2nd Edition

Nutrition and Diabetes Pathophysiology and Management

Edited By Emmanuel C. Opara, Sam Dagogo-Jack Copyright 2019
    470 Pages 50 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    470 Pages 50 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Diabetes occurs at such an alarming rate that it can be described as a global epidemic. Following its predecessor, Nutrition and Diabetes: Pathophysiology and Management, Second Edition, is a comprehensive resource that describes various factors that drive the accumulation of excess body weight and fat resulting in obesity. The book discusses the metabolic aberrations found in obesity and how they lead to the association of obesity with diabetes. This new edition highlights the role played by diet and the interrelationships in the metabolism of key nutrients in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes which provides the scientific basis for treatment and management approaches.


    • Highlights the role of nutrition in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes

    • Organized logically into two easy-to-use sections - Pathophysiology and Management of Obesity and Pathophysiology and Treatment of Diabetes

    • Features emerging therapeutic approaches for management of obesity and diabetes

    • Discusses experience in the management of obesity and diabetes in developing countries

    • Presents challenges in insulin therapy and provides guidelines to overcome them

    The first section of the book retains key topics from the previous edition and contains new chapters including genetic determinants of nutrient processing; fat distribution and diabetes mellitus; combined effect of diet and physical activity in the management of obesity; pharmacologic treatment of obesity; and the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity. The second section features updated versions of most of the other chapters in the first edition comprising a modified chapter on oxidative stress and the effects of dietary supplements on glycemic control in Type 2 diabetes. In addition, new chapters are added in this section and include the contribution of iron and transition metal micronutrients to diabetes; role of microbiota in the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes; primary prevention of Type 2 diabetes; and the pathophysiology and management of Type 1 diabetes.

    Section i Pathophysiology and treatment of obesity

    Chapter 1 Central and Peripheral Modulators of Appetite and Satiety

    [Gabrielle Page-Wilson and Sam Dagogo-Jack]

    Chapter 2 Genetic Determinants of Nutrient Processing

    [Nicholette D. Palmer]

    Chapter 3 The Enteroinsular Axis: Contribution to Obesity-Diabetes and Its Treatments

    [Varun Pathak, Nigel Irwin, and Peter R. Flatt]

    Chapter 4 Metabolic Syndrome: Recognition, Etiology, and Physical Fitness as

    a Component

    [Robert W. McGarrah and William E. Kraus]

    Chapter 5 Fat Distribution and Diabetes Mellitus

    [Danae A. Delivanis and Michael D. Jensen]

    Chapter 6 Combined Effect of Diet and Physical Activity in the Management of Obesity

    [Gary D. Miller]

    Chapter 7 Pharmacological Treatment of Obesity

    [Amie A. Ogunsakin and Ayotunde O. Dokun]

    Chapter 8 The Role of Gut Microbiota in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Obesity

    [Stephen J. Walker and Puja B. Patel]

    Chapter 9 Bariatric Surgery

    [Adolfo Z. Fernandez, Jr.]

    Chapter 10 Postoperative Nutritional Management of the Bariatric-Surgery Patient

    [Gary D. Miller]

    Section ii Pathophysiology and treatment of Diabetes

    Chapter 11 Health and Economic Burdens of Diabetes and Its Complications

    [William F. Kendall, Jr.]

    Chapter 12 Nutrient Interactions and Glucose Homeostasis

    [Emmanuel C. Opara]

    Chapter 13 Management of Obesity-Associated Type 2 Diabetes

    [Wanda C. Lakey, Lillian F. Lien, and Mark N. Feinglos]

    Chapter 14 Type 2 Diabetes in Childhood: Diagnosis, Pathogenesis, Prevention,

    and Treatment

    [Robert Benjamin]

    Chapter 15 The Contribution of Iron and Transition Metal Micronutrients to Diabetes

    and Metabolic Disease

    [Lipika Salaye, Zhenzhong Bai, and Donald A. McClain]

    Chapter 16 The Role of Gut Microbiota in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Diabetes

    [Stephen J. Walker and Shaun P. Deveshwar]

    Chapter 17 Achieving a Healthy Body Weight in Later Life: Interventions to Reduce

    Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    [Kathryn N. Porter Starr, Kenlyn R. Young, and Connie W. Bales]

    Chapter 18 Primary Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes: From Research to Community

    [Natascha Thompson and Sam Dagogo-Jack]

    Chapter 19 Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Sub-Saharan Africa: Focus on Nigeria

    [Olufemi A. Fasanmade, Amie A. Ogunsakin, and Sam Dagogo-Jack]

    Chapter 20 Gestational Diabetes: Focus on Pregestational, Gestational, and Postnatal

    Weight Management

    [Jacques E. Samson]

    Chapter 21 Pathophysiology and Management of Type 1 Diabetes: Rational Design of

    Insulin Therapy

    [Schafer Boeder and Steven Edelman]

    Chapter 22 Meal Detection Module in an Artificial Pancreas System for People with

    Type 1 Diabetes

    [S. Samadi, K. Turksoy, I. Hajizadeh, J. Feng, M. Sevil, C. Lazaro, N. Hobbs,

    R. Brandt, J. Kilkus, E. Littlejohn, and A. Cinar]

    Chapter 23 Oxidative Stress and the Effects of Dietary Supplements on Glycemic Control

    in Type 2 Diabetes

    [Emmanuel C. Opara]

    Chapter 24 Management of Diabetic Gastroparesis

    [Kenneth L. Koch and Khalil N. Bitar]


