1st Edition

Nineteenth-Century Religion, Literature and Society

ISBN 9781138563155
Published December 15, 2020 by Routledge
1478 Pages

USD $525.00

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Book Description

This four-volume historical resource provides new opportunities for investigating the relationship between religion, literature and society in Britain and its imperial territories by making accessible a diverse selection of harder-to-find primary sources. These include religious fiction, poetry, essays, memoirs, sermons, travel writing, religious ephemera, unpublished notebooks and pamphlet literature. Spanning the long nineteenth century (c.1789–1914), the resource departs from older models of ‘the Victorian crisis of faith’ in order to open up new ways of conceptualising religion. A key concern of the resource is to integrate non-Christian religions into our understanding and representations of religious life in this period.

Each volume is framed around a different meaning of the term ‘religion’. Volume one on ‘Traditions’ offers an overview of the different religious traditions and denominations present in Britain in this period. Volume two on ‘Mission and Reform’ considers the social and political importance of religious faith and practice as expressed through foreign and domestic mission and philanthropic and political movements at home and abroad. Volume three turns to ‘Religious Feeling’ as an important and distinct category for understanding the ways in which religion is embodied and expressed in culture. Volume four on ‘Disbelief and New Beliefs’ explores the transformation of the religious landscape of Britain and its imperial territories during the nineteenth century as a result of key cultural and intellectual forces.

The resource is aimed primarily at researchers and students working within the fields of literature and social and religious history. It supplies an interpretative context for sources in the form of explanatory headnotes to each source or group of sources and volume introductions that explore overarching themes. Each volume can be read independently, but they work together to elucidate the complex and multi-faceted nature of nineteenth-century religious life.

Table of Contents

Volume 1: Traditions

Ed. Rebecca Styler

Table of Contents


General Introduction



Part 1. Evangelical Religion

1.1 ‘Vital’ Religion

1. Emma Jane Worboise, extract from Married Life, or, The Story of Philip and Edith (London: Christian World, 1863), pp. 100–7, pp. 322–8.

1.2 The Authority of the Bible

2. C. H. Spurgeon, extract from ‘How to Read the Bible: A Sermon’, Metropolitan Tabernacle Pulpit, 58 (1912), pp. 422–30.

Part 2. Anglican Developments

2.1 The High Church Movement

3. Frederick W. Faber, extract from The Church, a Safeguard against Modern Selfishness (London: [n.p.], 1840), pp. 10–27.

4. F. W. Faber, ‘Easter Communion’, in Poems (London: Burns and Oates, 1856), pp. 148–9.

2.2 The Broad Church Movement

5. A. I. Fitzroy, Preface and Conclusin from Dogma and the Church of England (Edinburgh: William Blackwood and Sons, 1891), ‘’, pp. ix–xviii, 269–77.

Part 3. Roman Catholicism

3.1 Roman Catholicism in Britain

6. M. E. Herbert, extract from Anglican Prejudices Against the Catholic Church [1866], 2nd edition (London: Catholic Truth Society, 1899), pp. 8–11, 13-16, 19–21.

7. M. E. Herbert, ‘The Charitable Institutions and Convents of Seville’ in Impressions of Spain in 1866 (London: Richard Bentley, 1866), pp. 152–61.

3.2 Roman Catholicism in Ireland

8. Anon., extract from Letters of an Irish Catholic Layman; being an examination of the present state of Irish affairs in relation to the Irish Church and the Holy See (Dublin: Nation Office, 1884), pp. 12–20, 97–8, 2–5.



Part 4. Scottish Presbyterianism

4.1 The Church of Scotland

9. Norman MacLeod, extract from The Lord’s Day: Substance of a Speech Delivered at a meeting of the Presbytery of Glasgow on Thursday 16th November 1865 (Glasgow: James MacleHose, 1865), pp. 11–16, 29–35.

4.2 The Free Church in Scotland

10. Thomas Guthrie, extract from The Principles of the Free Church of Scotland, and a Plea for the Ante–Disruption Ministers (Edinburgh: [n.p.], 1859), pp. 11–24.

Part 5. Forms of Dissent

5.1 Wesleyan Methodism

11. [Charles Wesley], ‘Jesus, my life!’ (no. 347) and ‘Jesus hath died that I might live’ (no. 415), in J. Everett and M. Baxter (eds), Hymn Book of the United Methodist Free Churches, comprising the Collection of Hymns by the Rev. J. Wesley with Miscellaneous Hymns Suited for Occasional Services (London: William Reed, 1867), n.p.

12. Mary Fletcher, extract from The Life of Mrs Mary Fletcher, consort and relict of the Rev. John Fletcher, Vicar of Madeley, Salop: Compiled from her Journal and Other Authentic Documents, ed. Henry Moore [1817] (London: J. Kershaw, 1824), pp. 15–23, 107–8.

5.2 Welsh Nonconformity

13. Henry Richard, extract from ‘The Established Church in Wales’ (1871), in Letters and Essays on Wales (London: James Clarke, 1884), pp. 129–37, 146–47, 150-51, 159-60, 170–1, 179–83.

14. William Williams Pantycelyn, ‘’Rwy’n edrych dros y bryniau pell’ (‘I look across the distant hills’), in Gwynfor Evans (ed.), Land of My Fathers: 2000 Years of Welsh History (Talybont: Y Lolfa Press, 1992), p. 338.

