Nomograms for Design and Operation of Cement Plants  book cover
1st Edition

Nomograms for Design and Operation of Cement Plants

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ISBN 9780415665773
Published July 12, 2011 by CRC Press
180 Pages

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Book Description

A unique publication, this set of book and CD-ROM is a handy tool for the design and operation of cement plants. Operation requires many calculations that have to be done repetitively. With this book of nomograms – graphical representations of two or more variables related to one another in such a way that a third one can be read from the nomogram - these workouts can be eliminated and the right values can be found with minimum effort with the user-friendly CD-ROM.

The CD-ROM pdf pages represent the nomogram and explanatory text in a single screen. The text describes the use, input, output, scale and unit of the nomogram, plus an illustrative example. When clicking on the nomogram, it appears in its original AutoCad version, which allows the reader to draw lines to obtain the results of new inputs. Most nomograms are single-step graphics, some require of two or three progressive steps. The nomograms are grouped in four sections:

1. Basics (capacities and rates of overall cement plant; crushing, grinding; feed rates in various sections with necessary margins; quality calculations, such as the proportioning of raw materials and for arriving at related parameters; carbonates, oxides and ratios of raw meal to clinker);

2. Physical (temperatures, altitudes, atmospheric pressures and densities; areas and volumes ; volumes of silos and stock piles; half angle at centre of mills and kilns and related variables; aspects of system design);

3. Processes (calculations related to calorific values of fuel and its consumption, combustion and drying; log mean temperature difference; heat content of air, clinker, calculations related to cooling), and

4. Machinery (ball mill design, vertical roller mills, preheater design, fuel fired in calciner, kiln capacity impact, kiln sizing and design, conventional clinker coolers, pneumatic conveying, mechanical conveyors, bag filter sizing, SCAs or ESPs for different efficiencies).

Table of Contents


1-1 Capacities
Nomo no. nomogram for working out / arriving at / converting
1-1-1 various capacities from clinkering capacities after applying pertinent multiplying factors
1-1-2 hourly capacities from daily capacities
1-1-3 capacities in MTPA for given clinkering capacity in tpd for various types of cement
1-1-4 capacities of corresponding feeders and conveyors etc.

1-2 Quality
1-2-1 graphs for various parameters related to % CaCO3 in raw meal
1-2-2 relations between % carbonates, loss on ignition, % CaO in clinker and ratioskg
clinker / kg raw meal and vice versa
1-2-3 calculating various modulii from detailed chemical analysis of raw materials on oxide basis

1-3 Rates
1-3-1 kiln feed rates for different ratios of conversion and different preheater
cyclone efficiencies
1-3-2 division of rates of fee in kiln and calciner
1-3-3 fuel fired in kiln and calciner in tph respectively from total fuel fired
1-3-4 coal consumption in tph for different kiln capacities and rates of fuel consumption
1-3-5 flow of gases in kg/day into m3/min


