes the reader critically consider one’s own approach to effort evaluation. … The Neuropsychology of Malingering Casebook provides essential knowledge and would be an excellent addition to the library of every neuropsychologist in active practice." - Bernice Marcopulos, Ph.D. ABPP-CN, in JINS, the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society