15. Ann Griffiths, ‘Wele’n sefyll rhwng y myrtwydd’ (‘See him stand among the myrtles’), in Gwynfor Evans (ed.), Land of My Fathers: 2000 Years of Welsh History (Talybont: Y Lolfa Press, 1992), pp. 346–7.

5.3 Unitarianism

16. Lant Carpenter, extract from The Beneficial Tendency of Unitarianism (London: [n.p.], 1845), pp. 5–19.

17. Anna Laetitia Barbauld, ‘The New Commandment’ (no. 214), in James Martineau (ed.), Hymns for the Christian Church and Home [1840] (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1866), n.p.


5.4 Quakers

18. Thomas Clarkson, extract from A Portraiture of Quakerism, as taken from a view of the Moral Education, Discipline, Peculiar Customs, Religious Principles, Political and Civil OEconomy, and Character, of the Society of Friends, 3 vols. (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees and Orme, 1806), vol. 2, pp. 235–7, 246; pp. 248–59; pp. 294–300; vol. 1, pp. 123–9; vol. 3, pp. 186–7; pp. 199–205.

Part 6. New Nonconformist Movements

6.1 Brethren

19. J. N. Darby, extract from Reflections on the Ruined Condition of the Church; and on the Efforts Making by Churchmen and Dissenters to Restore it to its Primitive Order (London: D. Walter, 1841), pp. 1–4, 20–4.

20. A. N. Groves, ‘On Departure from Catholic Christianity’, in Catholic Christianity and Party Communion (London: Morgan & Chase, n.d.], pp. 10–16.

6.2 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints

21. John Jaques, ‘Necessity of a Living Prophet. Part 1’, The Latter-Day Saints’ Millennial Star, 33, 15, 13 August 1853, pp. 529–32.

22. Anon., ‘Gathering’, The Latter–Day Saints’ Millennial Star, 3, 15, 15 January 1853, pp. 33–5.

23. William G. Mills, ‘Our Home at Great Salt Lake’, The Latter-Day Saints’ Millennial Star, 22, 15, 28 May 1853, pp. 351–2.

Part 7. Judaism

7.1 Orthodox Judaism

24. Nathan Marcus Adler, extract from The Jewish Faith: A Sermon Delivered in the Great Synagogue, Duke’s Place, Sabbath, 24 Shevat, 5608 (29 January 1848) (London: Effingham Wilson, 5608 [1848]), pp. 3–16.

25. Nina Davis, ‘The Ark of the Covenant’, Jewish Quarterly Review, 8, 1 (October 1895), pp. 82–6.

7.2 Reform Judaism

26. D. W. Marks, extract from Discourse Delivered at the Consecration of the West London Synagogue of British Jews, Thursday 16th Sebat A.M. 5602 – 27th January 1842 (London: Duncan & Malcolm, 5602/1842), pp. 6–12, 17–22.

7.3 Liberal Judaism

27. Lily Montagu, extract from ‘Spiritual Possibilities of Judaism Today’, Jewish Quarterly Review, 11, 2 (January 1899), pp. 216–30.


Part 8. Religious Traditions from Asia

8.1 Hinduism

28. Rammohun Roy, extract from Translation of an Abridgement of the Vedant, or, a Resolution of All the Veds (London: T. & J. Hoitt, 1817), pp. 1–13, 16-18

29. Miss Acland, ‘The Rajah’s Tomb’, in Mary Carpenter (ed.), The Last Days in England of Rajah Rammohun Roy (London: Trubner & Co., 1866), pp. 176–7.

30. Kissory Chand Mittra, extract from ‘The Last Days in England of Rajah Rammohun Roy’, in Mary Carpenter (ed.), The Last Days in England of Rajah Rammohun Roy, revd edn (Calcutta: Rammohun Roy Library, 1915), pp. 253–5.

8.2 Zoroastrianism

31. Dadabhai Naoroji, extract from The Parsee Religion (Liverpool: [n.p.], 1861), pp. 1–9, 20–7.

8.3 Islam

32. Syed Ameer Ali, extract from The Life and Teachings of Mohammed: or, the Spirit of Islam (London: W.H. Allen & Co., 1891), pp. 226–31, 233-4, 254–5, 262, 266–75, 362–5.


Part 9. Interpretive Traditions

9.1 Radical Christianity

33. Joseph Rayner Stephens, extract from The Political Preacher: An Appeal from the Pulpit on Behalf of the Poor (London: [n.p.], 1839), pp. 14–20, 22-3, 26-8, 31-2.

34. Anon., ‘Hymn Thirteenth’, National Chartist Hymnbook (Rochdale: [1845]), p. 12.

35. John Henry Bramwich, ‘A Hymn’, Northern Star, 4 April 1846, 1st edn, p. 3.

36. Thomas Cooper, ‘God of the Earth, And Sea, And Sky’, English Chartist Circular 2, 74 (1842), p. 88.

9.2 Feminist Religion

37. Frances Power Cobbe, extract from ‘Madonna Immacolata’ in Italics: Brief Notes on People, Politics and Places in Italy in 1864 (London: Trubner & Co., 1864), pp. 321–34.

38. Josephine E. Butler, extract from ‘Introduction’, in Josephine E. Butler (ed.), Woman’s Work and Woman’s Culture: A Series of Essays (London: Macmillan & Co., 1869), pp. liii–lx.

