1st Edition

Next-Generation Batteries and Fuel Cells for Commercial, Military, and Space Applications

By A.R. Jha Copyright 2012
    416 Pages 70 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Distilling complex theoretical physical concepts into an understandable technical framework, Next-Generation Batteries and Fuel Cells for Commercial, Military, and Space Applications describes primary and secondary (rechargeable) batteries for various commercial, military, spacecraft, and satellite applications for covert communications, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions. It emphasizes the cost, reliability, longevity, and safety of the next generation of high-capacity batteries for applications where high energy density, minimum weight and size, and reliability in harsh conditions are the principal performance requirements.

    Presenting cutting-edge battery design techniques backed by mathematical expressions and derivations wherever possible, the book supplies an authoritative account of emerging application requirements for small, lightweight, high-reliability rechargeable batteries—particularly for portable and implantable medical devices and diagnostic capsules. It devotes a chapter to fuel cells and describes the three distinct types of practical fuel cells, including those that use aqueous electrolytes, molten electrolytes, and solid electrolytes.

    • Identifies critical performance parameters and limits of rechargeable batteries, including state of charge, depth of discharge, cycle life, discharge rate, and open-circuit voltage
    • Provides a foundation in the basic laws of electrochemical kinetics
    • Highlights performance capabilities of long-life, low-cost, rechargeable batteries, for particular applications in battlefield systems and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs )

    A.R. Jha, author of 10 books on alternative energy and other topics, outlines rechargeable battery requirements for electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). He identifies the unique materials for electrolytes, cathodes, and anodes that are most cost-effective with significant improvements in weight, size, efficiency, reliability, safety, and longevity. Since electrode kinetics play a key role in the efficient operation of fuel cells, the book also provides you with a foundation in the basic laws of electrochemical kinetics.

    Current Status of Rechargeable Batteries and Fuel Cells
    Rechargeable Batteries
    Fundamental Aspects of a Rechargeable Battery
         Critical Performance Characteristics of Rechargeable Batteries 
         Capabilities of Widely Used Rechargeable Batteries in Commercial Applications 
         Recycling of Batteries 
              Toxicity of Materials Used in the Manufacture of Rechargeable Batteries 
              Safe Toxicity Limits for Workers
         Three Main Characteristics of a Rechargeable Battery 
         Cost-Effective Justification for the Deployment of a Specific Rechargeable Battery for a Specified Application 
              Techniques to Improve Battery Performance in Terms of Weight and Cost 
              Why Use Pb-Acid Batteries for Automobiles? 
              Description of Flow Batteries
    Rechargeable Batteries Irrespective of Power Capability 
         Rechargeable Batteries for Low- and Moderate-Power Applications
    Rechargeable Batteries for Commercial and Military Applications 
         High-Power Batteries for Commercial Applications 
         Critical Role of Ni-Cd in Rechargeable Batteries for Military Aircraft 
         Benefits of Ni-MH Rechargeable Batteries for Military Aircraft
              Impact of Temperature on Discharge Capacity of Ni-MH Batteries 
              Charging Procedure for a Ni-MH Battery 
              Degradation Factors in Ni-MH Battery Performance 
         Thermal Batteries for Aerospace and Defense Applications 
              Batteries for Space Applications 
         Rechargeable Batteries for Commercial Applications 
               Ni-Zn Batteries for Commercial Applications
         Rechargeable Battery Requirements for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles 
              Test Requirements for Rechargeable Batteries Needed for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles 
              Predicting the Battery Life of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles 
              Performance Capabilities of Batteries Currently Used for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles
    Batteries for Low-Power Applications 
         Batteries Using Th in-Film and Nanotechnologies 
         TF Microbatteries 
         Charge-Discharge Cycles and Charging Time of Low-Power Batteries 
         Structural Configuration for Low-Power Batteries 
         Most Popular Materials Used for Low-Power Batteries 
              Low-Power Standard Cells 
              Miniature Primary Batteries 
         Low-Power Batteries Using Nanotechnology 
         Paper Batteries Using Nanotechnology 
    Fuel Cells
         Description of the Most Popular Fuel Cell Types and Their Configurations 
         Types of Fuel Cells

