1st Edition

Nineteenth-Century Crime and Punishment

Edited By Victor Bailey
    1564 Pages
    by Routledge

    This four volume collection looks at the essential issues concerning crime and punishment in the long nineteenth-century. Through the presentation of primary source documents, it explores the development of a modern pattern of crime and a modern system of penal policy and practice, illustrating the shift from eighteenth century patterns of crime (including the clash between rural custom and law) and punishment (unsystematic, selective, public, and body-centred) to nineteenth century patterns of crime (urban, increasing, and a metaphor for social instability and moral decay, before a remarkable late-century crime decline) and punishment (reform-minded, soul-centred, penetrative, uniform and private in application).

    The first two volumes focus on crime itself and illustrate the role of the criminal courts, the rise and fall of crime, the causes of crime as understood by contemporary investigators, the police ways of ‘knowing the criminal,’ the role of ‘moral panics,’ and the definition of the ‘criminal classes’ and ‘habitual offenders’. The final two volumes explore means of punishment and look at the shift from public and bodily punishments to transportation, the rise of the penitentiary, the convict prison system, and the late-century decline in the prison population and loss of faith in the prison.

    Volume I: Crime and Criminals

    Part 1. Crime Numbers

    1. ‘First Report of the Commissioners appointed to Inquire as to the best means of establishing an efficient Constabulary Force’ [169], Parliamentary Papers, 1839, vol. XIX, pp. 8-10; 13-16.

    2. Archibald Alison, ‘Imprisonment and transportation: the increase of crime,’ Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, LV, May 1844, pp. 533-45.

    3. Anon., ‘The Statistics of Female Crime,’ Economist, 11 Sept. 1858, pp. 1010-11.

    4. Mayhew and Binny, The Criminal Prisons of London, 1862, pp. 457-59.

    5. W. D. Morrison, ‘The Increase of Crime,’ Nineteenth Century, XXXI, June 1892, pp. 950-957.

    6. E. F. Du Cane, ‘The Decrease of Crime,’ Nineteenth Century, XXXIII, March 1893, pp. 480-492.

    7. ‘Report from the Departmental Committee on Prisons,’ [c.-7702: Report], Parliamentary Papers, 1895, vol. LVI, pp. 7-8.

    Part 2. Types of Crime

    2.1: Juvenile Crime

    8. Stephen Lushington (judge), evidence to ‘Report from the Select Committee on the State of the Gaols and other places of confinement,’ [579], Parliamentary Papers, 1819, vol. VII, pp. 162-165.

    9. John Wade, Treatise on the Police and Crimes of the Metropolis (1829), pp. 158-63.

    10. Evidence of Thieves collected by W. A. Miles: The National Archives (hereafter TNA), HO 73/16. Papers for 1839 Report of Constabulary Force: Interviews of juvenile offenders.

    11. Two female cases, aged 17 and 18, from August 1837, TNA, HO 73/2, pt. 2, Aug. 1837.

    2.2: Female Crime

    12. Old Bailey Sessions Papers: Mary Young, aged 22, et al; 29 May 1828.

    13. Old Bailey Sessions Papers: two cases of female thieves, sentenced to transportation, 1840 and 1842, aged 14-15 and 18-19.

    14. Old Bailey Sessions Papers: Martha Barrett; 9 April 1829, Infanticide case.

    15. Edwin Lankester (Coroner), ‘Infanticide,’ Transactions of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, 1866, pp. 216-24.

    16. The Times, 15 Aug. 1866, p. 7, ‘Dr. Lancaster on Child Murder’.

    17. Henry Mayhew, London Labour and the London Poor, 1862, vol. 1, pp. 412-414.

    18. Rev. G. P. Merrick (Chaplain, Millbank Prison), Work Among the Fallen As Seen in the Prison Cell, July, 1890.

    2.3: Social Crime

    19. George Bishop, Observations, Remarks, and Means, to Prevent Smuggling (1783).

    20. Old Bailey Sessions Papers: Smuggling (case of John Bishop), 1788; Executed.

    21. W.A. Miles on Cheshire wrecking; letter to Commissioners of the Constabulary Force, c. 1837, in H. Brandon (ed.), Poverty, Mendicity and Crime (1839), pp. 74-79.