9.3 Poetic and Aesthetic Religion

39. Mary Howitt, ‘The Spirit of Poetry’, in Ballads and Poems (London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1847), pp. 265–9.

40. Anna B. Jameson, ‘Introduction’, in Sacred and Legendary Art, 2 vols [1848], new edition (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1890), vol. 1, pp. 1–7.

9.4 Natural Religion

41. Theodore Parker, A Discourse of Matters Pertaining to Religion [1842], in Frances Power Cobbe (ed.), Collected Works, 12 vols (London: Trubner & Co., 1863), vol. 1, book 2 ‘The Relation of the Religious Sentiment to God, or A Discourse of Inspiration’, pp. 110–17.

42. J. R. Illingworth, extract from ‘Divine Immanence in Nature’, in Divine Immanence: an Essay on the Spiritual Significance of Matter (London: Macmillan, 1898), pp. 64–73.


Volume 2: Mission and Reform

Ed. Angharad Eyre



Part 1. The Foreign Mission Movement

1.1 Gaining support

1. Anon., Dialogue between A Minister and a Parishioner concerning the Church Missionary Society ([London]: Church Missionary Society, c. 1830–9), pp. 1-12.

1.2 Children

2. E. M. I, ‘Lessons from Heathen Lands’, in Missionary Stories (London: John Snow, 1843–4), pp. 3-8.

3. John Campbell, Worlds Displayed for the Benefit of Young People by a Familiar History of Some of their Inhabitants, in The Juvenile Cabinet of Travels and Narratives for the Amusement and Instruction of Young Persons (London: Francis Westley, 1825), pp. 101-2, 105-7, 124, 126-29, 137. [abridged]

1.3 Women and authority in the mission field

4. Anon., Memoirs of Female Labourers in the Missionary Cause (Bath: [n.p.], 1839), Introduction by Richard Knill, pp. v–vii, 1–9.

5. Editorial, Female Missionary Intelligencer, 1 [1853] (Dublin: SPFEE, 1854), pp. 1–4, 15–17.

6. Pandita Ramabai, ‘Report’, Report of the Annual Meeting of the Ramabai Association (Boston: Geo. H. Ellis, 1892), pp. 21–7.

1.4 Masculinity and leadership

7. Anon., Soldiership and Christianity: Being a Review of the Memoirs of the Late Hedley Vicars (London: Ward and Co., 1856), pp. 3-16. [abridged]

8. Anon., review of ‘Vikings of Today’, London Hospital Gazette (1895), pp. 52–3.

9. A. F. Childe, Good out of Evil; or, the History of Adjai the African Slave-Boy (London: Wertheim and Macintosh, 1850), pp. 80–97, 100-1, 108–10, 114–21. [abridged]

1.5 Ethnography and anthropology

10. Robert Moffat, Missionary Labours and Scenes in Southern Africa (London: John Snow, 1843), pp. 1–15. [abridged]

11. George Taplin [and James Ngunaitponi], The Narrinyeri in Woods (ed.), The Native Tribes of South Australia (Adelaide: Wigg and Son, 1879), p. 1-2, 34–6, 48–51, 128–9. [abridged]

1.6 Biblical history, geography and travel writing

12. Charlotte Elizabeth Tonna, ‘Palestine’, in Osric: A Missionary Tale, with The Garden and Other Poems [1826] (Dublin: Curry, [n.d.]), pp. 43–8.

13. Anon., ‘Lebanon and its Cedars’, Sunday at Home, 1 (May 1854), pp. 6–7.

14. Constance Maynard, ‘A Few Pages from a Diary’, Hermes, 12 (1898), Queen Mary Archives, WFD/23/3, pp. 8–10.

15. Constance Maynard, ‘A Few Pages from a Diary (Continued)’, Hermes, 13 (1899), Queen Mary Archives, WFD/23/3, pp. 13–15.

16. Constance Maynard, ‘Letter from the Mistress’, Hermes, 17 (1900), Queen Mary Archives, WFD/23/3, pp. 10–12.

Part 2. Home Missions

2.1 Unitarian Home Missionary Board

17. ‘Unitarian Home Missionary Board’, privately circulated, 1853, University of Manchester Library, Unitarian College Collection, UCC 1/6/2/3.

2.2 University settlements

18. Frederick Rogers, The New Movement at the Universities and What May Come of it, by a Whitechapel Man ([n.p.]: [n.p.], [1886]).

19. ‘The Women’s University Settlement’, Old Students’ Association Newsletter (Oxford: Lady Margaret Hall, 1894), pp. 10–13, ‘Opening of the Lady Margaret Hall New Buildings’ and ‘Proposed LMH Settlement’, Old Students’ Association Newsletter (Oxford: Lady Margaret Hall, 1896), pp. 12–18, 19–23, ‘The Settlement’, Old Students’ Association Newsletter (Oxford: Lady Margaret Hall, 1897), pp. 10–11.