    Batteries for Aerospace and Communications Satellites
    Onboard Electrical Power System 
         Electrical Power-Bus Design Configuration
         Solar-Array Panels 
              Solar Panel Performance Requirements to Charge the Space-Based Batteries 
    Battery Power Requirements and Associated Critical Components 
         Solar-Array Performance Requirements
         Electrical Power Requirements from the Solar Arrays during Dark Periods 
         Solar Panel Orientation Requirements to Achieve Optimum Power from the Sun
         Solar-Array Configurations Best Suited for Spacecraft or Communications Satellite 
         Direct Energy Transfer System
    Cost-Effective Design Criterion for Battery-Type Power Systems for Spacecraft 
         Method of Comparison for Optimum Selection of Power System for a Spacecraft 
              Step-byStep Approach for Power System Performance
              Modeling Requirements to Determine I-V Characteristics 
              Impact on Battery Electrical Parameters from Onboard Charging and Discharging
    Spacecraft Power System Reliability 
         Failure Rates for Various System Components
         Failure Rate Estimation 
         Reliability Improvement of the Spacecraft Power System Using CC and PWM Regulator Techniques 
         Reliability Improvement of the Spacecraft Power System Using DET System, CC, and Battery Booster Techniques 
         Weight and Cost Penalties Associated with Redundant Systems 
              Total System Weight and Cost as a Function of Mission Length 
              Reliability Degradation with the Increase in Mission Duration 
              Increase in Weight and Cost due to Redundant Systems
    Ideal Batteries for Aerospace and Communications Satellites 
         Typical Power Requirements for Space-Based Batteries 
         Aging Eff ect Critical in Space-Based Batteries 
    Performance Capabilities and Battery Power Requirements for the Latest Commercial and Military Satellite Systems
         Commercial Communication Satellite Systems 
              Performance Capabilities of the Commercial Communications Satellite Systems
    Military Satellites for Communications, Surveillance, Reconnaissance, and Target Tracking 
         Military Communications Satellites and Their Capabilities 
              DSCS-III Communication Satellite System 
              Power Generation, Conditioning, and Storage Requirements 
         MILSATCOM System 
         European Communications Satellite System
    Batteries Best Suited to Power Satellite Communications Satellites 
         Rechargeable Batteries Most Ideal for Communications Satellites 
              Performance Capabilities of Ni-Cd Rechargeable Batteries for Space Applications 
              Performance Parameters of Ni-H2 Batteries 
              Performance Capabilities of Ag-Zn Batteries 
              Space Applications of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Fuel Cell Technology 
         Classifications of Fuel Cells 
              Aqueous Fuel Cell Using Specific Electrolyte 
              Fuel Cells Using Semisolid Electrolyte 
              Fuel Cells Using Molten Electrolyte 
         Classifications of Fuel Cells Based on Electrolytes
    Performance Capabilities of Fuel Cells Based on Electrolytes 
         High-Temperature Fuel Cells with Semisolid Molten Electrolyte
    Low-Temperature Fuel Cells Using Various Electrolytes 
         Performance of Low-Temperature and Low-Pressure Fuel Cells Using Aqueous Electrolyte 
         Output Power Capability of Aqueous Fuel Cells
    Fuel Cells Using a Combination of Fuels 
         Performance of Liquid-Liquid Fuel Cell Design
    Fuel Cell Designs for Multiple Applications 
         Fuel Cells for Electric Storage Battery Applications
         DSK-Based Fuel Cells Using Hydrogen-Based DSK Electrodes and Operating under Harsh Conditions 
              Performance of DSK-Based Fuel Cells with Monolayer DSK Electrodes
    Ion-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells 
         Performance Specifications for IEM Fuel Cells and Batteries for Space Applications 
         Fuel Cells Using Low-Cost, Porous Silicon Substrate Materials 
              Hydrogen-Oxygen Power Fuel Cell Using Porous Silicon Structure 
              Fuel Cell Reactions and Thermodynamic Efficiencies 
              DMFC Devices Using a PEM Structure 
              Silicon-Based DMFC Fuel Cells
    Potential Applications of Fuel Cells 
         Fuel Cells for Military and Space Applications 
              Fuel Cells for Battlefi eld Applications 
              Deployment of Fuel Cells in UAVs Acting as Electronic Drones Capable of Providing Surveillance, Reconnaissance, Intelligence Gathering, and Missile Attack Capabilities 
              Why Fuel Cells for Counterinsurgency Applications? 
    Fuel Cells for Aircraft Applications 
         Performance Capabilities and Limitations of All-Electric Aircraft or Vehicles 
         Fuel Cells for Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles 
    Fuel Cells for Commercial, Military, and Space Applications 
         Fuel Cells for Automobiles, Buses, and Scooters 
              Low-Cost, High-Efficiency, Low-Temperature H2-O2 Fuel Cells 
              Design Aspects and Performance Parameters of a Low-Cost, Moderate-Temperature Fuel Cell 
              Design Requirements for Cost-Effective Fuel Cells 
         Ideal Fuel Cells for the Average Homeowner 
              Design Requirements for Fuel Cells for Homeowners
              Compact Fuel Cells for Cars, Scooters, and Motor Bikes 
              Fuel Cells for Portable Electric Power Systems 
         Fuel Cells Capable of Operating in Ultra-High-Temperature Environments 
              Types of Materials Used in Ultra-High-Temperature Fuel Cells 
              Solid Electrolyte Most Ideal for Fuel Cells Operating at Higher Temperatures (600–1,000°C) 
                   Molten Electrolytes Offer Improved Efficiencies in High-Temperature Operations 
                   Performance Capability of Porous Electrodes 
         Electrode Kinetics and Their Impact on High-Power Fuel Cell Performance 
         Polarization for Chemisorption-Desorption Rates
    Fuel Cell Requirements for Electric Power Plant Applications 
         Performance Requirements of Fuel Cells for Power Plants

    Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles 
    Chronological Development History of Early Electric Vehicles and Their Performance Parameters 
         Electric-Based Transportation Means 
    Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles Developed Earlier by Various Companies and Their Performance Specifications 
         ZAP ALIAS
         Aptera Motors 
         Tesla Motors 
         Baker Motors
    Development History of the Latest Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Types and Their Performance Capabilities and Limitations 
         GM Chevy Volt 
              Ford Focus 
              Ford Escape 
              Ford C-Max and Ford C-Max Energi 
    Performance Requirements of Various Rechargeable Batteries 
         Battery Pack Energy Requirements
         Battery Materials and Associated Costs 
              Materials for Rechargeable Batteries Deployed in EVs and EHVs 
              Impact of Road and Driving Conditions on Battery Charging Times and Costs 
    Materials for Rechargeable Batteries 
         Materials Requirements for Three Functional Components of the Li-Ion Battery 
         Major Performance Characteristic of Li-Ion Batteries 
         Characteristic of Nickel-Metal-Hydride Rechargeable Batteries 
         Zinc-Air Rechargeable Fuel Cells for EVs and HEVs
         Energy Density Levels for Various Rechargeable Batteries 
              Li-Ion Battery Pack Configuration 
              Some Unique Problems Associated with Li-Ion Battery Packs 
         Design Concept Incorporating the Smart Grid Technology 
              Charging-Load Impact on the Utility Gridlines 
              Typical Charging Rates for Rechargeable Battery Packs and Electrical Load 
         Materials and Their Properties Best Suited for Rechargeable Batteries 
              Major Material Costs for a 100 Ah High-Energy Rechargeable Battery Pack 
              Estimated Costs for Battery Packs Widely Used in All-Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles 
         Impact of Component Costs on the Procurement Cost of Battery Packs 
              Estimated Current and Future Component Costs 
              Material Cost Estimates
    Critical Role of Rare Earth Materials in the Development of EVs and HEVs 
          Identification of Various Rare Earth Materials Used in EVs and HEVs
         Impact of Future Rare Earth Materials on the Performance of EVs and HEVs 
         Costs Associated with Refining, Processing, and Quality Control Inspection of Rare Earth Materials

