New Makers of Modern Culture: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

New Makers of Modern Culture

1st Edition

Edited by Wintle Justin

Routledge

912 pages

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Hardback: 9780415425537
pub: 2006-08-29
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Description

New Makers of Modern Culture is the successor to the classic reference works Makers of Modern Culture and Makers of Nineteenth-Century Culture, published by Routledge in the early 1980s. The set was extremely successful and continues to be used to this day, due to the high quality of the writing, the distinguished contributors, and the cultural sensitivity shown in the selection of those individuals included. New Makers of Modern Culture takes into full account the rise and fall of reputation and influence over the last twenty-five years and the epochal changes that have occurred: the demise of Marxism and the collapse of the Soviet Union; the rise and fall of postmodernism; the eruption of Islamic fundamentalism; the triumph of the Internet.

Containing over eight hundred essay-style entries, and covering the period from 1850 to the present, New Makers includes artists, writers, dramatists, architects, philosophers, anthropologists, scientists, sociologists, major political figures, composers, film-makers and many other culturally significant individuals and is thoroughly international in its purview. Next to Karl Marx is Bob Marley, next to John Ruskin is Salmon Rushdie, alongside Darwin is Luigi Dallapiccola, Deng Xiaoping runs shoulders with Jacques Derrida, Julia Kristeva with Kropotkin. Once again, Wintle has enlisted the services of many distinguished writers and leading academics, such as Sam Beer, Bernard Crick, Edward Seidensticker and Paul Preston. In a few cases, for example Michael Holroyd and Philip Larkin, contributors are themselves the subject of entries.

With its global reach, New Makers of Modern Culture provides a multi-voiced witness of the contemporary thinking world. The entries carry short bibliographies and there is thorough cross-referencing. There is an index of names and key terms.

Table of Contents

AALTO, Hugo Alvar Henrik; ABRAMOVIC, Marina; ACHEBE, Chinua; ACTON, John Emerich Edward Dalberg, Lord; ADAMS, Douglas Noel; ADAMS, Henry Brooks; ADAMS, John; ADLER, Alfred; ADORNO, Theodor Wiesengrund; AFGHANI, Jamal Uddeen Al; ALBEE, Edward Franklin; ALBERS, Josef; ALCOTT, Louisa May; ALLEN, Woody; ALTHUSSER, Louis; ALTMAN, Robert; AMIS, Kingsley; AMIS, Martin; ANDRÉ, Carl b. 1935; ANGELOU, Maya (Marguerite Johnson); ANOUILH, Jean; ANTHONY, Susan Brownell; APOLLINAIRE, Guillaume (Wilhelm Apollinaris de Kostrowitzky); ARAFAT, Yasser; ARCHIGRAM; ARENDT, Hannah; ARMSTRONG, Daniel Louis (Satchmo); ARNOLD, Eve; ARNOLD, Matthew; ARON, Raymond; ARP, Jean (Hans); ARTAUD, Antonin (Marie Joseph); ASHBERRY, John; ASHBY, William Ross; ASIMOV, Isaac; ATATÜRK, (Mustafa KEMAL); ATTENBOROUGH, David; AUDEN, Wystan Hugh; AUNG SAN SUU KYI; AUSTIN, John Langshaw; AYER, Sir Alfred Jules; BABBAGE, Charles; BABBITT, Milton Byron; BACHELARD, Gaston; BACON, Francis; BADIOU, Alain; BAGEHOT, Walter; BAIRD, John Logie; BAKHTIN, Mikhail; BAKST, Léon Samölivich; BAKUNIN, Mikhail Alexandrovich; BALAKIREV, Mily Alexeyevich; BALDWIN, James Arthur; BALLARD, James Graham; BALTHUS, Count Balthazar Klossowski de Rola; BANHAM, Rayner; BARBER, Samuel; BARNUM, Phineas Taylor; BARRÈS, Auguste-Maurice; BARTH, John; BARTH, Karl; BARTHES, Roland; BARTÓK, Béla; BAUDELAIRE, Charles Pierre; BAUSCH, Pina; BEARDSLEY, Aubrey Vincent; BEATLES, The; BEATON, Sir Cecil Walter Hardy; BEAUVOIR, Simone de; BECK, Ulrich; BECKETT, Samuel; BECKMANN, Max; BEETON, Samuel Orchart; BELL, Alexander Graham; BELLOW, Saul; BENENSON, Peter; BENJAMIN, Walter; BENNETT, Alan; BERG, Alban; BERGMAN, Ingmar; BERGSON, Henri Louis; BERIO, Luciano; BERKELEY, Busby; BERLIN, Irving; BERLIOZ, Louis-Hector; BERNERS-LEE, Sir Timothy; BERNSTEIN, Leonard; BERRYMAN, John; BETJEMAN, Sir John; BEUYS, Joseph; BEVERIDGE, W.H.; BIERCE, Ambrose; BIN LADEN, Osama; BINFORD, Lewis Roberts; BIRTWISTLE, Harrison; BISHOP, Elizabeth; BISMARCK, Otto von; BIZET, Georges; BOAL, Augusto; BOAS, Franz; BÖCKLIN, Arnold; BOHR, Niels Henrik David; BÖLL, Heinrich; BOLTZMANN, Ludwig; BONHOEFFER, Dietrich; BONNARD, Pierre; BOOLE, George; BOOTH, William; BORGES, Jorge Luis; BORODIN, Alexander Porfirevich; BOULEZ, Pierre; BOURDIEU, Pierre; BOURGEOIS, Louise; BOURKE-WHITE, Margaret; BRADBURY, Ray; BRAHMS, Johannes; BRAKHAGE, Stan; BRANCUSI, Constantin; BRAQUE, Georges; BRAUDEL, Fernand; BRECHT, Bertolt; BRENTON, Howard; BRESSON, Robert; BRETON, André; BRITTEN, Benjamin, Lord; BROWN, Ford Madox; BROWNING, Robert; BRUCKNER, Anton; BRUNEL, Isambard Kingdom; BUBER, Martin; BUKHARIN, Nikolay Ivanovich; BULTMANN, Rudolf; BUNTLINE, Ned (Edward Zane Carroll JUDSON); BUÑUEL, Luis; BURCKHARDT, Jacob Christoph; BURGRESS, Anthony; BURNE-JONES, Sir Edward; BURROUGHS, William Seward; BURTON, Sir Richard Francis; BUSONI, Ferruccio Benvenuto; BUTLER, Samuel; BYATT, A.S.; CAGE, John; CALDER, Alexander; CAMUS, Albert; CANTOR, Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp; CAPA, Robert; CAPEK, Karel; CAPOTE, Truman; CARNAP, Rudolf; CARNEGIE, Andrew; CARROLL, Lewis (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson); CARSON, Rachel; CARTER, Elliott; CARTIER-BRESSON, Henri; CARVER, George Washington; CARVER, Raymond; CASSAVETES, John; CASSIRER, Ernst; CASTRO, Fidel; CAVAFY, Constantine Peter; CAVELL, Stanley; CELAN, Paul (Paul Anczel); CÉZANNE, Paul; CHAGALL, Marc; CHANDLER, Raymond Thornton; CHANEL, Gabrielle (‘Coco’); CHAPLIN, Charles