    2.4: Ethnic Crime

    22. ‘First Report of the Commissioners appointed to Inquire as to the best means of establishing an efficient Constabulary Force’ [169], Parliamentary Papers, 1839, vol. XIX, pp. 167-169.

    23. Board of Trade (Alien Immigration), ‘Reports on the Volume and Effects of Recent Immigration from Eastern Europe Into the U.K.,’ 1894 [C.-7406], pp. 60-62; Memorandum by Labour Department, Part 1.- General Character and Effects of the Influx; (vi), Condition as regards Crime.

    Part 3. Causes of Crime

    24. An Address to the Grand Jury of the County of Middlesex, at the General Session of the Peace holden at the County Session-House, on Monday the 12th of September, 1785 by William Mainwaring, Chairman of the Sessions: London, 1785.

    25. P. Colquhoun, A Treatise on the Police of the Metropolis, 5th ed. (London, 1797), pp. 32-41.

    26. Observations on a Late Publication: Intituled A Treatise on the Police of the Metropolis, By P. Colquhoun, By a Citizen of London: But No Magistrate (London, 1800).

    27. W. A. Miles, A Letter to Lord John Russell concerning Juvenile Delinquency (Shrewsbury, 1837).

    28. Archibald Alison, ‘Causes of the Increase of Crime,’ Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, LVI, July 1844, pp.1-14.

    29. ‘First Report of the Commissioners appointed to Inquire as to the best means of establishing an efficient Constabulary Force’ [169], Parliamentary Papers, 1839, vol. XIX, pp. 73-74.

    30. Rev. John Clay, ‘On the Effect of Good or Bad Times on Committals to Prison,’ Journal of the Statistical Society of London, vol. 18, March 1855, pp. 74-79.

    31. Richard Hussey Walsh, ‘A Deduction from the Statistics of Crime for the last Ten Years,’ Journal of the Statistical Society of London, vol. 20, March 1857, pp. 77-78.

    32. W. D. Morrison, ‘The Study of Crime,’ Mind, vol. 1, Oct. 1892, pp. 503-515.

    Part 4. Dangerous & Criminal Classes

    33. Archibald Alison, ‘Causes of the Increase of Crime,’ Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, LVI, July 1844, p. 2, 12.

    34. Jelinger Symons, Tactics for the Times: As Regards the Condition and Treatment of the Dangerous Classes (1849), pp. 1, 55.

    35. Thomas Plint, Crime in England, Its Relation, Character, and Extent, (1851), pp. 144-154.

    36. Henry Mayhew, evidence to the ‘Select Committee on Transportation,’ [17], Parliamentary Papers, 1856, vol. XVII [17], qq. 3488-89; 3531-3538.

    37. Henry Mayhew, ‘Statement of a Returned Convict,’ London Labour and the London Poor, vol. 3 (1861), pp. 386-388.

    38. Charles Booth, Life and Labour of the People in London (1902), 3rd series, Religious Influences, vol. 2, London North of Thames; The Inner Ring, pp. 111-112; 115.

    39. Charles Booth, Life and Labour of the People in London (1902), 1st. series, Poverty, vol. 1, East Central & South London, pp. 37-39; 174-75.

    40. Charles Booth, Life and Labour of the People in London (1902), 1st. series, Poverty, vol. 1, East Central & South London, pp. 7-13.

    41. Henrietta O. Barnett, ‘East London and Crime’, The National Review, XII, Dec. 1888, pp. 433-443.

    Part 5. The Born Criminal

    42. Lieut.-Col. E. F. Du Cane, ‘Address on Repression of Crime’, Transactions of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, 1875, pp. 300-308.