    Low-Power Rechargeable Batteries for Commercial, Space, and Medical Applications
    Low-Power Battery Configurations 
         Low-Power Batteries Using Cylindrical Configuration 
         Carbon-Zinc Primary Low-Power Batteries and Their Characteristics 
         Performance Capabilities and Limitations of Alkaline Manganese Batteries 
         History of Primary Lithium-Based Batteries and Their Performance Parameters 
         Nickel-Metal-Hydride, Nickel-Cadmium, and Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Batteries 
              Peculiarities in Rechargeable Batteries 
              Design Considerations for Small Low-Power Rechargeable Batteries 
              Frequent Mathematical Expressions Used in the Design of Batteries 
              Contributing Factors to Battery Weight 
         Batteries for Miniaturized Electronic System Applications 
              Brief Description of Rechargeable Batteries Best Suited for Embedded-System Applications 
              Characteristics of an Alkaline Battery for a Simple Embedded-System Application 
              Performance Characteristics of a Battery Best Suited for the Least Complex Embedded-System Application 
              Characteristics of a Battery Best Suited for the Most Complex Embedded-System Application 
         Battery Suitability and Unique Performance Requirements for Aerospace Applications 
              Potential Applications of Lithium, Alkaline, and Zinc-Air Batteries
    Batteries for Medical Applications
         Recently Developed Batteries for Specific Medical Applications 
              Performance Characteristics of Li-I2 Batteries 
         Microbattery and Smart Nanobattery Technologies Incorporating Lithium Metal for Medical and Military Applications 
              Smart Lithium-Ion Batteries 
         Low-Power Zinc-Air, Nickel-Metal-Hydride, and Nickel-Cadmium Rechargeable Batteries 
              Zinc-Air Rechargeable Batteries 
              Nickel-Cadmium Rechargeable Batteries 
              Nickel-Metal-Hydride Rechargeable Batteries
    Selection Criteria for Primary and Secondary (Rechargeable) Batteries for Specific Applications 
         How to Select a Battery for a Particular Application

    Rechargeable Batteries for Military Applications
    Potential Battery Types for Various Military System Applications 
         Aluminum-Air Rechargeable Batteries for Military Applications 
              Description of Key Elements of These Batteries 
              Performance Capabilities, Limitations, and Uses of Saline Batteries 
              Performance Capabilities and Uses of Alkaline Batteries 
              Bipolar Silver-Metal-Hydride Batteries for Military Applications 
              Rechargeable Silver-Zinc Batteries for Military Applications
    Low-Power Batteries for Various Applications 
         Thin-Film Microbatteries Using MEMS Technology 
         Microbatteries Using Nanotechnology Concepts 
         Critical Design Aspects and Performance Requirements for Thin-Film Microbatteries
    High-Power Lithium and Thermal Batteries for Military Applications 
         Materials Requirements for Cathode, Anode, and Electrolyte Best Suited for High-Power Batteries
              Cathode Materials and Their Chemistries 
              Anode Materials and Their Chemistries 
              Electrolytes and Their Chemistries 
         Design Requirements for Thermal Batteries for Specific Applications 
              Design Requirements for TB1 Battery Systems 
              Design Requirements for TB2 Battery Systems 
         Environmental Requirements for Thermal Battery Systems 
         Structural Description of the Batteries and Their Physical Parameters 
         Actual Values of Performance Parameters Obtained through Laboratory Testing 
         Conclusive Remarks on Th ermal Battery Systems
    High-Power Rechargeable Batteries for Underwater Vehicles 
         Performance Capability and Design Aspects of Li-SO2Cl2 Battery Systems 
         Characteristics of Electrolytes Required to Achieve Improvements in Electrochemistry 
         Effects of Thermal Characteristics on the Flowing Electrolyte 
         Output Power Variations as a Function of Discharge Duration in Volta Stack Batteries Using Flowing Electrolytes 
         Impact of Temperature and DOD on the Thermal Conductivity and the Specific Heat of the Electrolytes Used in Thermal Batteries 
         Impact of Discharge Duration on the Battery Power Output 
         Electrolyte Conductivity and Optimization of Electrolyte
    High-Power Battery Systems Capable of Providing Electrical Energy in Case of Commercial Power Plant Shutdown over a Long Duration 
         What Is a Vanadium-Based Redox Battery? 
         Potential Applications of Vanadium-Based Redox Batteries 
          Structural Details and Operating Principles of Vanadium-Based Redox Batteries
    Batteries Best Suited for Drones and Unmanned Air Vehicles 
         Battery Power Requirements for Electronic Drones 
         Battery Requirements for UAVs
         Batteries for Countering Improvised Explosive Devices 
              History of Property Damage and Bodily Injury to Soldiers 
              Anti-IED Techniques to Minimize Property Damage and Injury to Soldiers 
              Battery Performance Requirements for Dismounted Anti-IED Systems