Spencer; CHATWIN, Bruce; CHEEVER, John; CHEKHOV, Anton Pavlovich; CHESTERTON, Gilbert Keith; CHILDE, Vere Gordon; CHIRICO, Giorgio de; CHOMSKY, Avram Noam; CHOPIN, Kate; CHRISTIE, Agatha; CHRISTO (Christo Javacheff); CHURCHILL, Winston; CIORAN, E. M.; CLAUSIUS, Rudolf Julius Emmanuel; CLEAVER, Larry Eldridge; COCTEAU, Jean; COETZEE, J. M.; COLLINS, William Wilkie; COMPTON-BURNETT, Dame Ivy; CONRAD, Joseph; COPLAND, Aaron; COPPOLA, Francis Ford; CORBUSIER (Charles-Édouard Jeaneret le); COURBET, Gustave; COWARD, Sir Noël Pierce; CRANE, Harold Hart; CRANE, Stephen; CRICK, Francis; CROCE, Benedetto; CUKOR, George; CUMMINGS, Edward Estlin; CUNNINGHAM, Merce; CURIE, Marie Sklodowska; DALÍ y Domenech, Salvador Felipe Jacinto; DALLAPICCOLA, Luigi; D'ANNUNZIO, Gabriele del; DARWIN, Charles Robert; DAUMIER, Honoré-Victorin; DAVIDSON, Donald; DAVIES, Peter Maxwell; DAVIS, Miles Dewey, Jr; DAWKINS, Richard; DE GAULLE, Charles; DEBORD, Guy; DEBUSSY, (Achille-) Claude; DEDEKIND, (Julius Wilhelm) Richard; DEGAS, Edgar; DELEUZE, Gilles; DeLILLO, Don; DELIUS, Frederick (Fritz Theodore Albert); DeMILLE, Cecil Blount; DEMUTH, Charles Henry Buckius; DENG XIAOPING (Teng Hsiao-ping); DERRIDA, Jacques; DEWEY, John; DIAGHILEV, Serge (Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev); DICKENS, Charles John Huffam; DICKINSON, Emily; DIDION, Joan; DILTHEY, Wilhelm; DISNEY, Walt; DISRAELI, Benjamin, Earl of Beaconsfield; DOCTOROW, E.L. (Edgar Lawrence); DORÉ, Gustave; DOS PASSOS, John Rodrigo; DOSTOEVSKY, Fyodor Mikhailovich; DOUGHTY, Charles Montagu; DOUGLASS, Frederick; DOYLE, Sir Arthur Conan; DREISER, Herman Theodore; DREYER, Carl; DUBUFFET, Jean-Philippe-Arthur; DUCHAMP, Marcel; DUHEM, Pierre-Marie-Maurice; DURKHEIM, Émile; DURRELL, Lawrence; DUTILLEUX, Henri; DVORÁK, Antonin; DWORKIN, Andrea; DYLAN, Bob (Robert Allen Zimmerman); EAKINS, Thomas; EAMES, Charles; EASTMAN, George; EÇA DE QUEIROZ, Jose Maria; EDDY, Mary Baker; EDISON, Thomas Alva; EIFFEL, Gustave; EINSTEIN, Albert; EISENSTEIN, Sergei Mikhailovitch; ELGAR, Sir Edward (William); ELIADE, Mircea; ELIAS, Norbert; ELIOT, George (Mary Anne or Marian Evans); ELIOT, Thomas Stearns; ELLINGTON, Duke; EMERSON, Ralph Waldo; ENDO, Shusako; ENGELS, Friedrich; EPSTEIN, Sir Jacob; ERNST, Max; EVANS, Sir Arthur; EVANS, Sir John; EVANS-PRITCHARD, Sir Edward Evan; EYSENCK, Hans Jurgen; FASSBINDER, Rainer Werner; FAULKNER, William; FAURÉ, Gabriel Urbain; FAWCETT, Millicent Garrett, Dame; FELLINI, Federico; FERMI, Enrico; FEUERBACH, Ludwig Andreas; FEYDEAU, Georges (Léon Jules Marie); FIRBANK, (Arthur Annesley) Ronald; FITZGERALD, Francis Scott Key; FLAHERTY, Robert; FLAUBERT, Gustave; FLEMING, Alexander (??dates??) and Howard FLOREY; FLEMING, Ian Lancaster; FO, Dario; FORD, Henry; FORD, John; FORSTER, Edward Morgan; FOSTER, Norman; FOSTER, Stephen Collins; FOUCAULT, Michel; FOWLES, John Robert; FRANCK