    43. J. B. Thomson, ‘The Hereditary Nature of Crime,’ Journal of Mental Science, XV, 1870, pp. 487-498.

    44. Havelock Ellis, The Criminal (1st ed. 1890; 4th ed. 1913), pp. xxii-xxvi; 17; 261-69; 342-44; 346-48; 366-67.

    45. H. B. Simpson, ‘Crime and Punishment,’ Contemporary Review, LXX, July-Dec., 1896, pp. 91-100.

    46. Sir Evelyn Ruggles-Brise, ‘A Criminological Inquiry in English Prisons,’ in The English Prison System (1921), pp. 198-215.


    Volume II: Justice, Mercy and Death


    Part 1. Magistrates and the Sessions’ Courts

    1. Charles Cottu, On the Administration of Criminal Justice in England (1822), pp. 24-27; 29-30; 33-35; 37-39.

    2. Reginald W. Jeffery, Dyott’s Diary 1781-1845 (1907), vol. 1: 326-7; 332-33; 351; 354-55; 359. Vol. 2: 18-21; 70-71; 95-96; 98-102; 119-20; 172-3; 275-6; 289-91; 298-99.

    3. William Hone, The Clerical Magistrate, 1819, a coda to The Political House that Jack Built.

    4: John Paget, ‘The London Police Courts’, Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, vol. CXVIII, Oct. 1875, pp. 379-389.


    Part 2. Judges and the Assize Courts

    5. Charles Cottu, On the Administration of Criminal Justice in England (1822), pp. 42-44; 66-69; 87-95; 99; 102-103; 105-7.

    6. Old Bailey Sessions Papers, 8 May 1799; murder of Bow Street patrol man.


    Part 3. Prerogative of Mercy

    7: Edmund Burke, ‘Some Thoughts on the Approaching Executions’, Works, vol. V (Boston, 1839), pp. 197-203.

    8. Mr. Baron Perryn, mercy, death penalty, 1787: TNA, HO47/6: Judges’ Reports.

    9. Sir William Ashurst, mercy, death penalty, 1787: TNA, HO47/6: Judges’ Reports.

    10. Sir James Eyre, mercy, death penalty, 1787: TNA, HO47/6: Judges’ Reports.

    11. Letters written by Circuit Judges, 1819. Death penalty, mercy: TNA, HO6/4.

    12. Letters written by Circuit Judges, 1819. Imprisonment mercy cases: TNA, HO 6/4.

    13. Baron Hotham to Lord Auckland, 1800, in J. & Barbara Hammond, The Town Labourer, 1st pub. 1917.

    14. Mary Thrale (ed.), The Autobiography of Francis Place (1771-1854), (Cambridge University Press, 1972), pp. 132-135.

    15. Old Bailey Sessions Papers, May 1799, case of Matthew Stinson.

    16. The Journal of Mrs Arbuthnot (Duke of Wellington’s testimony); and The Greville Diary (Charles Greville): Recorder’s Reports; prerogative of mercy, 1826 and 1829.

    17. Edward Law, Lord Ellenborough, A Political Diary 1828-1830, vol. 1, pp. 154-55; 267-68.

    18. Memorandum as to the exercise of the Royal Prerogative of Pardon, 8 May 1874; TNA, HO 45/9362/33391.

    19. A.G. Gardiner, The Life of Sir William Harcourt (1923), vol. 1, pp. 399-400.

    20. Shane Leslie (compiler), Sir Evelyn Ruggles-Brise (1938): the Lipski case, 1887, pp. 61-63.


    Part 4. The Doctrine of Maximum Severity

    21. Martin Madan, Appendix to "Thoughts on Executive Justice" occasioned by a Charge to the Grand Jury for the County of Surrey, at the Lent Assizes, 1785, by the Hon. Sir Richard Perryn.

    22. William Paley, ‘Of Crimes and Punishments’, in The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy (1785), pp. 373-393.

