1st Edition

Nitrogen Management in Crop Production





ISBN 9781138034167
Published November 16, 2016 by CRC Press
436 Pages 19 Color & 127 B/W Illustrations

USD $90.95

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Book Description

One of the main approaches for safeguarding food security, sustainable development has increased demand for knowledge on fertilizer management in crop production. Among essential plant nutrients, nitrogen is one of the most important yield-limiting nutrients, mainly responsible for determining yield and yield components in cereals and legumes. It is also responsible for the activation of many enzymes and, of course, plays an important role in photosynthesis. With a recovery efficiency of less than 50 percent in most cropping systems, a large portion of the nitrogen applied as fertilizer is not used by plants, creating environmental and economic issues.

Nitrogen Management in Crop Production covers the critical aspects for the judicious use of nitrogen in cropping systems. This includes appropriate methods of nitrogen application, effective source and timing of application during crop growth cycles, use of an adequate application rate to avoid loss and reduce cost, use of nitrogen-efficient crop genotypes, and use of legumes that fix sufficient amounts of atmospheric nitrogen. There is also a chapter on organic matter and its role in sustainability.

This book presents recent information from the international literature, making it relevant for most agroecological regions. Chapters provide experimental results to aid in practical application of the information. The book contains color photos of nitrogen deficiency symptoms to serve as a guide for important crop species, such as rice, dry bean, wheat, soybean, and corn. It also includes numerous tables and figures, providing an easy-to-read reference.

Table of Contents

Functions of Nitrogen in Crop Plants
Introduction
Functions.
Conclusions
References

Nitrogen Losses in Soil–Plant System
Introduction
Cycle in Soil–Plant System
Losses through Ammonia Volatilization
Losses through Denitrification
Losses through Leaching
Losses through Soil Erosion
Losses through Ammonia Volatilization from Foliage
Factors Affecting Nitrogen Losses
Management Practices to Reduce Nitrogen Losses
Conclusions
References

Diagnostic Techniques for Nitrogen Requirements in Crop Plants
Introduction
Nitrogen Deficiency, Sufficiency, and Toxicity Diagnostic Techniques.
Soil Test
Plant Tissue Test
Use of Chlorophyll Meter
Nitrogen Harvest Index
Plant Response to Applied Nitrogen
Conclusions
References

Management of Soil Organic Matter
Introduction
SOM-Relate
SOM Fractions
OM Content of the Soil
OM versus Soil Physical Properties
OM versus Soil Chemical Properties
OM versus Soil Biological Properties
Management Practices to Improve/Stabilize OM in Soil
OM versus Environment
SOM versus Crop Yields
Conclusions
References

Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Crop Plants
Introduction
Definitions of Nutrient-Efficient Plants and Nitrogen Use
Efficiency
Conclusions
References

Nitrogen Interaction with Other Nutrients
Introduction
Interaction of Nitrogen with Macronutrients
Interaction of Nitrogen with Micronutrients
Nitrogen versus Soil Salinity and Alkalinity
Conclusions
References

Biological Nitrogen Fixation by Legumes
Introduction
Mechanism of Nodule Formation
Biochemistry of Nitrogen Fixation
Quantity of Nitrogen Fixation by Legumes
Methods of Assessing Nitrogen Fixation
Factors Affecting Dinitrogen Fixation
Strategies to Enhance Biological Nitrogen Fixation
Conclusions
References

Management Practices to Improve Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Crop Plants
Introduction
Soil Management Practices
Nitrogen Fertilizer Management Practices
Crop Management Practices
Plant Management Practices
Quantitative Genetics and Molecular Approach to Improve Nitrogen Use Efficiency
Conclusions
References

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Author(s)

Biography

Dr. N. K. Fageria, Doctor of Science in agronomy, is a senior research soil scientist at the National Rice and Bean Research Center, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA), since 1975. Dr. Fageria is a nationally and internationally recognized expert in the area of mineral nutrition of crop plants and a research fellow and ad hoc consultant of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) since 1989. Dr. Fageria is the author or co-author of 12 books and more than 320 scientific journal articles, book chapters, review articles, and technical bulletins. He is a member of editorial board of the Journal of Plant Nutrition and the Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology.

Reviews

"The book is both detailed and wide-reaching in its coverage of the role of nitrogen in crop-production systems and embraces issues such as crop rotation, tillage systems and the effect of soil erosion on nitrogen within the system. …a very readable and comprehensive guide to nitrogen use in annual crops."
—N. Cannon, in European Journal of Soil Science