Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Health in Early Life  book cover
2nd Edition

Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Health in Early Life

ISBN 9781138114210
Published June 14, 2017 by CRC Press
428 Pages 27 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

During the past decade since the first edition of this practical work was published, global prevalence of obesity has increased by epic proportions, and physical fitness levels have continued to decline. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Health in Early Life, Second Edition analyzes cutting-edge longitudinal and cross-sectional data on morphological, nutritional, and functional characteristics related to environmental factors to assess how the lifestyle choices we make when we’re young deeply impact overall health and wellness throughout our lives.

Includes Step-by-Step Nutrition and Exercise Plans

Extensively revised and updated, this definitive second edition synthesizes new, original research findings related to anthropometric and body composition data, dietary intake, cardiorespiratory function, motor and psychomotor skills, muscle strength, and biochemical and physiological parameters of preschool-age children. The book supplies ready-to-implement nutrition and exercise plans that are appropriate for children in this age group. Almost tripling the number of references, the text includes new chapters that address the role of genetic factors in addition to prevention techniques, consequences, and treatment of obesity. It also compares body mass index, body composition, and the shifts of adiposity rebound on an international scale.

Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Health in Early Life, Second Edition emphasizes that to preserve a high-quality of life no matter your age, it is crucial that a foundation of healthy nutrition and optimal physical activity, which increases the level of physical fitness, be cemented early on. In effect, this book illustrates why early prevention always trumps a cure.

Table of Contents

Introduction: First Steps to Optimal Health and Fitness throughout Life
Potential for Health
Historical Aspects: Pedagogy and Education
Physiology of Children
Secular Trend: Acceleration of Growth
Influence of Environmental Factors
What Are the Aims?
Theoretical Considerations: What Can We Learn from the Natural and Experimental Models?
Influence of Diet Early in Life and Its Delayed Effects
Influence of Increased PA during Pregnancy on the Later Development of Offspring
Influence of Other Factors during Pregnancy
Exercise during Pre- and Postnatal Ontogeny and Cardiac Microstructure of the Offspring
Influence of PA on the Development of Experimental Cardiac Necrosis
Impact of the Interactions between Early Diet and PA on Experimental Cardiac Necrosis
General Considerations
Nutrition of Pregnant Mothers and Their Children in Early Life: Human Studies
Variability of Practices during Pregnancy and Lactation in Different Societies
Position in Industrially Developed Countries
Influence of Genetic Factors on Growth and Health Risks in the Offspring
Impact of Maternal Status on Offspring
Relationships among Anthropometric, Dietary, and Serum Lipid Variables of the Mother and the Newborn
General Considerations
Growth and Somatic Development of Preschool Children
Evaluation of Somatic Growth
Cross-Sectional Surveys of Anthropometric Variables
Longitudinal Studies of Children from 3 to 6 Years of Age
Body Composition and Fat Pattern
Body Posture
Relationship between Heights and Weights of Parents and Anthropometric Variables of Preschool Children
Other Surveys
General Considerations
Nutritional Status and Dietary Intake in Early Life
Energy Requirements
Protein Requirements
Minerals and Trace Elements
Methods for the Evaluation of Dietary Intake
Dietary Intake and Energy Output in Czech Preschoolers: Results of Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Surveys
Food Intake and Energy Output in Other Preschool Child Populations
Food Habits, Preferences, and Aversions in Preschool Age
RDAs for Preschool Children: Is There a Need for Further Revision?
General Considerations and Recommendations
Functional Development and Physical Activity during Early Childhood
PA, EE, and Physical Fitness in Young Children
Evaluation of PA and Physical Fitness
Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Motor and Sensomotor Development: Gross and Fine Motorics
Metabolic and Biochemical Characteristics
Studies of Biochemical Variables, Blood Pressure, and
Fatness in Other Populations
General Considerations
Influence of Varying Nutrition and Environment on Somatic Development and Physical Fitness
Growth and Development
Influence of Different Types of Nutrition and Dietary Intake
Surveys in Populations Varying in Environment and Dietary Intake
Influence of Severe Malnutrition
Problems of Child Labor
General Considerations
Development of Obesity and Its Influence on the Functional Capacity of Children and Youth
Obesity in Young Children
Changes of Obesity Prevalence with Time in Different Countries
Genetic and Hereditary Factors in Early Childhood Obesity
Maternal and Familial Factors in the Development of Childhood Obesity
Early Factors in Obesity Development
Evaluation of Obesity
Results of Studies in Young Obese Subjects
Health Complications of Obesity in Children
Management of Obesity: Prevention and Treatment at an Early Age
Morphological, Functional, and Biochemical Changes after Reduction Treatment
General Considerations: Role of Obesity Interventions for Optimal Development at an Early Age
Influence of Environmental Factors

Influence of Living Conditions in the Capital and in Other Parts of the Czech Republic
Economic Level and Birth Rank
Environment, Risk Pregnancy, Family Conditions, and Health
Effect of Birth Weight
Effect of Family Situation
Effect of Education of Parents
Health Status of Children
General Considerations
Influence of Motor Stimulation, Physical Education, and Spontaneous Physical Activity
Motor Development of Infants
Experimental Observations on the Impact of Motor Stimulation in Infants
Motor Development and Education of Children Aged 3–6 Years
What to Avoid in the Motor Stimulation in Young Children
Influence of Exercise in Preschoolers
Spontaneous PA, Somatic and Functional Development, Food Intake, and Blood Lipids
Other Surveys on the Effect of PA and Exercise at an Early Age
General Considerations
Criteria for the Evaluation of Morphological and Functional Development in Preschool Children: Recommendations
Body Size and Body Composition
Functional Measurements: Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Motor Development
Sensomotor Development
Dietary Intake and Biochemical Characteristics
Summary of Experimental Results
Studies in Experimental Models with Laboratory Animals
Observations on the Influence of Maternal Nutrition on the Newborn
Morphological and Functional Surveys in Preschool Children
Surveys of Children with Various Environmental Conditions and Different Levels of Nutrition
Obesity in Young Children
Influence of Exercise
Perspectives: Physical Activity, Early Prevention of Diseases, and Development of Positive Health
Appendix 1 Body Posture
Appendix 2 Step Test
Appendix 3 Motor Performance
Appendix 4 Sensomotor Tests
1180 References

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Professor Jana Pařízková, MD, PhD, DSc, is a senior scientist at the Centre for the Management of Obesity, Institute of Endocrinology in Prague, Czech Republic. Her main area of research is body composition and obesity with joined metabolic and clinical problems as related to actual diet, physical activity level, physical fitness, biochemical and hormonal characteristics, psychological traits, etc.


Praise for the First Edition
… clearly written, eloquently organized text, providing pertinent and useful information for anyone interested in the problems of nutrition, physical activity, and health in very young children.
Pediatric Exercise Science