2.3 Revivalism

20. Phoebe Palmer, Four Years in the Old World: Comprising the Travels, Incidents, and Evangelical Labors of Dr and Mrs Palmer in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales (New York: [n.p], 1866), p. v, 84–85, 90-98, 106-7, 110-12. [abridged]

21. Maurice Davies, ‘The "Twelve Days’ Mission"’, in Orthodox London: Or Phases of Religious Life in the Church of England, 2nd edn (London: Tinsley Brothers, 1874), pp. 267, 269-71, 274-78, 279–82. [abridged]

22. Society of St John the Evangelist (the Holy Cross), ‘What is a Mission?’ and ‘Confession’, in The Book of the Mission (London: [n.p.], [1870]), pp. iv–v, 17–19.

2.4 The Salvation Army

23. William Booth, ‘The Free-and-Easy’, in Orders and Regulations for Field Officers (London: Salvation Army: 1886), pp. 322–3.

24. ‘"Quenched": Rescue Report for 1895’, The War Cry, 23 November 1895, p. 4.

25. ‘Married Women Warriors’, The War Cry, 26 January 1895, p. 7.

26. ‘Married Women Warriors,’ The War Cry, 13 April 1895, p. 13.

27. ‘Women Warriors’, The War Cry, 11 April 1896, p. 5.

2.5 The Mission to the Jews

28. London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews, ‘Abstract of the 27th Report’, supplement to Jewish Intelligence, 1835, pp. 6-8, 15-16. [abridged]

29. ‘A Visit to the Chapel of the Hebrew Christian Brethren in London by a Converted Israelite’, The Christian Lady’s Friend and Family Repository, May 1832, pp. 421–3.

30. Osborn W. Trenery Heighway, Leila Ada: The Jewish Convert, an Authentic Memoir [1852] (London: Partridge, Oakey and Co., 1854), pp. vii–xiii, 88-96. [abridged]


Part 3. Reforming Private Life

3.1 Temperance

31. William Gaskell, ‘Dread Memories’, ‘A Mother’s Death-Song for her Child’, ‘Parting Words’ and ‘Heaven to Thee!’, in Temperance Rhymes (London: Simpkin, Marshall and Co., 1839), , pp. 15–17, 23, 67–9, 70–1. [abridged]

32. The Importance of Sobriety Illustrated by the Evils of Intemperance (London: RTS, c. 1850), pp. 1-7.

3.2 Sabbatarianism

33. Sabbath Occupations (London: Religious Tract Society, c. 1820), pp. 1-8.

34. Edward Capern, ‘The Rural Postman’, in Poems (London: W. Kent and Co., 1859), pp. 9–13.

3.3 Fidelity in the upper classes

35. ‘Letter to a Friend in the Higher Circles of Society’, Christian Lady’s Friend and Family Repository, November 1831, pp. 101–5.

36. Arthur Selous, The Young Governess: A Tale for Girls (London: Griffith, Farran, Okeden and Welsh, c. 1870–9), p. 17-18, 26, 28-9, 39, 106–14. [abridged]

3.4 Education

37. Dinah Craik, Bread upon the Waters, in Bread upon the Waters; A Family in Love; A Low Marriage; The Double House [Governesses’ Benevolent Institution, 1852] (Leipzig: Bernhard Tauchnitz, 1865), pp. 50-59, 70-72. [abridged]

38. G. F. B., Charlie Brame: or what came of loitering (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1870), pp. 5-15. [abridged]

39. Mary B. G. Slade, ‘The Missionary Meeting’, in For Week Evening Entertainment (London: Sunday School Union, 1887), pp. 1–4.

Part 4. Social and Political Reform

4.1 Abolitionism

40. Susanna Watts and Elizabeth Heyrick, ‘Remarks on the Descent of the Africans from Ham’, The Humming Bird, or Morsels of Information on the Subject of Slavery, 1, 2, January 1825, pp. 35-38, 39-45. [abridged]

41. Isaac Nelson, Slavery Supported by the American Churches and Countenanced by Recent Proceedings in the Free Church of Scotland (Edinburgh: Charles Ziegler, 1847), pp. 2–7. [abridged]

4.2 Prison reform

42. Mary Carpenter, ‘On Reformatory Schools and their Present Position’, in Jelinger Symons (ed.,) On the Reformation of Young Offenders: A Collection of Pamphlets, Papers and Speeches on Reformatories and the Various Views Held on the Subject of Juvenile Crime and its Treatment (London: G. Routledge and Co., 1855), pp. 131–35, 138. [abridged]

43. Walter Lowe Clay, The Prison Chaplain: A Memoir of the Reverend John Clay B.D. Late Chaplain of the Preston Gaol (Cambridge: Macmillan, 1861), pp. vii–viii, 351-352, 356-61, 364-66, 68-70. [abridged]

44. [Fred W. Robinson], Female Life in Prison: By a Prison Matron, 2 vols (London: Hurst and Blackett, 1862), vol. 1, pp. 1–9, 44–50. [abridged]

4.3 Philanthropic organisations

45. Clara Collet, ‘George Gissing’s Novels’, Charity Organisation Review, May 1891, pp. 375–80. [abridged]

46. Baroness Burdett Coutts: A Sketch of her Public Life and Work, 1893, pp. 15–19, 21–3, 25-7, 105–10, 176–80. [abridged]

4.4 Social purity

47. ‘On the Repeal of the CD Act in India’, The Sentinel, September 1888, pp. 109–10.

48. J. E. H. [Ellice Hopkins], Is it Natural? (London: Hatchards, [1885]), pp. 3–13. [abridged].

4.5 Christian Socialism

49. Stewart Headlam, The Service of Humanity and other Sermons (London: J. Hodges, 1882), pp. 1, 3-7, 11, 13-18. [abridged].

