Novel Concepts, Systems and Technology for Sludge Management in Emergency and Slum Settings  book cover
1st Edition

Novel Concepts, Systems and Technology for Sludge Management in Emergency and Slum Settings

ISBN 9780367902216
Published February 28, 2020 by CRC Press
188 Pages

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Book Description

Management of sludge is one of the most pressing issues in sanitation provision. The situation is especially complex when large quantities of fresh sludge containing various contaminants are generated in onsite sanitation systems in urban slums, emergency settlements and wastewater treatment facilities that require proper disposal of the sludge. The application of fast and efficient sludge management methods is important under these conditions.

This study focused on the development of an innovative sludge treatment unit that is based on the microwave irradiation technology. The technology provides a rapid and efficient option for sludge treatment in isolated conditions such as slum, emergency, and similar situations. The microwave based technology forms part of the eSOS (emergency sanitation operation system) concept that promotes an integrated sanitation approach in which all components of the entire sanitation chain are planned holistically. Besides, the study addresses the deficiencies associated with the poor choice of emergency sanitation technology options by proposing a methodology that is based on compensatory multi-criteria analysis.

This study contributes in providing solutions towards improved sanitation in complex scenarios, especially the management of faecal sludge in emergency and slum conditions.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 General introduction
1.2 Sanitation in emergency situations
1.3 Challenges in emergency faecal sludge management and the need for alternative technology options
1.4 Aim and scope of the thesis
1.5 Research hypotheses
1.6 Objectives
1.7 Outline

Chapter 2 Emergency sanitation: A review of potential technologies and selection criteria
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Challenges in emergency sanitation
2.3 Sanitation options for faecal sludge and wastewater disposal in emergencies
2.4 Selection of sanitation technologies in emergency response
2.5 Conclusions and recommendations

Chapter 3 Innovative approaches to emergency sanitation: The concept of the emergency sanitation operation system - eSOS®
3.1 Introduction
3.2 eSOS®
3.3 eSOS® kit
3.4 eSOS® smart toilets
3.5 Intelligent faecal sludge collection vehicles tracking system
3.6 Faecal sludge treatment facility
3.7 Emergency sanitation coordination centre
3.8 eSOS® operation
3.9 Costs and eSOS business model
3.10 Concluding remarks

Chapter 4 Microwave technology as a viable sanitation technology option for sludge treatment
4.1 The microwave technology
4.2 Microwave heating system
4.3 Principles of microwave technology
4.4 Mechanisms of microwave heating
4.5 State of art of microwave application in waste treatment
4.6 Conclusions and recommendations

Chapter 5 Evaluation of a microwave based reactor for the treatment of blackwater sludge
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Materials and methods
5.3 Results
5.4 Discussion
5.5 Conclusions and recommendations

Chapter 6 Microwave treatment of faecal sludge from intensively used toilets in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Materials and methods
6.3 Results
6.4 Discussion
6.5 Conclusions and recommendations

Chapter 7 Design, development and evaluation of a pilot-scale microwave based technology for sludge sanitization and drying
7.1 Introduction
7.2 The concept
7.3 Research approach
7.4 Validation, design, development and production
7.5 Preliminary experimental tests and improvements
7.6 Evaluation of pilot-scale microwave reactor unit version 3
7.7 Materials and methods
7.8 Results and discussion
7.9 Conclusions

Chapter 8 Conclusions and outlook
8.1 Conclusions
8.2 General outlook

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Peter Matuku Mawioo, a Sanitary Engineer, was born in 1979 in Kitui County, Kenya. He obtained his MSc. in Municipal Water and Infrastructure; specialization in Sanitary Engineering from IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, Delft, the Netherlands in 2010. Peter obtained his BSc degree from  the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering; specialization in Water and Environmental Engineering from Egerton University, Kenya in 2006. He is currently employed as a Lecturer in Public Health Engineering in the Department of Civil and Structural Engineering at the University of Eldoret (UoE), Kenya. Peter carried out his PhD studies in Sanitary Engineering at Delft University of Technology, Delft and IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, Delft, The Netherlands between 2011 and 2017. His PhD research topic focusses on the development and improvement of sanitation technologies for application in isolated cases such as the slum, emergency, and similar situations. Peter’s research interests include biological wastewater treatment, membrane bioreactors, wastewater reuse, non-sewered sanitation, and innovative scientific environmental technologies.