    Emmanuel C. Opara, PhD, received his M.Sc degree in Clinical Biochemistry at the University of Surrey in England and a Ph.D. in Medical Biochemistry from the University of London. After a WHO-sponsored research fellowship in Endocrinology/Metabolism at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN he was a visiting fellow at the NIDDK, NIH in Bethesda, MD before spending 15 years on faculty at the Duke University Medical Center in Durham, NC. He subsequently was a research professor in the Biomedical Engineering program at the Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago while serving as a senior investigator in the Human Islet Transplant program at the University of Chicago. He accepted his present position as a professor at the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine (WFIRM) in 2009 and currently serves as a professor in the Center on Obesity, Diabetes & Metabolism at the Wake Forest School of Medicine. He also serves as professor and graduate program director at the Wake Forest University campus in Winston-Salem, NC of the joint Virginia Tech-Wake Forest School of Biomedical Engineering & Sciences (SBES). Dr. Opara is a member of many professional organizations including the American Diabetes Association, American Federation for Medical Research, and the American Pancreatic Association. He was honored by the Society of Black Academic Surgeons with a distinguished service award in 2007.

    Sam Dagogo-Jack, MD is Professor of Medicine and Chief of the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, where he holds the A. C. Mullins Endowed Professorial Chair in Translational Research and also serves as Director of the General Clinical Research Center at UTHSC. Dr. Dagogo-Jack’s current research focuses on the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in the prediction and prevention of prediabetes and diabetes. He is a Principal Investigator of the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS), the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, and the Pathobiology and Reversibility of Prediabetes in a Biracial Cohort (PROP-ABC) study, all funded by the National Institutes of Health. A recipient of the Distinction in Endocrinology Award from the American College of Endocrinology, Dr. Dagogo-Jack treats patients with diabetes, endocrine, and metabolic disorders and also directs the Endocrinology Fellowship Training Program at UTHSC.

    This is the second edition of a comprehensive book on the research into the link between diabetes and obesity. Divided into two sections, it is an in-depth examination of the multiple factors that drive obesity and how those factors may be prevalent in the development of diabetes. This second edition also focuses on the role of diet in both populations and how nutrition may be linked to the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. Supporting research provides emerging treatment approaches and disease management therapies. The first edition was published almost a decade ago.

    The purpose is to provide a unique forum that highlights the link between obesity and diabetes. From the introduction, it is apparent that the authors are passionate about their knowledge and research in this area and how these disorders have come to be recognized as burdens to both individuals who have obesity or diabetes and to society in general. As the incidence of obesity rises, the incidence of type 2 diabetes is also rising. The purpose of this book is to better understand these diseases in order to better treat individuals afflicted with them. The authors' purpose is also to highlight the links between these two disease states; specifically, the underlying mechanisms of how each develops, the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment, and the underlying nutritional relationship to each of these diseases. Despite current efforts, the incidence of obesity and diabetes continues to rise, even among children. As more research has come out in the past decade on both topics, it has become imperative to begin treating these diseases in a different manner, first by understanding how they develop and, second, by understanding their connection to one another. The authors have brought together a wide array of professionals to write the 24 chapters on the relationship of diabetes and obesity and the role of nutrition in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. The information this book collects provides emerging therapeutic approaches for
    managing these diseases.

    The audience includes physicians, dietitians, nutritionists, and other healthcare professionals who have daily interactions with persons who have obesity and diabetes. This book is also for researchers who desire a deeper understanding or want to identify gaps in our current knowledge of these diseases. The authors state that this book also would be of interest to experts and officials involved in making healthcare policies, and members of the general population (especially those with obesity and/or diabetes) who wish to learn more about these diseases. The authors of each chapter are highly regarded as experts in their fields and come from a variety of background settings.

    This book examines the various factors that drive the development of obesity, the metabolic adaptations of obesity, and how this can lead to the development of obesity with diabetes. The role of nutrition is highlighted in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. This book is clearly organized into two easy to understand sections -- the first focuses on the pathophysiology and treatment of obesity and the second on the pathophysiology and treatment of diabetes. Both sections are well written, well researched, and well organized. Topics in both sections include some previously known research, such as genetic determinants of obesity and diabetes, as well as diet and physical activity, but this book also highlights new interventions and newer therapies. The book begins with a look into modulators of appetite and satiety. This information is crucial for healthcare professional working with a population of patients who have obesity, as this disease has far more underlying mechanisms of action than previously recognized. The information on the gut microbiota and how it may impact both the development and treatment of obesity and diabetes is exciting and contemporary, but not well understood by many current professionals. The book also highlights treatment modalities such as pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery for persons with obesity as well as diabetes. These subjects may often be overlooked by practitioners, and it is imperative to include information on these subjects when discussing obesity and diabetes. Not only does this book focus on pathophysiology and treatment methods, it combines several chapters regarding nutrition in the pathophysiology and treatment of obesity and diabetes. However, given the title of the book, more information regarding current nutrition practices or emerging nutrition practices for obesity (coverage of specific diets and recommendations) may have made a stronger case for nutrition as a treatment modality.

    The intended audience (healthcare professionals, researchers, policy makers and general patient populations) will find this book extremely useful. The information in this updated edition provides an in-depth, easy to understand look at how obesity and diabetes develop. This is extremely important for healthcare practitioners who may work with a population of patients who have obesity and/or diabetes and are struggling to understand their patients or are seeking new and more effective treatment options. Anyone in the general population who has obesity and/or diabetes also would find this book useful in better understanding their disease and how or why it has developed. After reading this book, patients also may have a better understanding of the treatment advice their healthcare team provides. This second edition is warranted and needed; as researchers have discovered new and exciting information on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of diabetes and obesity, many healthcare practitioners, researchers, policymakers and patients have come to think about these diseases differently than a decade ago. As we have found more effective treatment methods for these diseases, it is imperative to provide this information to those who treat, assess, or live with obesity and/ or diabetes

    - Holly Herrington, MS, RD (Northwestern Memorial Hospital)