    23. Sir Samuel Romilly, Observations on the Criminal Law of England as it Relates to Capital Punishments, And On The Mode In Which It Is Administered (London: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1810): substance of a speech delivered in the House of Commons on 9 Feb. 1810, Hansard, vol. 15.


    Part 5. Public Punishments

    24. The Times, 17 November 1786, p. 3: whipping in London; death of offender.

    25. ‘Pillory’, Morning Herald, 28 Sept. 1810.

    26. The Journal of Samuel Curwen Loyalist, ed by Andrew Oliver (1972), pp. 774-75. July 1781

    27. Rev. J. Leifchild, Remarkable Facts (London, 1867), pp. 219-223.

    28. Nottingham execution, 1844, TNA, HO45/OS 681.

    29. Charles Dickens, letter, The Times, 19 Nov. 1849.

    30. The Times, Nov. 20, 1849, p. 4: defence of public executions.

    31. John Ashton, ‘Life of the Mannings’, Modern Street Ballads (1888), pp. 368-370.

    32. Henry Mayhew, ‘On Capital Punishments’, in Society for Promoting the Amendment of the Law, Three Papers on Capital Punishment. By Edward Webster, A. H. Dymond, Henry Mayhew. Read at the General Meeting of the Society, Jul 7, 1856 (London: Cox (Bros) & Wyman, 1856), pp. 33-36, 44-45, 46-61.

    Part 6. Pruning the Fatal Tree

    33. Hansard (Lords), 27 Feb. 1812, cols. 966-72, ‘Frame Work Bill’

    34. Lord Byron, ‘An Ode to the Framers of the Frame Bill’, Morning Chronicle, 2 March 1812.

    35. Speech of Thomas Fowell Buxton, ‘motion for the appointment of a select committee to consider of so much of the Criminal Law as relates to Capital Punishment in Felonies’, Hansard (Commons), 2 March 1819, cols. 806-824.

    36. James Mackintosh & Secretary Peel, Hansard, vol. 9, May 21, 1823, cols. 408-411; 421-424.

    37. Memoirs of Joseph John Gurney, ed. J.B. Braithwaite, vol. 1 (1862), pp. 120-22 (1816); 395-96 (1829); 412-415 (1830).


    Part 7. Resisting Abolition

    38. James Fitzjames Stephen, ‘Capital Punishments’, Fraser’s Magazine, vol. LXIX, June 1864, pp. 753-764.


    Part 8. Sentencing

    39. Old Bailey Sessions Papers: Joseph Howell (aged 14), William Harwood (aged 14), Oct. 1820.

    40. Calendar of Prisoners, Liverpool October Sessions, 22 Oct. 1849.

    41. ‘The disproportion between the punishments adjudged to crimes of equal magnitude’, The Times, 24 Aug. 1846, p. 4.

    42. ‘Lord Penzance on sentencing inequality’, Hansard, Lords, 4 April 1870, cols.1148, 1152-54.

    43. Mr. Sergeant Cox, ‘How far should previous convictions be taken into account in sentencing Criminals?’, Transactions of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, 1874, pp. 281-287, 297-299, 301-303.

    44. Du Cane, Chairman of the Prison Commission, to Permanent Under-Secretary of State, Home Office, 4 Feb. 1884; Sir William Harcourt to Lord Chancellor. 10 Dec. 1884; Du Cane memo 16 March 1885: TNA, HO45/18479/565861.

    45. James Fitzjames Stephen, ‘Variations in the Punishment of Crime’, Nineteenth Century, vol. XVII, May 1885, pp. 755-776.

    46. C. H. Hopwood, ‘Crime and Punishment’, The New Review, vol. VIII, May 1893, pp. 620-626.

    47. The Judges’ Memorandum of 1901 on Normal Punishments, in R.M. Jackson, Enforcing the Law (1972), pp. 391-399.


    Volume III: Next Only to Death: Secondary Punishments


    Part 1. The Crisis of Punishment and the Penitentiary Act 1779

    1: Rev. Samuel Denne, A Letter to Sir Robert Ladbroke . . . An Attempt to shew the good effects which may reasonably be expected from the Confinement of Criminals in Separate Apartments. (London, 1771).