2-1 Temperatures, Altitudes, Pressures and Densities
Nomo no. nomogram for working out / arriving at / converting
2-1-1 temperatures in oC to Kelvin and for working out ratios K/273 and 273/K
2-1-2 obtaining atmospheric pressures at different altitudes
2-1-3 ratios of atmospheric pressure at sea level to pressures at altitude and reciprocal thereof
2-1-4 total multiplier for both temperature and pressure to convert nm3 to m3 and viceversa 2-1-5 nm3 to m3 and vicevesa
2-1-6 density of air at different altitudes and temperatures
2-1-7 velocity pressure from given velocity and and density of air / gas
2-2 Areas and Volumes
2-2-1 volumes of cubes and spheres
2-2-2 volumes of regular cones
2-2-3 volumes of cone for different angles of repose - 35o, 40o, 60o 23
2-2-4 areas of circles and volumes of cylinders
2-2-5 cross sectional areas of stock piles of different widths and volumes of st. lengths stock piles of different lengths
2-2-6 volumes of linear stock piles including end cones for crushed limestone, used in stacker reclaimer systems
2-2-7 volumes of cylinders of large diameters and short heights
2-2-8 quick estimation of volumes of stock piles of clinker
2-2-9 clear cross sectional areas of brick lined rotary kilns and coolers
Nomo no. nomogram for working out / arriving at / converting
2-2-10 clear volumes of rotary kilns, coolers and ball mills
2-2-11 estimation of volume of refractory in brick lined rotary kilns and coolers
2-2-12 estimation of refractory lining in ducts in m3/m length
2-2-13 finding out volumes of linear Stockpiles for raw coal
2-3 θ/2 related parameters
2-3-1 finding sin θ/2, given θ/2, half angle at centre
2-3-2 finding ratio h/D for given half angle θ/2 at centre
2-3-3 finding % loading for given half angle θ/2 at centre
2-3-4 finding (sin θ/2)3 given % filling θ/2 at centre
2-3-5 finding (sin θ/2)3 given % filling and power arm, given h/D ratio
2-3-6 finding relation between % loading and ratio h/D
2-3-7 d3.5 where d = clear dia. of mill
2-3-8 finding relation between % filling and sin θ/ 2, where θ/ 2 is half angle at centre
2-4 System Design
2-4-1 velocity head from gas flow in kg/m2/hr at different temperatures
2-4-2 sizing down comer ducts for different kiln capacities and gas velocities in duct
2-4-3 finding dia. of a round duct equivalent to a rectangular duct
2-4-4 height of stack for flue gases of different temperatures and for different drafts across the stack
2-4-5 diameters of stacks with natural draft according to weight of flue gas in kg / hr
2-4-6 pressure loss in pipes and ducts due to flow of gases

3-1 Fuel
Nomo no. nomogram for working out / arriving at / converting
3-1-1 sp.fuel consumption in kcal/kg from % fuel consumption and vice versa
3-1-2 several variables dependent on % fuel fired in calciner
3-2 Combustion
3-2-1 specific gas volume in nm3/ kg clinker for different fuel consumptions and conveying systems
3-2-2 total air for combustion in nm3 /kg clinker for different rates of fuel consumption
3-2-3 total air for combustion with different excess air factors for different calorific values of coal
3-2-4 products of combustion and exhaust gas volumes for different calorific values of coal and different quantities of excess air
3-2-5 distribution of secondary and tertiary airs for different proportions of fuel in kiln and calciner
3-2-6 division of air for combustion into leakage primary, secondary and tertiary airs
3-2-7 percent leakage in system given, Oxygen content in gases at inlet and outlet of the system
3-3 Drying
3-3-1 quantity of hot gas required for supplying given quantity of heat at different inlet temperatures of hot gas
3-3-2 heat required for evaporating water in wet coal for different percentages of moisture
3-3-3 heat required for evaporating water in limestone for different percentages of moisture in feed
Nomo no. nomogram for working out / arriving at / converting
3-3-4 graphs for heat required to evaporate 1 kg of water from limestone and coal for different percentage of moisture in feed
3-4 Log Mean Temp. Difference
3-4-1 Log Mean Temperature Difference
3-5 Heat Content
3-5-1 heat content of air/gas at different hot (inlet) and cold (outlet) temperatures
3-5-2 correcting heat content of air / gas (vide Nomo 3-5-1) as per actual sp. heat of air / gas
3-5-3 heat content of clinker in kcal / kg
3-5-4 correction to heat content of clinker vide nomo 3-5-3
3-6 Cooling
3-6-1 resultant quantity of gas after addition of diluting air to cool gases to a temperature of 240 oC suitable for glass bag filter
3-6-2 resultant quantity of gas after addition of diluting air when cooling gases to 120 oC suitable for bag filter with polyester bags
3-6-3 cooling air at different temperatures in nm3/kg clinker for cooling it from 1370 oC to a given temperature in conventional coolers