César (Auguste Jean Guillaume Hubert); FRANCO, Francisco; FRAZER, Sir James George; FREGE, Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob; FREUD, Lucian Michael; FREUD, Sigmund; FRIEDAN, Betty; FRIEDMAN, Milton; FRINK, Liz; FROMM, Erich; FROST, Robert; FUENTES, Carlos; FUGARD, Athol; FUKUZAWA Yukichi; FULLER, Richard Buckminster; GABO, Naum; GADAFFI, Muammar al-; GADAMER, Hans-Georg; GALBRAITH, John Kenneth; GALLO, Robert C. Gallo and MONTAGNIER, Luc; GALLUP, George Horace; GALTON, Sir Francis; GANCE, Abel; GANDHI, Mahatma (Mohandas Karamchand); GAO XINGJIAN; GARCÍA MÁRQUEZ, Gabriel; GARIBALDI, Giuseppe; GASKELL, Elizabeth Cleghorn; GATES, Bill (William Henry); GAUDI, Antoni; GAUDIER-BRZESKA, Henri; GAUGUIN, Paul; GEERTZ, Clifford; GEHRY, Frank; GELLNER, Ernest; GENET, Jean; GERSHWIN, George; GIACOMETTI, Alberto; GIDE, André-Paul-Guillaume; GILBERT & GEORGE; GILBERT, William Schwenck, Sir; GINSBERG, Allen; GLADSTONE, William Ewart; GLASS, Philip; GOBINEAU, Arthur de; GODARD, Jean-Luc; GODEL, Kurt; GOEHR, Alexander; GOLDING, William Gerald; GONCOURT, de, Edmond and Jules; GOODMAN, Paul; GORBACHEV, Mikhail Sergeevich; GORECKI, Henryk; GORKY, Maxim (Aleksey Maximovich Peshkov); GOSSE, Edmund William; GOSSE, Philip Henry; GOULD, Stephen Jay; GOUNOD, Charles (François); GRAHAM, Martha; GRAMSCI, Antonio; GRASS, Günter; GREEN, Henry; GREENE, Graham; GREER, Germaine; GRIEG, Edvard (Hagerup); GRIFFITH, David Wark; GROPIUS, Walter; GUEVARA, Che (Ernesto Guevara de la Serna); GUNN, Thomson William; GUTTIERREZ, Gustavo; GYATSO, TENZIN, 14th Dalai Lama; HABERMAS, Jürgen; HAGGARD, Sir Henry Rider; HAMMERSTEIN, Oscar; HAMSUN, Knut; HANDKE, Peter; HARDY, Thomas; HARNACK, Adolf von; HARRIS, Joel Chandler; HARTE, Francis Bret; HAŠEK, Jaroslav; HAVEL, Václav; HAWKING, Stephen; HAWKS, Howard Winchester; HAWTHORNE, Nathaniel; HEANEY, Seamus; HEIDEGGER, Martin; HEISENBERG, Werner; HELLER, Joseph; HELMHOLTZ, Hermann Ludwig von; HEMINGWAY, Ernest; HENDRIX, Jimi; HENZE, Hans Werner; HEPWORTH, Jocelyn Barbara; HERTZ, Heinrich Rudolf; HERZEN, Alexandr Ivanovich; HERZL, Theodor; HERZOG, Werner; HESSE, Hermann; HEYERDAHL, Thor; HINDEMITH, Paul; HIRST, Damien; HITCHCOCK, Sir Alfred Joseph; HITLER, Adolf; HO CHI MINH; HOCKNEY, David; HODDER, Ian; HOFSTEDE, Geert; HOGGART, Richard; HOLABIRD, William; ROCHE, Martin; HOLMES, Oliver Wendell; HOLROYD, Michael de Courcy Fraser; HOLST, Gustav; HOMER, Winslow; HOPKINS, Gerard Manley; HOPPER, Edward; HORKHEIMER, Max; HOUSMAN, Alfred Edward; HOWELLS, William Dean; HUGHES, Ted (Edward James); HUGO, Victor-Marie; HUIZINGA, Johan; HUNT, William Holman; HUNTINGDON, Samuel; HUSSERL, Edmund; HUXLEY, Aldous Leonard; HUXLEY, Thomas Henry; HUYSMANS, Joris-Karl; IBSEN, Henrik; ILLICH, Ivan; IONESCO, Eugène; IQBAL, Sir Muhammad; IVES, Charles Edward; JAKOBSON, Roman Osipovich; JAMES, Henry; JAMES, William; JANÁCEK, Leoš (Eugen); JARMAN, Derek; JARRY, Alfred; JASPERS, Karl Theodor; JEVONS, William Stanley; JOBS, Steven; JOHN PAUL II; JOHN XXIII; JOHNS, Jasper; JONES, Everett LeRoi/Imamu Amiri Baraka; JOULE, James Prescott; JOUVENEL DES URSINS, Bertrand de; JOWETT, Benjamin; JOYCE, James Augustine; JUDD, Donald; JUNG, Carl Gustav; JÜNGER, Ernst; KAFKA, Franz; KAHN, Louis I.; KANDINSKY, Wassily (Vasilii Vasilievich); KANG Youwei; KAWABATA YASUNARI; KEATON, ‘Buster’ (Joseph Francis); KELLER, Hans; KELVIN, Lord (William Thomson); KENNEDY, John Fitzgerald; KERN, Jerome; KEROUAC, Jack; KESEY, Ken; KEYNES, John Maynard; KHOMEINI, Ruhollah Musavi; KIEFER, Anselm; KIESLOWSKI, Krzysztof; KING, Martin Luther, Jnr; KING, Stephen; KIPLING, Joseph Rudyard; KIRCHNER, Ernst Ludwig; KITAJ, R. B.; KLEE, Paul; KLEIN, Melanie; KLEIN, Yves; KLIMT, Gustav; KOCH, Heinrich Hermann Robert; KODÁLY, Zoltán; KOESTLER, Arthur; KOHL, Helmut; KOKOSCHKA, Oscar; KOONING, William de; KOONS, Jeff; KRAUS, Karl; KRIPKE, Saul (?; KRISHNAMURTI, Jiddu; KRISTEVA, Julia; KROPOTKIN, Petr Alekseyevich; KUBRICK, Stanley; KUHN, Thomas Samuel; KUNDERA, Milan; KÜNG, Hans; KUROSAWA, Akiro; KURTAG, Gyorgy; LACAN, Jacques; LAFORGUE, Jules; LAING, Ronald David; LAMPEDUSA, Giuseppe Tomasi di; LANG, Fritz; LARKIN, Philip; LARTET, Edouard Armand Isidore; LAUTRÉAMONT, Comte de (Isidore-Lucien DUCASSE); LAWRENCE, David Herbert; LE CARRÉ, John (David John Moore CORNWELL); LE FANU, Joseph Thomas Sheridan; LEACH, Edmund Ronald; LEAN, David; LEAR, Edward; LEARY, Timothy; LEAVIS, Frank Raymond; LÉGER, Fernand; LEMKIN, Raphael; LENIN (Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov); LEO XIII; LEVINAS, Emmanuel; LÉVI-STRAUSS, Claude; LEWIS, (Henry) Sinclair; LEWIS, (John) Saunders; LEWIS, (Percy) Wyndham; LIBBY, Willard Frank; LICHTENSTEIN, Roy; LIGETI, Gyorgy; LIN, Maya Ying; LINCOLN, Abraham; LISTER, Joseph; LISZT, Ferencz; LIVINGSTONE, David; LODGE, David; LONDON, Jack (John Griffith); LONGFELLOW, Henry Wadsworth; LORCA, Federico García; LORENTZ, Hendrik Antoon; LORENZ, Konrad Zacharias; LOSEY, Joseph Walton; LOVELOCK, James; LOWELL, Amy; LOWELL, James Russell; LOWELL, Robert; LOWRY, Laurence Stephen; LU XUN (Zhou Shuren); LUHMANN, Niklas; LUKÁCS, Georg; LUTOSLAWSKI, Witold; LYOTARD, Jean François; MACDIARMID, Hugh (Christopher Murray Grieve); MACH, Ernst; MACHADO DE ASSIS, Joaquim Maria; MACINTYRE, Alasdair; MACKINTOSH, Charles Rennie; MacNEICE, Frederick Louis; MAETERLINCK, Mauritius Polydorus Maria Bernardus; MAGRITTE, René-François-Ghislain; MAHLER, Gustav; MAILER, Norman; MALCOLM X (Malcolm Little/El Hajj Malik; MALEVICH, Kazimir; MALINOWSKI, Bronislaw Kaspar; MALLARMÉ, Stéphane; MALRAUX, André; MANDELA, Nelson; MANDELSTAM, Osip Emilievich; MANET, Edouard; MANN, Jonathan; MANN, Luis Heinrich; MANN, Thomas; MANNHEIM, Karl; MANSFIELD, Katherine; MAO