    2: Jonas Hanway, The Defects of Police. The Cause of Immorality (1775).

    3. William Eden on crisis of American transportation, 16 Jan. 1776, British Library, Add MSS, Auckland Papers.

    4. William Eden & Edmund Burke, exchange of letters, 1776. Correspondence of Edmund Burke, vol. III, 1774-1778 (1961), pp. 251-53; Correspondence of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, vol. II (1844), pp. 94-95.

    5. William Eden, Observations on the Bill to punish by Imprisonment and Hard Labour certain Offenders; and to provide Places for their Reception, 1778, House of Commons Sessional Papers of the Eighteenth Century, ed. Sheila Lambert, vol. 28 (1975), pp. 331-41.

    6. Jeremy Bentham, A View of the Hard-Labour Bill (London, 1778).

    7. ‘Letters to the Rev. John Roget, June 9 & 13, 1780’, Memoirs of The Life of Sir Samuel Romilly, written by himself; with a selection from His Correspondence, Edited by his sons, Vol. 1, second edition; London, 1840, pp. 122-132.

    8. The Life of Dr. Samuel Johnson, carefully abridged from Mr. Boswell’s Large Work (London, 1792), pp. 125-128.

    9. ‘State of Buckingham Prison’, 14 March 1787, Judges’ Reports, Part 2: TNA, HO 47/6.

    10. ‘Transportation or Death’, Old Bailey Sessions Papers, 1787-89.


    Part 2. The Hulks

    11. ‘Report from the Select Committee on Secondary Punishments’, Parliamentary Papers (276), 1831-32, vol. VII, pp. 12-16.

    12. Poverty, Mendicity and Crime . . . by W.A. Miles, ed. H. Brandon (1839), pp. 33-37.

    13. Petition letter from wife of convict in Hulks in Bermuda, Dec. 20, 1860: British Library, Add MSS, Carnarvon Papers.


    Part 3. Transportation: Personal Experiences

    14. Van Diemen’s Land’, in John Ashton, Modern Street Ballads (1888), pp. 361-363.

    15. Old Bailey Proceedings Online: cases of returning from transportation, or escaping from the hulks, felony punishable by death, 1787-89, 1809-1810.

    16. Petitioner wants to be transported; is at present on board Hulk Justitia, 1826: TNA, Privy Council, PC1/74.

    17. Petitioner wants to join convict husband in New South Wales, 1829: TNA, Privy Council, PC1/77.

    18. Anonymous threatening letter to chairman of Wakefield Quarter Sessions, from prisoner sentenced to transportation, presently on hulk, not expecting to be transported, 1829: TNA, Privy Council, PC1/77.


    Part 4. Transportation: the Critique

    19. ‘Sydney Smith and Sir Robert Peel on Secondary Punishment’, Sir Robert Peel from His Private Correspondence, C.S. Parker (ed.), vol. 1 (1891), pp. 400-402.

    20. Charles Grey, ‘Secondary Punishments—Transportation’, Edinburgh Review, vol. LVIII, Jan. 1834, pp. 340-359.

    21. ‘Report from the Select Committee on Transportation’, Parliamentary Papers, 1838, vol. XXII, pp. 18-21.

    22. Lord John Russell, memo on transportation and secondary punishment, Jan. 1839: TNA, CO 201/290.

    23. ‘Sir George Grey on a Reformed System of Transportation’, Sir George Grey note to 3rd Earl Grey, 20 Jan., 1847: TNA, CO 280/217.


    Part 5. Panopticon

    24. Patrick Colquhoun, A Treatise on the Police of the Metropolis, 6th edition (1800), pp. 481-497.

    25. John Howard, An Account of the Principal Lazarettos in Europe (1789), pp. 169, 220-222, 226.

    26. ‘Penitentiary, Millbank, Death of Another Convict’, The Times, 19 July1823, p. 3.

