1st Edition

Nineteenth-Century Crime and Punishment

Edited By Victor Bailey Copyright 2020

    This four volume collection looks at the essential issues concerning crime and punishment in the long nineteenth-century. Through the presentation of primary source documents, it explores the development of a modern pattern of crime and a modern system of penal policy and practice, illustrating the shift from eighteenth century patterns of crime (including the clash between rural custom and law) and punishment (unsystematic, selective, public, and body-centred) to nineteenth century patterns of crime (urban, increasing, and a metaphor for social instability and moral decay, before a remarkable late-century crime decline) and punishment (reform-minded, soul-centred, penetrative, uniform and private in application).

    The first two volumes focus on crime itself and illustrate the role of the criminal courts, the rise and fall of crime, the causes of crime as understood by contemporary investigators, the police ways of ‘knowing the criminal,’ the role of ‘moral panics,’ and the definition of the ‘criminal classes’ and ‘habitual offenders’. The final two volumes explore means of punishment and look at the shift from public and bodily punishments to transportation, the rise of the penitentiary, the convict prison system, and the late-century decline in the prison population and loss of faith in the prison.

    Volume 4. Prison and Prisoners

    Part 1. Mid-Century Penal Crisis

    1. W. R. Greg, ‘The Management and Disposal of our Criminal Population’, Edinburgh Review, vol. C, Oct. 1854, pp. 567-573, 576-577, 579-582, 594-603, 605-607, 610-612, 627-630.

    2. ‘Meeting of Ticket-of-Leave Men’, Morning Chronicle, 14 Mar. 1856.

    3. ‘Editorial on garotting crime and ticket-of-leaves’, The Times, Aug. 14, 1862, p. 8.

    4. ‘Editorial on penal servitude and ticket-of-leave system’, The Times, Aug. 28, 1862, p. 8.

    5. Lord Carnarvon to Herman Merivale, 2 Dec. 1862, in context of garotting panic, British Library, Add MSS, Carnarvon Papers.

    6. M. D. Hill to Lord Brougham, 4 Dec. 1862, in Brougham Papers, University College of London.


    Part 2. Shaping the Convict Prison

    7. ‘Female Convicts, Brixton, 1858: Unruly Behavior’, Reports of the Directors of Convict Prisons on the Discipline and Management of Pentonville, Millbank, and Parkhurst Prisons and of Portland, Portsmouth, Dartmoor, Chatham, and Brixton Prisons, [2556], Parliamentary Papers 1859, vol. XIII, Part I, Brixton Prison, pp. 306-07.

    8. ‘Outbreak Among the Convicts at Chatham’, The Times, 19 Jan., 1861, p. 10.

    9. ‘Revolt of the Convicts at Chatham’, The Times, 13 Feb. 1861, p. 12.

    10. W. A. Guy, ‘On some Results of a Recent Census of the Population of the Convict Prisons in England; and Especially on the Rate of Mortality at Present Prevailing among Convicts’, Transactions of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, 1862, pp. 561-575.

    11. C. B. Adderley, ‘On the late Reports on Transportation and Penal Servitude: and on Prison Discipline’, Transactions of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, 1863, pp. 398-404.

    12. Walter Crofton, ‘Criminal Treatment—its Principles,’, Transactions of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, 1868, pp. 306-311.

    13. Walter Crofton, The Criminal Classes and Their Control, read at the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science meeting, Birmingham, Oct. 1868.



    Part 3. Punishment of Juveniles

    14. William Crawford, Inspector of Prisons, 11 Oct. 1839, on Parkhurst prison for juveniles.

    15. ‘Mettray’, The Athenaeum, Mar. 21, 1846, pp. 293-94.

    16. Sydney Turner, ‘Juvenile Delinquency’, Edinburgh Review, vol. XCIV, Oct. 1851, pp. 403-404, 414-425.

    17. M. D. Hill on Discharging Delinquents to Parents and Employers, ‘Second Report from the S.C. of the House of Lords appointed to Inquire into the Execution of the Criminal Law, esp. respecting Juvenile Offenders . . .’, Parliamentary Papers. 1847, vol. VII.

    18. Mary Carpenter, ‘On the Importance of Statistics to the Reformatory Movement, with Returns from Female Reformatories, and Remarks on them’, Journal of the Statistical Society of London, vol. 20, Mar. 1857, pp. 33-40.