ZEDONG (Mao Tse-tung); MAPPLETHORPE, Robert; MARC, Franz; MARCEAU, Marcel; MARCONI, Guglielmo; MARCUSE, Herbert; MARINETTI, Filippo Tommaso; MARLEY, Bob; MARX, Karl Heinrich; MATISSE, Henri; MATURANA, Humberto R.; MAUDIDI, Mawlana Abul Ala; MAUPASSANT, Henri René Albert Guy de; MAUSS, Marcel; MAXWELL, James Clerk; McCARTHY, Mary Therese; McEWAN, Ian; McLUHAN, Herbert Marshall; MEAD, Margaret; MEDAWAR, Sir Peter; MELVILLE, Herman; MENDEL, Gregor; MENDELEYEV, Dmitry Ivanovitch; MERLEAU-PONTY, Maurice; MESSIAEN, Olivier; MIES VAN DER ROHE, Ludwig; MILL, John Stuart; MILLER, Arthur; MILLER, Henry; MILLET, Jean François; MILLETT, Kate (Katherine Murray); MIRÓ, Jóan; MISHIMA YUKIO; MIZOGUCHI, Kenji; MODIGLIANI, Amadeo; MOMMSEN, Theodor; MONDRIAN, Piet; MONET, Claude; MONNET, Jean; MONTY PYTHON; MOORE, George Edward; MOORE, Henry; MOORE, Marianne Craig; MOREAU, Gustave; MORGAN, Lewis Henry; MORRIS, Robert; MORRIS, William; MORRISON, Toni; MOSCA, Gaetano; MUHAMMAD, Elijah; MUNCH, Edvard; MURRAY, Sir James; MUSIL, Robert; MUSSOLINI, Benito; MUSSORGSKY, Modest Petrovich; NABOKOV, Vladimir Vladimirovich; NADER, Ralph; NAGEL, Ernest; NAIPAUL, V.S.; NASSER, Gamal Abdel; NEEDHAM, Joseph; NERUDA, Pablo (Neftalí Reyes); NEWMAN, John Henry, Cardinal; NICHOLSON, Ben; NIEBUHR, Reinhold; NIEMEYER, Oscar; NIETZSCHE, Friedrich; NIGHTINGALE, Florence; NOBEL, Alfred Bernhard; NOLAN, Sir Sidney Robert; NOLDE, Emil; NOZICK, Robert; NUSSBAUM, Martha; O’NEILL, Eugene Gladstone; OATES, Joyce Carol; O'CASEY, Sean; ODETS, Clifford; OE, Kenzaburo; OFFENBACH, Jacques (Jacob); OLDENBURG, Claes; OMAR, Mullah Muhammad; ONO, Yoko; OPHULS, Max; OPPENHEIMER, J. Robert; ORTEGA y GASSET, José; ORTON, Joe; ORWELL, George; OWEN, Wilfred; OZ, Amos (Amos Klausner; OZU, Yasukiro; PALMER, Samuel; PAOLOZZI, Eduardo; PARETO, Vilfredo; PARKER, Charles Christopher, Jr (Bird); PARKMAN, Francis; PARSONS, Talcott; PASK, Andrew Gordon Speedie; PASOLINI, Pier Paolo; PASTERNAK, Boris Leonidovich; PASTEUR, Louis; PATER, Walter Horatio; PAVLOV, Ivan Petrovich; PAZ, Octavio; PEAKE, Mervyn Laurence; PEI, I.M.; PEIRCE, Charles Sanders; PENDERECKI, Krzysztof; PÉREZ GALDÓS, Benito; PETRIE, Sir William Matthew Flinders; PIAGET, Jean; PICASSO, Pablo (Ruiz y); PINTER, Harold; PIRANDELLO, Luigi; PISSARRO, Camille; PITT RIVERS, Augustus Lane Fox; PLANCK, Max Karl; PLATH, Sylvia; POINCARÉ, Henri; POIRET, Paul; POL POT (Saloth Sar); POLANSKI, Roman; POLLOCK, Jackson; POPPER, Sir Karl Raimund; PORTER, Cole; POULENC, Francis; POUND, Ezra Loomis; POWELL, Anthony; PRESLEY, Elvis Aaron; PRICE, Cedric; PROKOFIEV, Sergei Sergeievich; PROUDHON, Pierre-Joseph; PROUST, Marcel; PUCCINI, Giacomo; PUDOVKIN, Vsevolod Illarionovich; PUTNAM, Hilary; PUVIS DE CHAVANNES, Pierre; PYNCHON, Thomas; QUENEAU, Raymond; QUINE, Willard Van Orman; QUTB, Sayyid