    27. Arthur Griffiths, Memorials of Millbank, vol. 1 (1875), pp. 92-103, 135-146.

    28. ‘Mayhew and Binney on Milbank’, Henry Mayhew and John Binny, The Criminal Prisons of London (1862), pp. 235-236.


    Part 6. Debate on Prison Reform

    29. George Holford, ‘Thoughts on the Criminal Prisons of this Country, occasioned by the Bill now in the House of Commons, for consolidating and amending the Laws relating to Prisons’, Pamphleteer, vol. XVIII, 1821 (2nd edition), pp. 169-185.

    30. Sydney Smith, ‘Prisons’, Edinburgh Review, vol. XXXVI, Feb. 1822, pp. 354-355, 358-360, 374.

    31. Sydney Smith to Peel, 27 Mar. 1826, in Sir Robert Peel from his Private Correspondence, ed. C. S. Parker, vol. 1 (1891), pp. 402-403.

    32. Description of the Tread Mill, for the Employment of Prisoners (1823), pp. 3-8, 27-29, 31-32, Appendix.

    33. Elizabeth Fry on Religious Instruction in Prisons, ‘First Report from the Select Committee of the House of Lords appointed to inquire into the present state of the several Gaols and Houses of Correction in England and Wales’, (438), Parliamentary Papers, 1835, vol. XI, Evidence, pp. 328-329, 338-339.

    34. Reginald W. Jeffery, Dyott’s Diary 1781-1845, vol. 2, (1907), pp. 14-15, 26-27, 39-40.

    35. W. A. Miles, ‘Select Committee on Gaols’, Secret Report, 1835, NA, HO 73/16.

    36. ‘Second Report from the S.C of the House of Lords . . . into the Execution of the Criminal Law, especially re. Juvenile Offenders & Transportation’, (534), Parliamentary Papers, 1847, vol. VII, Appendix to Mins of Evidence, pp. 788-94. M.D. Hill submitted Draft Report on the Principles of Punishment, presented to the Committee on Criminal Law appointed by the Law Amendment Society in Dec. 1846.

    37. A. Maconochie to Sir Denis Le Marchant (Under Secretary of State, Home Department) on the Mark System, 5 August 1847: TNA, HO 45/1840.

    38. ‘Report from the Select Committee on Prison Discipline’, A. Maconochie’s Evidence, (632), Parliamentary Papers 1850, vol. XVII, pp. 447-463.


    Part 7. Silent and Separate Systems of Prison Discipline

    39. ‘Report of William Crawford, on the Penitentiaries of the United States’, (593), Parliamentary Papers, 1834, vol. XLVI, pp. 10-16; 27-40.

    40. Charles Dickens, on Eastern Penitentiary, Philadelphia, American Notes, 1st pub. 1842.


    Part 8. Pentonville and the Age of the Separate System

    41. Elizabeth Fry to Jebb on Pentonville prison, 22 July 1841, Memoir of the Life of Elizabeth Fry, edited by two of her daughters (1847), vol. 2, pp. 395-396.

    42. Dr. Forbes Winslow, ‘Prison Discipline’, Medical Society of London, Lancet, vol. 1, 29 Mar. 1851, pp. 358-359.

    43. Robert Ferguson, ‘The Two Systems at Pentonville’, London Quarterly Review, vol. XCII, April 1853, pp. 258-269.

    44. Thomas Carlyle, ‘Model Prisons’, 1st March 1850, in Latter-Day Pamphlets, vol XX of Centenary Edition, The Works of Thomas Carlyle in Thirty Volumes, (1898), pp. 52-56; 58-60; 62-63; 65; 69-70; 73; 76-77.

    Volume 4. Prison and Prisoners

    Part 1. Mid-Century Penal Crisis

    1. W. R. Greg, ‘The Management and Disposal of our Criminal Population’, Edinburgh Review, vol. C, Oct. 1854, pp. 567-573, 576-577, 579-582, 594-603, 605-607, 610-612, 627-630.

