Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Health in Early Life: 2nd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Health in Early Life

2nd Edition

By Jana Parizkova

CRC Press

428 pages | 27 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2017-06-14
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Description

During the past decade since the first edition of this practical work was published, global prevalence of obesity has increased by epic proportions, and physical fitness levels have continued to decline. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Health in Early Life, Second Edition analyzes cutting-edge longitudinal and cross-sectional data on morphological, nutritional, and functional characteristics related to environmental factors to assess how the lifestyle choices we make when we’re young deeply impact overall health and wellness throughout our lives.

Includes Step-by-Step Nutrition and Exercise Plans

Extensively revised and updated, this definitive second edition synthesizes new, original research findings related to anthropometric and body composition data, dietary intake, cardiorespiratory function, motor and psychomotor skills, muscle strength, and biochemical and physiological parameters of preschool-age children. The book supplies ready-to-implement nutrition and exercise plans that are appropriate for children in this age group. Almost tripling the number of references, the text includes new chapters that address the role of genetic factors in addition to prevention techniques, consequences, and treatment of obesity. It also compares body mass index, body composition, and the shifts of adiposity rebound on an international scale.

Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Health in Early Life, Second Edition emphasizes that to preserve a high-quality of life no matter your age, it is crucial that a foundation of healthy nutrition and optimal physical activity, which increases the level of physical fitness, be cemented early on. In effect, this book illustrates why early prevention always trumps a cure.

Reviews

Praise for the First Edition

… clearly written, eloquently organized text, providing pertinent and useful information for anyone interested in the problems of nutrition, physical activity, and health in very young children.

Pediatric Exercise Science

Table of Contents

Introduction: First Steps to Optimal Health and Fitness throughout Life

Potential for Health

Historical Aspects: Pedagogy and Education

Physiology of Children

Secular Trend: Acceleration of Growth

Influence of Environmental Factors

What Are the Aims?

Theoretical Considerations: What Can We Learn from the Natural and Experimental Models?

Influence of Diet Early in Life and Its Delayed Effects

Influence of Increased PA during Pregnancy on the Later Development of Offspring

Influence of Other Factors during Pregnancy

Exercise during Pre- and Postnatal Ontogeny and Cardiac Microstructure of the Offspring

Influence of PA on the Development of Experimental Cardiac Necrosis

Impact of the Interactions between Early Diet and PA on Experimental Cardiac Necrosis

General Considerations

Nutrition of Pregnant Mothers and Their Children in Early Life: Human Studies

Variability of Practices during Pregnancy and Lactation in Different Societies

Position in Industrially Developed Countries

Influence of Genetic Factors on Growth and Health Risks in the Offspring

Impact of Maternal Status on Offspring

Relationships among Anthropometric, Dietary, and Serum Lipid Variables of the Mother and the Newborn

General Considerations

Growth and Somatic Development of Preschool Children

Introduction

Evaluation of Somatic Growth

Cross-Sectional Surveys of Anthropometric Variables

Longitudinal Studies of Children from 3 to 6 Years of Age

Body Composition and Fat Pattern

Somatotypes

Body Posture

Relationship between Heights and Weights of Parents and Anthropometric Variables of Preschool Children

Other Surveys

General Considerations

Nutritional Status and Dietary Intake in Early Life

Introduction

Energy Requirements

Protein Requirements

Fats

Carbohydrates

Minerals and Trace Elements

Vitamins

Methods for the Evaluation of Dietary Intake

Dietary Intake and Energy Output in Czech Preschoolers: Results of Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Surveys

Food Intake and Energy Output in Other Preschool Child Populations

Food Habits, Preferences, and Aversions in Preschool Age

RDAs for Preschool Children: Is There a Need for Further Revision?

General Considerations and Recommendations

Functional Development and Physical Activity during Early Childhood

Introduction

PA, EE, and Physical Fitness in Young Children

Evaluation of PA and Physical Fitness

Cardiorespiratory Fitness

Motor and Sensomotor Development: Gross and Fine Motorics

Metabolic and Biochemical Characteristics

Studies of Biochemical Variables, Blood Pressure, and

Fatness in Other Populations

General Considerations

Influence of Varying Nutrition and Environment on Somatic Development and Physical Fitness

Introduction

Growth and Development

Influence of Different Types of Nutrition and Dietary Intake

Surveys in Populations Varying in Environment and Dietary Intake

Influence of Severe Malnutrition

Problems of Child Labor

General Considerations

Development of Obesity and Its Influence on the Functional Capacity of Children and Youth

Obesity in Young Children

Changes of Obesity Prevalence with Time in Different Countries

Genetic and Hereditary Factors in Early Childhood Obesity

Maternal and Familial Factors in the Development of Childhood Obesity

Early Factors in Obesity Development

Evaluation of Obesity

Results of Studies in Young Obese Subjects

Health Complications of Obesity in Children

Management of Obesity: Prevention and Treatment at an Early Age

Morphological, Functional, and Biochemical Changes after Reduction Treatment

General Considerations: Role of Obesity Interventions for Optimal Development at an Early Age

Influence of Environmental Factors

Introduction

Influence of Living Conditions in the Capital and in Other Parts of the Czech Republic

Economic Level and Birth Rank

Environment, Risk Pregnancy, Family Conditions, and Health

Effect of Birth Weight

Effect of Family Situation

Effect of Education of Parents

Health Status of Children

General Considerations

Influence of Motor Stimulation, Physical Education, and Spontaneous Physical Activity

Introduction

Motor Development of Infants

Experimental Observations on the Impact of Motor Stimulation in Infants

Toddlers

Motor Development and Education of Children Aged 3–6 Years

What to Avoid in the Motor Stimulation in Young Children

Influence of Exercise in Preschoolers

Spontaneous PA, Somatic and Functional Development, Food Intake, and Blood Lipids

Other Surveys on the Effect of PA and Exercise at an Early Age

General Considerations

Criteria for the Evaluation of Morphological and Functional Development in Preschool Children: Recommendations

Body Size and Body Composition

Functional Measurements: Cardiorespiratory Fitness

Motor Development

Sensomotor Development

Dietary Intake and Biochemical Characteristics

Summary of Experimental Results

Studies in Experimental Models with Laboratory Animals

Observations on the Influence of Maternal Nutrition on the Newborn

Morphological and Functional Surveys in Preschool Children

Surveys of Children with Various Environmental Conditions and Different Levels of Nutrition

Obesity in Young Children

Influence of Exercise

Perspectives: Physical Activity, Early Prevention of Diseases, and Development of Positive Health

Appendix 1 Body Posture

Appendix 2 Step Test

Appendix 3 Motor Performance

Appendix 4 Sensomotor Tests

1180 References

Index

About the Author

Professor Jana Parízková, MD, PhD, DSc, is a senior scientist at the Centre for the Management of Obesity, Institute of Endocrinology in Prague, Czech Republic. Her main area of research is body composition and obesity with joined metabolic and clinical problems as related to actual diet, physical activity level, physical fitness, biochemical and hormonal characteristics, psychological traits, etc.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MED027000
MEDICAL / Endocrinology & Metabolism
MED060000
MEDICAL / Nutrition
MED069000
MEDICAL / Pediatrics