Paradoxes in Scientific Inference: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Paradoxes in Scientific Inference

1st Edition

By Mark Chang

Chapman and Hall/CRC

291 pages | 45 B/W Illus.

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Paperback: 9781466509863
pub: 2012-10-15
Hardback: 9781138440180
pub: 2017-07-27
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pub: 2012-10-15
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Paradoxes are poems of science and philosophy that collectively allow us to address broad multidisciplinary issues within a microcosm. A true paradox is a source of creativity and a concise expression that delivers a profound idea and provokes a wild and endless imagination. The study of paradoxes leads to ultimate clarity and, at the same time, indisputably challenges your mind.

Paradoxes in Scientific Inference analyzes paradoxes from many different perspectives: statistics, mathematics, philosophy, science, artificial intelligence, and more. The book elaborates on findings and reaches new and exciting conclusions. It challenges your knowledge, intuition, and conventional wisdom, compelling you to adjust your way of thinking. Ultimately, you will learn effective scientific inference through studying the paradoxes.


"… an excellent book discussing the principles of scientific inference for readers with various backgrounds. Paradoxes are seen sporadically in different occasions; a systematic review in this book may reshape the reader’s brain, as the author warns, and, at the very least, provides a fresh view of scientific philosophy."

—Gang Li, Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics, 24, 2014

"This is a very, very entertaining book. It is extremely well written, extremely clear, and very highly recommended."

—Norman R. Draper, International Statistical Review (2013), 81

"… the brisk pace makes the pages turn easily and the book is fun …"

—Sandra Z. Keith, MAA Reviews, April 2013

Table of Contents

The Joy of Paradoxes: A Random Walk

Introduction to Paradox

Applications of Paradoxes

Mathematical Paradox

Probabilistic and Statistical Paradoxes

Mathematical and Plausible Reasoning

Probability and Randomness

Mathematical Logic and Formal Reasoning

Plausible Reasoning

Statistical Measures of Scientific Evidence

Introduction to Statistical Methods

Statistical Principles

Decision Theory Approach

Controversies in Evidence Measures

Causal Space Theory: Unification of Paradigms

Multiplicity: The Black Hole of Scientific Discovery

Scientific Principles and Inferences


Controversies in Scientific Philosophy

Paradox of a Logical System

Paradox and Game Theory

Artificial Intelligence

Paradoxes in Artificial Intelligence

Architecture of Artificial Intelligent Agent

Learning and Teaching

Appendix: Mathematical Notations



A Review and Exercises appear at the end of each chapter.

About the Author

Mark Chang is vice president of biometrics at AMAG Pharmaceuticals and an adjunct professor at Boston University. Dr. Chang is a co-founder of the International Society for Biopharmaceutical Statistics and an elected fellow of the American Statistical Association. He serves on the editorial boards of several statistical journals and has published five books on biostatistics and clinical trial designs.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
COMPUTERS / Machine Theory
MATHEMATICS / Recreations & Games
MATHEMATICS / Probability & Statistics / General