    Batteries and Fuel Cells for Aerospace and Satellite System Applications Introduction 
         Sealed Lead-Acid Batteries for Commercial and Military Applications 
              Optimum Charge, Discharge, and Storage Conditions for Lead-Acid Batteries 
              Pros, Cons, and Major Applications of Lead-Acid Batteries 
              Life Cycle of SLABs for Aircraft Applications 
              Effect of Depth of Discharge on Life Cycle of the Lead-Acid Battery
    Aluminum-Air Batteries for Aerospace Applications 
         Performance Capabilities and Limitations of Al-Air Batteries 
         Impact of Corrosion on Al-Air Battery Performance as a Function of Anode Current Density 
         Outstanding Characteristics and Potential Applications of Al-Air Rechargeable Battery Systems
    Long-Life, Low-Cost, Rechargeable Silver-Zinc Batteries Best Suited for Aerospace and Aircraft Applications 
         Vented Secondary Batteries Best Suited for Aircraft and Aerospace Applications 
         Typical Self-Discharge Characteristics of an Ag-Zn Battery 
         Safety, Reliability, and Disposal Requirements for Ag-Zn Batteries 
         Typical Battery Voltage Level and Cycle Life
    SLABs for Commercial and Military Aircraft Applications 
         Performance Aspects of SLABs
              Performance of the EaglePicher Battery Ultralife UB1-2590 
              SLAB from EaglePicher for Commercial Applications 
         Test Procedures and Conditions for SLABs 
         Impact of Charge Rate and Depth of Discharge on the Cycle Life of SLABs 
         Life-Cycle Test Conditions
    Thermal Battery for Aircraft Emergency Power and Low-Earth-Orbiting Spacecraft 
         Performance Capabilities of LiAl/FeS2 Thermal Batteries
    Rechargeable Batteries for Naval Weapon System Applications 
         Performance Characteristics of Li-SOCL2 Batteries
    Thermal Battery Design Confi gurations and Requirements for Launch Vehicle Applications 
         Design Aspects and Performance Capabilities of Advanced Thermal Batteries 
         Unique Performance Capabilities of Thermal Batteries
    High-Temperature Lithium Rechargeable Battery Cells 
         Unique Performance Parameters and Design Aspects of Solid Electrolyte Cells
    Solid Electrolyte Technology for Lithium-Based Rechargeable Batteries 
         Critical Role of Solid Electrolytes 
         Improvement in Performance Parameters of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries 
         Impact of Lithium Chloride Oxide Salt Concentration in the Solution of Liquid Plasticizer on Room-Temperature Ionic Conductivity
    Rechargeable Batteries for Electronic Drones and Various UAVs 
         Performance Requirements for Batteries Best Suited for Electronic Drone Applications 
         Rechargeable Battery Requirements for UAVs, Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles, and MAVs 
         Rechargeable Batteries for Glider Applications
    Rechargeable Batteries for Space-Based Military Systems and Satellite Communications 
         Rechargeable Battery Requirements for Military Space-Based Sensors Requiring Moderate Power Levels
    High-Power Fuel Cells for Satellites with Specific Missions
         Performance of the MSK Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell for Communications Satellite Applications
    Classification of Fuel Cells Based on the Electrolytes 
         Performance Parameters of Fuel Cells Using Various Fuels and Their Typical Applications 
         Comparing Fuel Cell Parameters
    Battery Sources for Spacecraft Applications 
         Application of the First Principle Model to Spacecraft Operations for Aging 
         Typical Performance Characteristics of the 40 Ah Sodium-Sulfur Battery Cell