50. Eliza and John Trevor, The Labour Church Hymn Book (Manchester: Labour Church Institute, [1895]), pp. 1–7. [abridged].

51. John Clifford, Socialism and the Teaching of Christ, Fabian Tract no. 78 (London: Fabian Society, 1897), pp. 2-7, 10-11. [abridged]

4.6 Women’s Suffrage

52. Barbara Bodichon, English Woman’s Journal, 3 (March 1859), pp. 34–35, 39-44, 46-47. [abridged]

53. Emily Wilding Davison, ‘The Price of Liberty’, Suffragette, 5 June 1914, p. 129.

54. Gertrude Spielmann, ‘Woman’s Place in the Synagogue’, Jewish Review, 4 (1913–4) pp. 24–28, 31-34, 36. [abridged]



Volume 3: Religious Feelings

Edited by Richa Dwor




Part 1. Faith

1. John Henry Newman, ‘Position of my Mind Since 1845’, in Apologia Pro Vita Sua [1864] (London: Longman, Green, and Co., 1908), pp. 238–46.

2. Charlotte Montefiore, ‘God’s Truth and Man’s Truth’, in A Few Words to the Jews. By One of Themselves (London: John Chapman, 1853), pp. 44–71. [abridged]


Part 2. Doubt

3. Francis William Newman, Phases of Faith: Or, Passages from the History of My Creed [1850](London: Watts & Co., 1907), Chapter 4 ‘The Religion of the Letter Renounced’, pp. 55-69. [abridged].

4. Arthur Hugh Clough, ‘Easter Day, Naples 1849’, in The Poems and Prose Remains of Arthur Hugh Clough, 2 vols (London: Macmillan and Co., 1869), vol. 2, pp. 102–8.


Part 3. Love

5. Grace Aguilar, The Spirit of Judaism (Philadelphia, PA: Jewish Publication Society of America, 5602 [1842]), pp. 34–48. [abridged]

6. Solomon Singer, The Authorized Daily Prayer Book of the United Congregations of the British Empire (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1890), pp. 39–40.

7. Ludwig Feuerbach, ‘The Contradiction of Faith and Love’, in The Essence of Christianity, trans. by George Eliot [1841, translation 1854] (Amherst: Prometheus Books, 1989), pp. 245–66. [abridged]

8. Peter William Clayden, The Golden Wedding. A Sermon Preached on the Golden Wedding-Day of Mr. and Mrs. Philp, On Sunday Morning, 24th May, 1874 (London: Kenny & Co., Printers, 1874), pp. 3–15. [abridged]


Part 4. Fear

9. Edward Bouverie Pusey, ‘Sermon VI’, in A Course of Sermons on Solemn Subjects Chiefly Bearing on Repentance and Amendment of Life: Preached in St. Saviour's Church, Leeds, During the Week after its Consecration on the Feast of S. Simon and S. Jude, 1845 (Oxford: J. H. Parker, 1845), pp. 88–103.

10. W. H. [William Henry] Quilliam, The Faith of Islam: Am Explanatory Sketch of the Principle Fundamental Tenets of the Moslem Religion (Liverpool: Willmer Brothers & Co, 1892), pp. 51–7.


Part 5. Joy

11. Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Aurora Leigh (London: Chapman and Hall, 1857), pp. 302–4.

12. Gerard Manley Hopkins, ‘Spring’, ‘Pied Beauty’, and ‘Hurrahing in Harvest’, in Robert Bridges (ed.), Poems of Gerard Manley Hopkins (London: Humphrey Milford, 1918), pp. 27, 30–31.

13. Christina Rossetti, ‘Heaviness may endure for the night, but joy cometh in the morning’, in William Michael Rossetti (ed.), The Poetical Works of Christina Georgina Rossetti, With Memoir and Notes, etc. (London: Macmillan and Co., 1904), p. 139.


Part 6. Anguish

14. Celia Moss, ‘The Storming of the Rock’, in Celia and Marion Moss, The Romance of Jewish History, 3 vols (London: Saunders and Otley, Conduit Street, 1840), vol. 1, pp. 7–16.

15. Mary Augusta Ward, Helbeck of Bannisdale (London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1898), pp. 443–8, 458–63.


Part 7. Devotion

16. Charles Darwin, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals [1872] (New York: D. Appelton and Co., 1886), pp. 220–1.

17. Annie Besant and C. W. [Charles Webster] Leadbeater, Thought-Forms (London: Theosophical Publishing Society, 1901), pp. 44–9.

18. William James, The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature (London: Longmans, Green, & Co., 1902), pp. 340–8. [abridged]


Part 8. Grief


19. James Martineau, ‘The Contentment of Sorrow, in Endeavours After the Christian Life, 7th edn [1843] (London: Longman’s, Green, Reader, and Dyer, 1880), pp. 110–21.

20. Dearest Mama: Letters between Queen Victoria and the Crown Princess of Prussia, 1861–1864, ed. Roger Fullford (London: Evans Brothers, 1968), pp. 23–32 (Queen Victoria to Crown Princess, 18 Dec., 1861; CP to QV, 21 Dec., 1861; QV to CP, 23 Dec., 1861; CP to QV, 23 Dec., 1861; CP to QV, 26 Dec., 2861; QV to CP, 27 Dec., 1861; CP to QV, 29 Dec., 1861), pp. 23-32.