Muhammad; RACHMANINOV, Sergei; RADCLIFFE-BROWN, Alfred Reginald; RAHNER, Karl; RAUSCHENBERG, Robert; RAVEL, Joseph Maurice; RAWLS, John; RAY, Man; RAY, Satyajit; REDON, Odilon; REICH, Steve; REICH, Wilhelm; REINHARDT, Ad; REINHARDT, Max; RENAN, Joseph-Ernest; RENOIR, Jean; RENOIR, Pierre-Auguste; RESNAIS, Alain; REUTER, Baron Paul Julius von; RICHARDSON, Henry Hobson; RIEFENSTAHL, Leni (Helene Bertha Amalie); RIEFF, Philip; RIEMANN, Georg Friedrich Bernhard; RILEY, Bridget Louise; RILKE, Rainer Maria; RIMBAUD, Arthur; RIMSKY-KORSAKOV, Nikolay Andreyevich; RIOPELLE, Jean-Paul; RIVERA, Diego; RIVERS, William Halse Rivers; ROBBE-GRILLET, Alain; ROCKWELL, Norman; RODGERS, Richard; RODIN, François-Auguste-René; ROETHKE, Theodore; ROGERS, Carl Ranson; ROGERS, Richard; ROHMER, Eric; ROLFE, Frederick William; ROLLING STONES, The; ROOSEVELT, F.D.; ROSSETTI, Christina Georgina; ROSSETTI, Dante Gabriel (Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti); ROSTAND, Edmond; ROTH, Philip Milton; ROTHKO, Mark; ROUAULT, Georges; ROUSSEAU, Henri (known as Le Douanier); RUSHDIE, Salman; RUSKIN, John; RUSSELL, Bertrand Arthur William, Earl; RUSTIN, Bayard; RUTHERFORD, Ernest; RYLE, Gilbert; SAID, Edward Wadie; SAIGO TAKAMORI; SAINT-SAËNS, (Charles) Camille; SALINGER, Jerome David; SANDBURG, Carl; SANTAYANA, George; SAPIR, Edward; SARDOU, Victorien; SARGENT, John Singer; SARRAUTE, Nathalie; SARTRE, Jean-Paul; SATIE, Erik; SAUSSURE, Mongin-Ferdinand de; SCHENKER, Heinrich; SCHLICK, Moritz; SCHLIEMANN, Heinrich; SCHNITTKE, Alfred; SCHOENBERG, Arnold Franz Walter; SCHRÖDINGER, Erwin; SCORSESE, Martin; SCOTT, George Gilbert; SCOTT, Ridley; SCRIABIN, Aleksandr Nikolayevich; SEARLE, John; SEBALD, W.G.; SEN, Amartya; SENGHOR, Léopold Sédar; SEURAT, Georges Pierre; SHAH, Idries; SHAW, George Bernard; SHAW, Richard Norman; SHOLOKHOV, Mikhail Aleksandrovich; SHOSTAKOVITCH, Dmitri Dmitrievitch; SIBELIUS, Jean; SICKERT, Walter Richard; SIMMEL, Georg; SINGER, Isaac Bashevis; SIRK, Douglas; SISLEY, Alfred; SKINNER, Burrhus Frederic; SMETANA, Bedrich; SMITH, David Roland; SMITH, William Robertson; SOLZHENITSYN, Aleksandr Isayevich; SONDHEIM, Stephen; SOREL, Georges; SOUTINE, Chaim; SOYINKA, Wole; SPENCER, Herbert; SPENCER, Sir Stanley; SPENGLER, Oswald; SPIELBERG, Steven; SPOCK, Benjamin McLane; STALIN, Joseph; STANISLAVSKY, Konstantin (Konstantin Sergeyevich Alexeyev); STANLEY, Henry Morton; STANTON, Elizabeth Cady; STEIN, Gertrude; STEINBECK, John (Ernst); STELLA, Frank Philip; STEVENS, Wallace; STEVENSON, Robert Louis (Robert Lewis Balfour Stevenson); STOCKHAUSEN, Karlheinz; STOPES, Marie Carmichael; STOPPARD, Tom; STOWE, Harriet Beecher; STRACHEY, Giles Lytton; STRAUSS, David Friedrich; STRAUSS, Johann; STRAUSS, Leo; STRAUSS, Richard George; STRAVINSKY, Igor Fedorovich; STRAWSON, Peter; STRINDBERG, Johan August; SUKARNO; SULLIVAN, Arthur, Sir; SULLIVAN, Louis