4-1 Mills, Ball
Nomo no. nomogram for working out / arriving at / converting
4-1-1 speeds of ball mills in r.p.m. for different values of critical speeds and clear diameters of mills
4-1-2 ball charge in tons of ball mills of different sizes for different % loadings and bulk densities of grinding media
Nomo no. nomogram for working out / arriving at / converting
4-1-3 power at shaft in kw/m for ball mills of different diameters at different loads and at 75 % critical speed
4-1-4 largest diameter of ball in a ball mill according to size of mill and size of feed
4-1-5 sp. power for a ball mill when grinding materials of different hardness (HGI) to different finenesses
4-1-6 sp. power of a ball mill knowing Bond's Index, feed size and product fineness of material to be ground
4-2 Mills, Vertical
4-2-1 power for Vertical Roller Mills when grinding materials of different HGIs to same product fineness for different thruputs
4-2-2 multiplying factors for deviations from base parameters like product fineness, HGI and moisture in feed
4-2-3 actual through put by using multiplying factors vide nomo 4-2-2
4-2-4 series of multipliers
4-2-5 multiplying factor for fineness for through put of vertical E-mill
4-3 Preheaters
4-3-1 sp. fuel consumption in 5 and 6 stage
preheaters for different calorific values of coal
4-3-2 inlet areas of cyclones for dust collectors
and preheaters
4-3-3 finding diameters of cyclones for dust collectors and preheaters from inlet areas found in Nomo 4-3-2
4-4 Calciners
4-4-1 increased capacity of a preheater kiln for different percentages fuel fired in calciner
Nomo no. nomogram for working out / arriving at / converting
4-4-2 percent fuel fired in calciner and degree of calcination at kiln inlet
4-5 Kilns
4-5-1 thermal load in million kcal/hr/m2 in the burning zone in preheater kilns
4-5-2 linear speeds of rotary kilns, coolers etc. of different diameters, running at different speeds in r.p.m. and vice versa
4-5-3 diameter of nozzle of coal firing pipe in kiln knowing quantity of primary air and velocity at nozzle
4-5-4 capacities of preheater kilns
4-5-5 capacity of a rotary kiln from its size and specific output in tpd/m3
4-5-6 retention time in Rotary Kilns and Coolers
4-6 Coolers
4-6-1 quantity of vent air from grate cooler in nm3/hr
4-6-2 finding out temp. of clinker and average temperature of recovered air in case of conventional coolers
4-7 Conveyors, Pneumatic
4-7-1 conveying air in m3/hr in air lifts of different capacities and air to material ratios
4-7-2 diameters of conveying pipe line in air lifts for different capacities for air/material ratio 50/1
4-7-3 diameters of conveying pipe line in air lifts for different capacities for air/material ratio 60/1
4-7-4 densities of air + material mixture for different air to material ratios
4-7-5 back pressure in air lifts
4-8 Conveyors, Mechanical Nomo no. nomogram for working out / arriving at / converting
4-8-1 capacities of Drag Chain Conveyors
4-8-2 fall in height of air slides of different lengths and slopes
4-8-3 rise of inclined belt conveyors for different degrees of inclination
4-9 Bag Filters
4-9-1 cloth area in m2 in bag filters for different volumes and air to cloth ratios and to find number of bags
4-10 Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP)
4-10-1 Specific Collection Area (SCA) for ESPs for kiln exhaust gases for given efficiency and migration velocity

Appendix 1
Appendix 2

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S.P. Deolalkar graduated in Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and at the British Institute of Management. As and Engineer, he joined the Associated Cement Companies, followed by ACC-Vickers-Babcock, where he was engaged in the manufacturing of boilers and cement machinery. He then continued as the Chief Executive of Bhagwati Priya Consulting Engineers and subsequently founded Deolalkar Consultants. He has been involved with the cement industry for many years and gathered experience and expertise in the commissioning, design, construction and operation of new plants as well as in extending and upgrading existing plants. Having handled almost all aspects of cement plants design, ranging form small 300 tpd to 3000 tpd capacities, Mr Deolalkar authored the reference work ‘Handbook for Designing Cement Plants’ (BS Publications / CRC Press, 2009, ISBN 978-0-415-66577-3), which is complemented with this practical nomogram book.