Nondestructive Biomarkers in Vertebrates presents an innovative approach for hazard assessment in vertebrates based on nondestructive rather than destructive methods. The book reviews the state of the art and defines the development and validation procedure of this new strategy. Biological materials, such as blood samples, epithelial tissue, eggs, feathers, and feces that can be obtained without stress or damage to the animal are suggested. Certain traditional studies (blood esterases, blood chemistry, mixed function oxidases, porphyrins, DNA damage, and cytological changes) can be performed on these specimens, along with new tests requiring only very small samples. This approach is developed to benefit protected, threatened species whose existence cannot be further jeopardized by the use of destructive methods. This volume will be particularly useful to ecotoxicologists, wildlife protection personnel, environmental consultants, and conservationist organizations.
Overview: The Use of Nondestructive Biomarkers in the Hazard Assessment of Vertebrate Populations (M.C. Fossi, C. Leonzio, and D. Peakall). Enzymatic Biomarkers: Blood Esterases as Indicators of Exposure to Organophosphorus and Carbamate Insecticides (H. Thompson and C. Walker). Clinical Biochemistry (A. Fairbrother). Metabolic Products as Biomarkers: Porphyrins as "Nondestructive" Indicators of Exposure to Environmental Pollutants (F. De Matteis and C.K. Lim). Genotoxic Responses: Genotoxic Responses in Blood (L.R. Shugart). Genotoxic Responses in Blood Detected by Cytogenetic and Cytometric Assays (J.W. Bickham). Hemoglobin Adducts (L.R. Shugart). Cellular Biomarkers: An Integrated Approach to Cellular Biomarkers in Fish (M. Moore, A. Köhler, D.M. Lowe, and M.G. Simpson). Biomarkers in Eggs: Biomarkers in Egg Samples (D. Peakall). Biomarkers in Studies of Endangered Species: Marine Mammals: An Improved Whale Biopsy System Designed for Multidisciplinary Research (R.H. Lambertsen, C.S. Baker, M. Weinrich, and W.S. Modi). Assessment of Organochlorine Pollutants in Cetaceans by Means of Skin and Hypodermic Biopsies (A. Aguilar and A. Borrell). Remarks on Nondestructive Biomarkers: The Rational Basis for the Use of Biomarkers as Ecotoxicological Tools (M. Depledge). Nondestructive Biomarker Strategy: Perspectives and Applications (C. Leonzio and M.C. Fossi). The Future of Nondestructive Biomarkers (J. McCarthy). Index.