21. John Aitken Chalmers, Tiyo Soga: A Page of South African Mission Work (Edinburgh: Andrew Elliot, 1877), pp. 257–60.


Part 9. Mercy

22. Mercy for the Fallen ([London], [1854]), pp. 1–4.

23. ‘Poor Mary’, in Mercy for Misery [A Religious Tract] ([London], [1861]), pp. 3–12.

24. Julie Sutter, ‘Prisoners of Zion’, in A Colony of Mercy: Or, Social Christianity at Work (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1893), pp. 1–13.


Part 10. Shame

25. Elizabeth Gaskell, Ruth. A Novel (London: Chapman and Hall, 1853), pp. 226–50.

26. James Paterson Gledstone, Observations on the recent Select Committee of the House of Commons, with special reference to the "moral" section of the majority report (London: Dyer Brothers, [1884]), pp. 12–14.

27. John Addington Symonds, ‘Clifton and a Lad's Love’, in In the Key of Blue and Other Prose Essays (London: Elkin Mathews & John Lane, 1893), pp. 155–75.


Part 11. Veneration

28. Alexander Bain, ‘Veneration—the Religious Sentiment’, in The Emotions and the Will (London: John W. Parker and Son, 1859), pp. 121–4. [abridged]

29. Samuel John Stone, ‘God of Supreme Dominion’, in Hymns for Use During 1887, the Year of the Jubilee of Queen Victoria (London: Skeffington and Son, 1887), p. 6.

30. Orby Shipley (ed.), Carmina Mariana: An English Anthology in Verse, in Honour of or in Relation to the Blessed Virgin Mary [1893] (London: Burns and Oats, 1894), Dora Greenwell, from ‘Camera Obscura’ (1876), p. 264; Helen Lowe, from ‘The Prophet of Balaam’ (1841), p. 266; Agnes Strickland, from ‘Alma Virago’ (1840), p. 269; Michael Field [Katharine Bradley and Edith Cooper], from ‘Sight and Song’ (1892), p. 299–300; Angelique de Lande, ‘Virgin Immaculate’, p. 308; Mary E. Mannix, ‘In Mary’s Month’, p. 308–9.


Part 12. Reserve

31. Isaac Taylor, Natural History of Enthusiasm [1829] (London: Holdsworth and Ball, 1830), pp. 8–21.

32. Isaac Williams, ‘This Principle of Reserve Applied to Prevailing Opinions on Promoting Religion’, in Tracts for the Times [1838] (Oxford: J. G. & F. Rivington, 1841), Tract 80, pp. 68–74.

33. Charlotte M. Yonge, The Pillars of the House; Or, Under Wode, Under Rode (London: Macmillan and Co., 1873), pp. 233–9.


Part 13. Awe

34. A. [Augustus] Welby Pugin, ‘Of the Chancel’ and ‘Of the Alter’, in The Present State of Ecclesiastical Architecture in England (London: Charles Dolman, 1843), pp. 34–5, 44–6.

35. Thomas Hardy, A Laodician; Or, The Castle of the De Stancys: A Story of To-Day (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington, 1881), pp. 3–21. [abridged]

36. John Ruskin, Modern Painters, their Superiority in the Art of Landscape Painting to the Ancient Masters, 5 vols (London: Smith, Elder, and Co., 1856), vol. 4, pp. 325–7, 359–60. [abridged]

37. Sarat Chandra Das, Autobiography: Narratives of the Incidents of my Early Life (Calcutta: Indian Studies, 1969), pp. 40–2.


Part 14. Resignation

38. Rosewell Messinger, ‘General Observations on the Importance of Resignation’, in Sentiments on Resignation (Portsmouth, NH: W. Threadwell, 1807), pp. 9–25.

39. [R. O.], trans., Practical Piety set forth by St. Francis de Sales (London: Burns and Lambert, 1851), pp. 10–15.

40. Charlotte Elliott, ‘Thy Will Be Done,’ ‘Not My Will, But Thine,’ and ‘Strong Consolation,’ in Selections from the Poems of Charlotte Elliott (London: Religious Tract Society, 1873), pp. 195, 213–14, 220–1.

41. Abraham ibn Ezra, ‘Resignation’, in Alice Lucas (ed. and trans), The Jewish Year: A Collection of Devotional Poems for Sabbaths and Holidays Throughout the Year, (London: Macmillan and Co., 1898), pp. 60–1.


Part 15. Thanksgiving

42. D. [David] Meldola, ‘Prayer’, in Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving to Be Said in the Spanish and Portuguese Jews’ Synagogue, Bevis Marks, on Sunday, 20th Sivan (21st June), 5600 (London: 1840), pp. 3–4

43. [Thomas Griffiths], ‘The Late Attempt on the Queen's Life’, Times, 15 June 1842, p. 9.

44. [Agasias], ‘The Form of Thanksgiving’, Times, 20 September 1854, p. 9.


Part 16. Piety

45. William Ellery Channing, The Power of Unitarian Christianity to Produce an Enlightened and Fervent Piety (Boston: J. Munroe & Co, 1840), pp. 3–41. [abridged]

46. Gustavus D. Pike, ‘The First Visit to London’, in The Story of the Jubilee Singers: With Their Songs (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1875), pp. 51–64.