    19. W. V. Harcourt on parental notice before forced emigration or enlistment of Reformatory & Industrial School inmates, 1884-85: TNA/ HO45/ 9629/A22484.


    Part 4. Political Prisoners

    20. Reports by Inspectors of Prisons on cases of all Political Offenders in Custody on 1 Jan. 1841, TNA, HO 20/10.

    21. George White to Mark Norman, Oct. 10, 1849, from Kirkdale Gaol, nr. Liverpool, The Harney Papers, eds. Frank G. Black and Renee M. Black (1969), pp. 87-88.

    22. Statement by Lady Constance Lytton, Jan. 1910, on the forcible feeding of suffragettes: TNA, HO 144/1054/187986/8 & 11.

    23. Sylvia Pankhurst, ‘Prison Life and Women’, The Times, 18 June 1910, p. 6, a response to ‘Prison Life and Administration. VI. The Women’, The Times, June 10, 1910, p. 4.

    24. Wilfred Scawen Blunt’s memo to Churchill, 24 Feb. 1910, in Randolph Churchill, Winston S. Churchill, vol. II, Companion Volume, Part 2 (1969), pp. 1144-48.

    25. Arthur Creech Jones, ‘Manuscript Account of His Thoughts on Prison’, in Arthur Creech Jones Papers, Bodleian Library, Box 1, file 2, fols. 194-97, n.d.


    Part 5. Prisons under Scrutiny

    26. Sir William Harcourt to Lord Chancellor, on the decline of the prison population, 10 Dec. 1884: TNA, HO45/18479/565861.

    27. William D. Morrison, ‘Are Our Prisons a Failure?’, Fortnightly Review, vol. 61, April 1894, pp. 459-69.

    28. Michael Davitt, ‘Criminal and Prison Reform’, The Nineteenth Century, vol. XXXVI, Dec. 1894, pp. 875-89.

    29. Eliza Orme, ‘Prison Reform (II): Our Female Criminals’, Fortnightly Review, vol. 69, May 1898, pp. 790-796.

    30. E. Du Cane, ‘The Prisons Bill and Progress in Criminal Treatment’, The Nineteenth Century, vol. XLIII, May 1898, pp. 809-821.

    Part 6. The Indeterminate Prison Sentence

    31. M. D. Hill, ‘On the Objections Incident to Sentences of Imprisonment for Limited Periods’, Transactions of the National Congress on Penitentiary and Reformatory Discipline, 1870 (Albany, 1871), pp. 105-109.

    32. Rev. A. Osborne Jay, The Social Problem: Its Possible Solution (London, 1893), pp. 82-91, 94-97, 99-102, 107-108.

    33. Robert Anderson, ‘Our Absurd System of Punishing Crime’, The Nineteenth Century and After, vol. XLIX, Feb. 1901, pp. 268-84.

    34. J. F. Sutherland, Recidivism: Habitual Criminality, and Habitual Petty Delinquency. A Problem in Sociology, Psycho-Pathology and Criminology (Edinburgh, 1908), pp. 80-81, 108-115.

    35. ‘Report from the Departmental Committee on Prisons’, [C.- 7702], Parliamentary Papers, 1895, vol. LVI, pp. 31-32, pp. 35-36.


    Part 7. De-centering the Prison

    36. Sir Godfrey Lushington before the Gladstone Committee, ‘Report from the Departmental Committee on Prisons’ [C.- 7702 – I: Evidence], Parliamentary Papers, 1895, vol. LVI, pp. 394-398, 400-406.

    37. Charles E. B. Russell, ‘Some Aspects of Female Criminality and its Treatment’, The Englishwoman, vol. 13 (1912), pp. 35-47.

    38.Winston Churchill’s Plan to Abate Imprisonment, memo, 13 Aug. 1910: TNA, HO 144/18869/196919/1.

    39. Memo of E. Ruggles-Brise on the Borstal System, 1910, in response to W. Churchill Memo of 30th June, 1910.


    Part 8. Demise of Separate Confinement

    40. John Galsworthy, ‘An Open Letter to the Home Secretary, the Right Hon. Herbert John Gladstone, May 1909’, originally printed in The Nation, in John Galsworthy, A Sheaf (1916), pp. 95-109.

    41. Minutes of C. E. Troup, 24 Sept. 1909, and Herbert Gladstone, 23 Nov. 1909, on separate confinement: British Library, Add MSS, Viscount Gladstone Papers.


    Victor Bailey is the Charles W. Battey Distinguished Professor of British History at the University of Kansas, USA