Until recently, innate immunity was regarded as a relatively nonspecific system designed to engulf and destroy pathogens. However, new studies show that the innate immune system is highly developed in its ability to discriminate between self and foreign entities. Understanding this mechanism can lead to therapeutic strategies based on manipulation of this previously unexploited branch of the immune system.
Drawing on the research of leading experts, Nucleic Acids in Innate Immunity provides insight in this new area of immunology. The book begins by explaining the roles of nucleic acids in immunity, describing the mechanism of discrimination based on pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), Nod-like receptors (NLR), and RIG-I-like receptors (RLR). Chapters discuss how these PRRs recognize and respond to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by activating specific signaling pathways.
The second section focuses on the therapeutic applications of immunomodulatory DNA by manipulating released pathogenic nucleic acids as immune system stimulants. The book introduces novel therapeutics developed to prevent or treat infectious diseases, allergic disorders, and cancer, as well as clearing unnecessary or abnormal host molecules.
The final section addresses how the immune system discriminates self and non-self RNA. Recent findings that host (self) nucleic acids are not inert in the immune system beg the question of exactly what elements within DNA or RNA are recognized by the innate immune system. Contributions review recent advances to understand innate immune recognition of nucleic acids and describe the resulting immune modulation.
Providing a comprehensive review of nucleic acid recognition and regulation by the innate immune system, this seminal work reveals new directions for future research in immune modulation.
Roles of nucleic acids in immunity
Structural Analysis of Toll-Like Receptors, J. Choe and I.A. Wilson
Antiviral Signaling through TLR and RLH, T. Kawai
Recognition of Virus Invasion by Toll-like Receptors and RIG-I-like Helicases, H. Kato and O. Takeuchi
Nucleic Acid Signal Processing by Dendritic Cells, T. Kaisho, T. Sugiyama, and K. Hoshino
The Role of Nucleic Acid Recognition in Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells for Antiviral Defense and Autoimmunity, A. Krug and W. Reindl
Mechanisms and therapeutic applications of immunomodulatory DNA
TLR9 Activation by Mammalian DNA: Are CpG-Motifs Essential?, T. Haas, F. Schmitz, A. Heit and H. Wagner
Discrimination of Self vs Non-self DNA, K.J. Stacey, F. Clark, G.R. Young, T.L. Roberts
Therapeutic Potential of Immunosuppressive Oligonucleotides Expressing TTAGGG motifs, D.M. Klinman, D. Currie, C. Fujimoto, I. Gery, and H. Shirota
Structure/function in Poly-G bearing CpG ODN, D. Verthelyi and M. Puig
Clinical Development of Oligodeoxynucleotide TLR9 Agonists, J.L. Himes and A.M. Krieg
Prospects for DNA Based Immunotherapy for Allergy and Asthma, D. Broide
Toll-like Receptors in the Development of Systemic Autoimmune Disease, A. Rothstein
How do we discriminate self and non-self RNA?
The Impact of Nucleoside Modification on RNA-Mediated Activation of Toll-Like Receptors, K. Karikó and D. Weissman
Activation of Innate Pattern Recognition Pathways by Single-Stranded Ribonucleic Acids, S. Diebold
Recognition of Small Interfering RNA by the Immune System, A. Ablasser, G. Hartmann, and V. Hornung
Recognition of RNA and Synthetic Compounds by TLR7 and TLR8, S. Hamm and S. Bauer
Helicases at the Frontline of RNA Virus Recognition, L. Gitlin and M. Colonna