Volume 4: Disbelief and New Beliefs

Eds. Naomi Hetherington & Clare Stainthorp



Part 1. Biblical Criticism

1.1 Hebrew Bible Criticism

1. ‘General Remarks on Mythology and Legendary History’ and ‘Account of Noah and the Flood’, in James Heywood (ed.), Introduction to the Book of Genesis with a Commentary on the Opening Portion, from the German of Dr Peter von Bohlen (London: John Chapman, 1855), vol. 1, pp. 1–8; vol. 2, pp. 107–21.

2. Claude Goldsmid Montefiore, ‘Preface’ and ‘Traditions of the Past: Visions of the Future’, in The Bible for Home Reading With Comments and Reflections for the Use of Jewish Parents and Children (London: Macmillan, 1896), vol. 1, pp. i–viii, 573–83.

1.2 Lives of Jesus

3. Thomas Scott, extract from ‘The Birth and Early Years of Jesus’, in The English Life of Jesus, new edition (London: Thomas Scott, 1872), pp. 31–7.

4. [Edwin Abbott], Philochristus: Memoirs of a Disciple of the Lord (London: Macmillan, 1878), pp. vii–viii, 239–48, 437.

1.3 Egyptology

5. Samuel Sharpe, Egyptian Mythology and Egyptian Christianity with Their Influence On The Opinions of Modern Christendom (London: John Russell Smith 1863), pp. vii–x, 10–15, 49–52

6. Harriet Martineau, Eastern Life Past and Present (London: Edward Moxon, 1848), vol. 1, pp. 242–9; vol 3, pp. 69–74.

Part 2. Scientific Approaches

2.1 Secularisation of wonder

7. Robert Lewins, ’14th November, 1878’ and ‘17th December, 1878’, in Humanism versus Theism; or Solipsism (Egoism) = Atheism. In a series of letters by Robert Lewins M.D. (London: Freethought Publishing Company, 1887), pp. 12–15.

8. Constance Naden, ‘Entry 117’, in Untitled Notebook [1878–79], Birmingham, Cadbury Research Library, USS 115, pp. 46–8.

9. Constance Naden, ‘Starlight. I’ and ‘Starlight. II’, in Songs and Sonnets of Springtime (London: C. Kegan Paul, 1881), pp. 142–3.

10. Constance C. W. Naden, extract from ‘The Brain Theory of Mind and Matter’, Journal of Science, March 1883; reprinted in Induction and Deduction: A Historical and Critical Sketch of Successive Philosophical Conceptions Respecting the Relations Between Inductive and Deductive Thought and Other Essays (London: Bickers and Son, 1890), pp. 156–66 (p. 164–66)

2.2 The Roots of Faith

11. Edward Clodd, ‘Evolution of Theology’, in The Story of Creation: A Plain Account of Evolution (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1891), pp. 224–8.

12. Francis Galton, ‘Enthusiasm’, in Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Developments (London: Macmillan, 1883), pp. 294–8.

13. James Sully, ‘A Girl’s Religion’, Longman's Magazine, May 1890, pp. 89–99.

2.3 Changing Minds

14. Richard Carlile, extract from An Address to Men of Science (London: R. Carlile, 1821), pp. 6–9, 30–5.

15. William Winwood Reade, ‘Letter V, VI and XIV’, in The Outcast (London: Chatto and Windus, 1875), pp. 83–6, 100–5, 254–62.

16. John W. Overton, extract from ‘The Poor Man’s Preacher’, Saul of Mitre Court; being extracts from the papers of Mr Gadshill (Printed for privately circulation, 1879), pp. 197–8.

Part 3. Esotericism

3.1 Spiritualism

17. H. [Anna Mary Howitt], ‘On Spiritual Manifestations’, ‘The Sunshine and Happiness of Spirit Life’, and ‘Sympathy’, in Glimpses of a Brighter Land (London: Baillière, Tindall, and Cox, 1871), ‘On Spiritual Manifestations’, pp. 1–6, 61–3, 168–9.

18. W. T. Stead, ‘Borderlanders of the Bible: The Prophet Elijah’, Borderland: A Quarterly Review and Index, 1, 2, October 1893, pp. 133–41.

19. Alfred Russel Wallace, ‘The "Journal of Science" on Spiritualism’, Light: A Journal of Psychical, Occult, and Mystical Research, 5, 11 July 1885, pp. 327–8.

20. Frederick F. Cook, ‘The Harmony of Spiritualism and Science: A Rejoinder to Mr. Alfred Russel Wallace, LL.D.’, Light: A Journal of Psychical, Occult, and Mystical Research, 5, 18 July 1885, pp. 339–41.

3.2 Theosophy

21. H. P. Blavatsky, ‘The Fundamental Teaching of Theosophy’, in The Key to Theosophy: Being a Clear Exposition, in the Form of Question and Answer, of the Ethics, Science, and Philosophy For The Study of Which The Theosophical Society Has Been Founded (London: Theosophical Publishing Company, 1889), pp. 61–82.

22. Libra [Susan E. Gay], ‘Womanhood from the Theosophical Point of View’, Parts 1 and 2, Shafts, 1, 9, December 1891, pp. 131–2; 1, 10, January 1892, pp. 152–3.