    2. ‘Meeting of Ticket-of-Leave Men’, Morning Chronicle, 14 Mar. 1856.

    3. ‘Editorial on garotting crime and ticket-of-leaves’, The Times, Aug. 14, 1862, p. 8.

    4. ‘Editorial on penal servitude and ticket-of-leave system’, The Times, Aug. 28, 1862, p. 8.

    5. Lord Carnarvon to Herman Merivale, 2 Dec. 1862, in context of garotting panic, British Library, Add MSS, Carnarvon Papers.

    6. M. D. Hill to Lord Brougham, 4 Dec. 1862, in Brougham Papers, University College of London.


    Part 2. Shaping the Convict Prison

    7. ‘Female Convicts, Brixton, 1858: Unruly Behavior’, Reports of the Directors of Convict Prisons on the Discipline and Management of Pentonville, Millbank, and Parkhurst Prisons and of Portland, Portsmouth, Dartmoor, Chatham, and Brixton Prisons, [2556], Parliamentary Papers 1859, vol. XIII, Part I, Brixton Prison, pp. 306-07.

    8. ‘Outbreak Among the Convicts at Chatham’, The Times, 19 Jan., 1861, p. 10.

    9. ‘Revolt of the Convicts at Chatham’, The Times, 13 Feb. 1861, p. 12.

    10. W. A. Guy, ‘On some Results of a Recent Census of the Population of the Convict Prisons in England; and Especially on the Rate of Mortality at Present Prevailing among Convicts’, Transactions of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, 1862, pp. 561-575.

    11. C. B. Adderley, ‘On the late Reports on Transportation and Penal Servitude: and on Prison Discipline’, Transactions of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, 1863, pp. 398-404.

    12. Walter Crofton, ‘Criminal Treatment—its Principles,’, Transactions of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, 1868, pp. 306-311.

    13. Walter Crofton, The Criminal Classes and Their Control, read at the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science meeting, Birmingham, Oct. 1868.



    Part 3. Punishment of Juveniles

    14. William Crawford, Inspector of Prisons, 11 Oct. 1839, on Parkhurst prison for juveniles.

    15. ‘Mettray’, The Athenaeum, Mar. 21, 1846, pp. 293-94.

    16. Sydney Turner, ‘Juvenile Delinquency’, Edinburgh Review, vol. XCIV, Oct. 1851, pp. 403-404, 414-425.

    17. M. D. Hill on Discharging Delinquents to Parents and Employers, ‘Second Report from the S.C. of the House of Lords appointed to Inquire into the Execution of the Criminal Law, esp. respecting Juvenile Offenders . . .’, Parliamentary Papers. 1847, vol. VII.

    18. Mary Carpenter, ‘On the Importance of Statistics to the Reformatory Movement, with Returns from Female Reformatories, and Remarks on them’, Journal of the Statistical Society of London, vol. 20, Mar. 1857, pp. 33-40.

    19. W. V. Harcourt on parental notice before forced emigration or enlistment of Reformatory & Industrial School inmates, 1884-85: TNA/ HO45/ 9629/A22484.


    Part 4. Political Prisoners

    20. Reports by Inspectors of Prisons on cases of all Political Offenders in Custody on 1 Jan. 1841, TNA, HO 20/10.

    21. George White to Mark Norman, Oct. 10, 1849, from Kirkdale Gaol, nr. Liverpool, The Harney Papers, eds. Frank G. Black and Renee M. Black (1969), pp. 87-88.

    22. Statement by Lady Constance Lytton, Jan. 1910, on the forcible feeding of suffragettes: TNA, HO 144/1054/187986/8 & 11.

    23. Sylvia Pankhurst, ‘Prison Life and Women’, The Times, 18 June 1910, p. 6, a response to ‘Prison Life and Administration. VI. The Women’, The Times, June 10, 1910, p. 4.

