Management of sludge is one of the most pressing issues in sanitation provision. The situation is especially complex when large quantities of fresh sludge containing various contaminants are generated in onsite sanitation systems in urban slums, emergency settlements and wastewater treatment facilities that require proper disposal of the sludge. The application of fast and efficient sludge management methods is important under these conditions.
This study focused on the development of an innovative sludge treatment unit that is based on the microwave irradiation technology. The technology provides a rapid and efficient option for sludge treatment in isolated conditions such as slum, emergency, and similar situations. The microwave based technology forms part of the eSOS (emergency sanitation operation system) concept that promotes an integrated sanitation approach in which all components of the entire sanitation chain are planned holistically. Besides, the study addresses the deficiencies associated with the poor choice of emergency sanitation technology options by proposing a methodology that is based on compensatory multi-criteria analysis.
This study contributes in providing solutions towards improved sanitation in complex scenarios, especially the management of faecal sludge in emergency and slum conditions.
Introduction, Emergency sanitation: A review of potential technologies and selection criteria, Innovative approaches to emergency sanitation: The concept of the emergency sanitation operation system - eSOS®, Microwave technology as a viable sanitation technology option for sludge treatment, Evaluation of a microwave based reactor for the treatment of blackwater sludge, Microwave treatment of faecal sludge from intensively used toilets in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya, Design, development and evaluation of a pilot-scale microwave based technology for sludge sanitization and drying, Conclusions and outlook.
IHE Delft PhD programme leads to a deepening of a field of specialisation. PhD fellows do scientific research, often with conclusions that directly influence their region. At IHE Delft, PhD researchers from around the world participate in problem-focused and solution-oriented research on development issues, resulting in an inspiring research environment. PhD fellows work together with other researchers from many countries dealing with topics related to water and the environment.
PhD research is often carried out in the ‘sandwich’ model. Preparation and final reporting – the first and last portion of the programme – are carried out in Delft, while actual research is done in the fellow’s home country, under co-supervision of a local institute. Regular contacts with the promotor are maintained through visits and long-distance communication. This enables researchers to employ solutions directly to problems in their geographical region.
IHE Delft PhD degrees are awarded jointly with a university. The degrees are highly valued and fully recognised in all parts of the world.