23. Mohini Chatterji, ‘On the Higher Aspect of Theosophic Studies’, Theosophist, 66, March 1885, pp. 140–4.

3.3 Esoteric Christianity

24. Anna Kingsford and Edward Maitland, extract from Lecture 7 ‘The Fall’, in The Perfect Way; or, the Finding of Christ (London: Hamilton Adams, 1882), pp. 191–7.

25. Alice Oliphant and Laurence Oliphant, extract from Sympneumata, or Evolutionary Forces Now Active in Man (Edinburgh: Blackwood, 1885), pp. 4–8, 20–30.

26. Marie Corelli [Mary Mackay], ‘The Electric Creed’’, in The Romance of Two Worlds (London: Bentley, 1886), vol. 2, pp. 121–47.

3.4 New Thought

27. Henrietta Frances Lord, extract from Christian Science Healing: Its Principles and Practice (London: George Redway, 1888), pp. 1–3, 375–6.

28. Frances Hodgson Burnett, extract from The Dawn of a To-morrow (London: F. Warne, 1907), pp. 98–111.

Part 4. Comparative and Universal Religion

4.1 Anagārika Dharmapāla and Modern Buddhism

29. T.W. Rhys Davids, ‘What Has Buddhism Derived from Christianity?’ [1877], Journal of the Pāli Text Society (1923), pp. 37–53.

30. Anagārika Dharmapāla, ‘Points of Resemblance and Difference Between Christianity and Buddhism’, in John Henry Barrows (ed.), The World’s Parliament of Religions, 2 vols (Chicago: Parliament Publishing, 1893), vol. 2, pp. 1288–90.

4.2 Keshub Chunder Sen and the New Dispensation

31. Sophia Dobson Collet, Indian Theism and Its Relation to Christianity (London: Strahan, 1870), pp. 1-31.

32. Keshub Chunder Sen, We the Apostles of the New Dispensation (Calcutta: Brahmo Tract Society, 1881), pp. 1-29.

4.3 Oswald Simon and the Universal Jewish Theistic Church

33. Oswald John Simon, ‘The Mission of Judaism’, Fortnightly Review, 66 (1896), pp. 577–89.

34. H. Adler, Sylvie d'Avigdor, C[laude] G[oldsmid] Montefiore, James Martineau, Anna Swanwick and Charles Voysey, responses to ‘The Mission of Judaism’, Jewish Quarterly Review, 9 (1897), pp. 184–9, 197-9, 211, 217-19.

Part 5. Freethought

5.1 Alternative Theisms

35. Anon., Deism and Christianity Contrasted (London: M. A. Carlisle, c. 1820).

36. Sara S. Hennell, extract from, Present Religion: As a Faith Owning Fellowship with Thought (London: Trübner & Co., 1865), pp. 8–14, 18–9.

37. F. H. J., extract from Spiritual Pantheism (Ramsgate: Thomas Scott, 1872), pp. 17–22, 24–6.

5.2 Owenism

38. Anon., ‘The Religion of the Millennium’, The New Moral World, or Millennium, 57, 28 November 1835, p. 33.

39. Emma Martin, extract from Religion Superseded, or the Moral Code of Nature Sufficient for the Guidance of Man (London: Watson, c. 1844), pp. 3–5, 14–16.

40. Thomas Frost, extract from Forty Years’ Recollections: Literary and Political (London: S. Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, 1880), pp. 13–15, 20–5.

5.3 Agnosticism

41. T. H. Huxley, G. M. McC[rie], Saladin [William Stewart Ross], P. A. Taylor, Charles Watts, F. W. Newman, Ignotus [Albert Simmons], W. B. McTaggart, Ernst Haeckel, W. Sadler (Baldr) and J. Beal, 'Agnosticism: A Symposium', Agnostic Annual (1884), pp. 4–20.

5.4 Atheism

42. Harriet Law, ‘A Few Words to Freethinkers’, Secular Chronicle, 5, 2 January 1876, pp. 1–2.

43. Saladin [W. Stewart Ross], God and His Book (London: W. Stewart & Co., 1887), pp. 2–9.

44. Daniel Chatterton, ‘Where are you going to when you die?’, Chatterton’s Commune; the Atheistic Communistic Scorcher, 29 (1892), pp. 1-7.

5.5 Secular Gatherings

45. Alexander J. Ellis, extract from Speculation: A Discourse, preceded by Absolute Relativity: A Meditation, delivered at South Place Chapel, Sunday, 16th January, 1876. With the Readings and the Author’s Hymn used on that Occasion (n.p.), pp. 13–15, 39–43.

46. Edward Beesly, ‘Worship of the Dead. Address Delivered at Newton Hall on the Day of all the Dead, 31 December, 1890’, supplement to The Positivist Review, July 1893, pp. 133–41.

47. Phi Delta, ‘Secular Organisation’, The Secular Review, 4 November 1882, p. 295.


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Richa Dwor is an Instructor in the English Department at Douglas College in New Westminster, Canada.

Angharad Eyre is a Teaching Associate at Queen Mary, University of London, UK. 

Naomi Hetherington is University Tutor in the Department for Lifelong Learning at the University of Sheffield, UK.  

Clare Stainthorp has a Leverhulme Early Career Fellowship in the School of English and Drama at Queen Mary University of London, UK.

Rebecca Styler is Principal Lecturer in English at the University of Lincoln, UK.