Henry; SULSTON, John; SUZUKI, Daisetsu Teitaro; SWINBURNE, Algernon Charles; SYNGE, John Millington; SZASZ, Thomas Stephen; SZYMANOWSKI, Karol; TAGORE, Rabindranath; TAINE, Hippolyte-Adolphe; TAKEMITSU, Toru; TANGE KENZO; TANIZAKI JUNICHIRO; TÀPIES, Antoni; TARKOVSKY, A.A.; TARSKI, Alfred; TAWNEY, Richard Henry; TCHAIKOVSKY, Peter Ilich; TENNYSON, Alfred, Lord; THATCHER, Margaret; THESIGER, Wilfred; THOM, René; THOMAS, Dylan Marlais; THOMAS, Philip Edward; THOMAS, Ronald Stuart; THOREAU, Henry David; TILLICH, Paul; TINBERGEN, Nikolaas; TINGUELY, Jean; TIPPETT, Sir Michael; TOCQUEVILLE, Alexis de; TOLKIEN, John Ronald Reuel; TOLSTOY, Lev Nikolaevich (Count); TOULOUSE-LAUTREC, Henri de; TOYNBEE, Arnold Joseph; TROLLOPE, Anthony; TROTSKY, Leon; TRUFFAUT, François; TURGENEV, Ivan Sergeyevich; TURING, Alan; TURNER, Frederick Jackson; TWAIN, Mark (Samuel Langhorne Clemens); TYLOR, Sir Edward Burnett; TZARA, Tristan (Samuel Rosenstock); UNAMUNO, Miguel de; UPDIKE, John; UTRILLO, Maurice; VALERY, Paul; VAN DER POST, Sir Laurens; VAN GOGH, Vincent; VARÈSE, Edgard Victor Achille Charles; VARGAS LLOSA, Mario; VAUGHAN WILLIAMS, Ralph; VEBLEN, Thorstein Bunde; VELDE, Henri van de; VERDI, Giuseppe; VERGA, Giovanni; VERLAINE, Paul; VERNE, Jules; VERTOV, Dziga (Denis Arkadevitch Kaufman); VICTORIA and ALBERT; VIDAL, Gore; VIOLA, Bill; VIOLLET-LE-DUC, Eugène; VISCONTI, Luchino; VON FOERSTER, Heinz; VON NEUMANN, John; VON STERNBERG, Josef; VONNEGUT Jr, Kurt; WAGNER, Richard; WAJDA, Andrzej; WALCOTT, Derek; WALESA, Lech; WALEY, Arthur David; WALLACE, Alfred Russel; WARD, Mary Augusta (Mrs Humphry Ward); WARHOL, Andy (Andrew Warhola); WASHINGTON, Booker Taliaferro; WATSON, James Dewey; WATSON, John Broadus; WAUGH, Evelyn Arthur St John; WEBB, Martha Beatrice; WEBER, Max; WEBERN, Anton (von); WEDEKIND, Benjamin Franklin (Frank); WEIL, Simone; WEILL, Kurt; WEIZMANN, Chaim; WELLES, George Orson; WELLS, Herbert George; WHARTON, Edith; WHISTLER, James Abbot McNeill; WHITE, Patrick Victor Martindale; WHITEHEAD, Alfred North; WHITMAN, Walt; WIENER, Norbert; WILDE, Oscar Fingal O’Flahertie Wills; WILLIAMS, Bernard; WILLIAMS, Raymond; WILLIAMS, Tennessee (Thomas Lanier); WILLIAMS, William Carlos; WILSON, Edmund; WINNICOTT, Donald Woods; WISTER, Owen; WITTGENSTEIN, Ludwig Josef Johann; WODEHOUSE, Sir Pelham Grenville; WOLF, Hugo; WOLFE, Tom; WOOLF, Adeline Virginia; WOOLF, Leonard; WRIGHT, Frank Lloyd; WRIGHT, Richard Nathaniel; WUNDT, Wilhelm; WYETH, Andrew; YEANG, Ken; YEATS, Jack B. (John Butler); YEATS, William Butler; YEVTUSHENKO, Yevgeny; YOSHIHARA, Jiro; ZAMYATIN, Yevgeniy Ivanovich; ZAWAHIRI, Ayman (Abu Muhammad / Muhammad Ibrahim); ZOLA, Émile; ZWEIG, Stefan

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
HIS000000
HISTORY / General
REF010000
REFERENCE / Encyclopedias
SOC022000
SOCIAL SCIENCE / Popular Culture