    Low-Power Batteries and Their Applications
    Performance Capabilities of Lithium-Based Batteries for Low-Power Applications 
         Benefi ts of Solid Electrolytes in Lithium-Based Rechargeable Batteries 
         Total Conductivity of the Battery Material
    Batteries for Low-Power Electronic Devices 
         Impact of Materials and Packaging Technology on Battery Performance 
         Glossary of Terms Used to Specify Battery Performance Parameters 
         Fabrication Aspects of Batteries for Low-Power Electronic Device Applications 
         Performance Capabilities and Limitations of Various Primary and Secondary Batteries for Low-Power Applications 
              Carbon-Zinc Primary Batteries 
              Alkaline-Manganese Batteries
    Performance Capabilities of Primary Lithium Batteries 
         Lithium-Iodine Batteries 
         LiMnO2 Battery 
         Lithium-Carbon Fluoride Battery 
         Lithium-Sulfur-Dioxide Battery
         Lithium-Thionyl-Chloride Battery 
         Lithium-Ferrous Sulfide (Li-FeS2) Battery 
         Conclusions on Lithium-Based Batteries
    Applications of Small Rechargeable or Secondary Cells
         Sealed Lead-Acid Batteries
         Small Li-Ion Rechargeable Batteries 
         S-Ni-Cd Rechargeable Batteries 
         Nickel-Metal-Hydride Rechargeable Batteries 
         Lithium-Polymer-Electrolyte Cells
    Thin-Film Batteries, Microbatteries, and Nanobatteries 
         Structural Aspects and Performance Capabilities of Thin-Film Batteries 
         Thin-Film Metal-Oxide Electrodes for Lithium-Based Microbatteries 
         Performance Capabilities and Applications of Microbatteries 
         Electrical Performance Parameters of Nanobatteries 
              Applications of Nanomaterials, Carbon-Nanotubes, and Carbon-Nanotube Arrays in Development Batteries
    Batteries for Health-Related Applications 
         Battery Requirements for Cardiac Rhythm–Detection Applications 
         Various Batteries Used to Treat Cardiac Diseases 
              Li-Ion Batteries Best Suited Primarily for Medical Devices Used to Treat Cardiac Diseases and to Detect Unknown Ailments
              Li-I2 Batteries for Treating Cardiac Diseases 
              Li-AgVO2 Batteries for Treatment of Cardiac Diseases 
              Batteries for Critical Diagnostic Procedures
    Batteries for the Total Artificial Heart 
         Major Benefi ts of Li-Ion Batteries Used for Various Medical Applications 
         Limitations of Li-Ion Batteries 
         Cell-Balancing Requirements for Li-Ion Rechargeable Battery Packs 
         Active-Balancing Technique




    A. R. Jha received his BS in engineering (electrical) from Aligarh Muslim University in 1954, his MS (electrical and mechanical) from Johns Hopkins University, and his PhD from Lehigh University.

    Dr. Jha has authored 10 high-technology books and has published more than 75 technical papers. He has worked for companies such as General Electric, Raytheon, and Northrop Grumman and has extensive and comprehensive research, development, and design experience in the fi elds of radars, high-power lasers, electronic warfare systems, microwaves, and MM-wave antennas for various applications, nanotechnology-based sensors and devices, photonic devices, and other electronic components for commercial, military, and space applications. Dr. Jha holds a patent for MM-wave antennas in satellite communications.

    I strongly recommend this book to a broad audience, including students, project managers, aerospace engineers, life-science scientists, clinical scientists, and project engineers immersed in the design and development of compact, lightweight batteries best suited for industrial, commercial, military, and space applications.
    —Dr. A. K. Sinha, Senior Vice President, Applied Materials, Inc.