    24. Wilfred Scawen Blunt’s memo to Churchill, 24 Feb. 1910, in Randolph Churchill, Winston S. Churchill, vol. II, Companion Volume, Part 2 (1969), pp. 1144-48.

    25. Arthur Creech Jones, ‘Manuscript Account of His Thoughts on Prison’, in Arthur Creech Jones Papers, Bodleian Library, Box 1, file 2, fols. 194-97, n.d.


    Part 5. Prisons under Scrutiny

    26. Sir William Harcourt to Lord Chancellor, on the decline of the prison population, 10 Dec. 1884: TNA, HO45/18479/565861.

    27. William D. Morrison, ‘Are Our Prisons a Failure?’, Fortnightly Review, vol. 61, April 1894, pp. 459-69.

    28. Michael Davitt, ‘Criminal and Prison Reform’, The Nineteenth Century, vol. XXXVI, Dec. 1894, pp. 875-89.

    29. Eliza Orme, ‘Prison Reform (II): Our Female Criminals’, Fortnightly Review, vol. 69, May 1898, pp. 790-796.

    30. E. Du Cane, ‘The Prisons Bill and Progress in Criminal Treatment’, The Nineteenth Century, vol. XLIII, May 1898, pp. 809-821.

    Part 6. The Indeterminate Prison Sentence

    31. M. D. Hill, ‘On the Objections Incident to Sentences of Imprisonment for Limited Periods’, Transactions of the National Congress on Penitentiary and Reformatory Discipline, 1870 (Albany, 1871), pp. 105-109.

    32. Rev. A. Osborne Jay, The Social Problem: Its Possible Solution (London, 1893), pp. 82-91, 94-97, 99-102, 107-108.

    33. Robert Anderson, ‘Our Absurd System of Punishing Crime’, The Nineteenth Century and After, vol. XLIX, Feb. 1901, pp. 268-84.

    34. J. F. Sutherland, Recidivism: Habitual Criminality, and Habitual Petty Delinquency. A Problem in Sociology, Psycho-Pathology and Criminology (Edinburgh, 1908), pp. 80-81, 108-115.

    35. ‘Report from the Departmental Committee on Prisons’, [C.- 7702], Parliamentary Papers, 1895, vol. LVI, pp. 31-32, pp. 35-36.


    Part 7. De-centering the Prison

    36. Sir Godfrey Lushington before the Gladstone Committee, ‘Report from the Departmental Committee on Prisons’ [C.- 7702 – I: Evidence], Parliamentary Papers, 1895, vol. LVI, pp. 394-398, 400-406.

    37. Charles E. B. Russell, ‘Some Aspects of Female Criminality and its Treatment’, The Englishwoman, vol. 13 (1912), pp. 35-47.

    38.Winston Churchill’s Plan to Abate Imprisonment, memo, 13 Aug. 1910: TNA, HO 144/18869/196919/1.

    39. Memo of E. Ruggles-Brise on the Borstal System, 1910, in response to W. Churchill Memo of 30th June, 1910.


    Part 8. Demise of Separate Confinement

    40. John Galsworthy, ‘An Open Letter to the Home Secretary, the Right Hon. Herbert John Gladstone, May 1909’, originally printed in The Nation, in John Galsworthy, A Sheaf (1916), pp. 95-109.

    41. Minutes of C. E. Troup, 24 Sept. 1909, and Herbert Gladstone, 23 Nov. 1909, on separate confinement: British Library, Add MSS, Viscount Gladstone Papers.













    Victor Bailey is the Charles W. Battey Distinguished Professor of British History at the University of Kansas, USA

    "A person new to the field of criminal justice will learn just about everything they need to know about crime and punishment from 1776 through 1914 simply by reading Bailey's one hundred or so explanatory pages. Students preparing for comprehensive exams, and young scholars starting out as teachers, will be grateful for how much Bailey has done to ease their introduction to a large and still steadily expanding field."

    Simon Devereaux, University of British Columbia in Victoria, Canada, Journal of British Studies, March 2023