Particulate Matter : Properties and Effects on Health book cover
1st Edition

Particulate Matter
Properties and Effects on Health

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ISBN 9781859961728
Published August 31, 1999 by Garland Science
212 Pages

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Book Description

* This is a rapidly expanding and highly topical research area; * All authors (and editors) are well-known and respected in their fields ; * Looks at the health effects caused by particulate aerosols, and discuss recent legislation and future strategies

Table of Contents

Abbreviations -- Contributors -- Foreword -- 1. Introduction /Robert L. Maynard -- Physicochemical properties of particulates -- 2. Airborne particles and their effects on health /Anthony Seaton -- The lung and its defences -- Biological particles -- Mineral particles -- The pneumoconioses -- Lung cancer -- Ambient air pollution -- The lessons -- Further reading -- 3. Microscopy and the characterization of particles /Frederick D. Pooley and Milagros Galvez de Mille -- Introduction -- Sampling particulate aerosols for analysis -- Optical microscopic techniques -- Electron optical techniques -- Bulk analytical techniques -- Characteristics of particulate aerosols -- Aqueous soluble aerosols -- Organic soluble aerosol material -- Elemental carbonaceous material -- Insoluble inorganic aerosols -- Conclusions -- References -- 4. The physicochemical characterization of urban airborne particulate matter /Kelly A BeruBe, Timothy P. Jones, Ben J. Williamson, Roy J. Richards -- Introduction -- Trends in urban emissions -- Diesel exhaust particulates -- Carbon black particulates -- Physical characterization of airborne particulates -- Microscopy-based techniques -- Collection and preparation of DEP and CB -- Transmission electron microscopy -- Scanning electron microscopy -- Quantitative image analysis -- Chemical characterization of airborne particulates -- Analytical-based techniques -- Particle preparation for elemental analysis -- Electron probe X-ray microanalysis -- Inductively coupled plasma mass and atomic emission -- spectrometry -- Conclusions -- References -- 5. The structural and physical chemistry of nanoparticles /D.A Jefferson and E.E.M. Tilley -- Introduction -- The role of surface atoms -- The effect of surface reactivity -- Structures of metal nanoparticles -- Surface facetting -- Non close-packed nanoparticles -- The role of kinetics -- Metal oxide nanoparticles -- Bulk-terminated nanoparticles - Ti02 -- Nanoparticles with anion vacancies - Ce02 -- Spinel oxides and cation vacancies - Fe304 -- Surface metallization of y-Al203 -- New structure types in W03 -- Conclusions -- References -- Biological and health effects -- 6. Lung deposition of diesel particulates /John McAughey -- Introduction -- Health effects -- Size distribution of ambient particles -- Source apportionment of ambient particles -- Particle number vs. particle mass distribution -- Vehicle emissions by particle size -- Lung dose of diesel particulate -- Basis of human lung deposition models -- Anatomy and physiology of the respiratory tract -- Mechanisms of particle deposition -- Efficiency of diesel particle deposition-assumptions for calculations -- Dose calculations -- Daily mass deposition -- Daily particle deposition (by number) -- Retention -- Conclusions -- References -- 7. The biological effects on lung epithelium of well-characterized fine particles /Roy J. Richards, Kelly A. BeruBe, Lisa Masek, Debbie Symons, Samantha A. Murphy -- Introduction -- Alveolar structure and cell response to toxicants -- Functions of alveolar cells -- Sequential cellular changes following alveolar damage -- Quantitative assessment of pulmonary damage -- Comparative bioreactivity of different particles -- Particle characterization -- Particle dose and administration -- Quantitative assessment of particle bioreactivity -- Subjective assessment of particle reactivity -- Distribution and fate of diesel exhaust particles -- Summary and comment -- References -- 8. The toxicology of ultrafine particles /Ken Donaldson, Vicki Stone, William MacNee -- The lung and particle defence -- Ultrafine particles -- Ultrafines and PM10 -- Adverse health effects of particles -- Toxicology of ultrafine particles -- Deposition -- Human studies -- Animal studies -- Inhalation studies with ultrafine particles at overload -- Non-overload studies -- Instillation studies -- In vitro studies on ultrafine particles -- The cellular /molecular mechanism of ultrafine particle toxicity -- Hygiene consequences of increased toxicity of ultrafine materials -- Conclusions on the toxicology of ultrafine particles -- References -- Monitoring and abatement -- 9. Sources and behaviour of atmospheric particulate matter /Roy M. Harrison -- Introduction -- Source apportionment of airborne particles -- Primary particulate matter -- Secondary particulate matter -- Receptor modelling of airborne particles -- The future -- References -- 10. UK research programme on the characterization of vehicle particulate emissions /Michael J. Davies -- Introduction -- Road vehicle exhaust particulates -- Initial vehicle /engine testing -- Test methodology -- Evaluation of test methods -- Initial results from vehicle /engine testing -- Sizing instrument investigation -- Scanning mobility particle sizer -- Quartz crystal microbalance -- Electrical low-pressure impactor -- Tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) -- Anderson impactor (Mark III) -- Particulate dilution tunnel evaluation -- Particulate traps -- Conclusions -- Reference -- Future policy considerations -- 11. Air quality strategies with respect to particles /Martin Williams -- Introduction -- Air quality policy and health effects -- Mechanisms of effects of particles on health -- Measurement methods for particles -- Source apportionment -- The current policy position -- References -- Glossary -- Index.

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Department of Health, Skipton House, 80 London Road, London SE1 6LW, UK. Fetal and Infant Toxico-Pathology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZA, UK.


"This book has invaluable trouble-shooting advice to guide a new user in this field. It is an essential guide, and an invaluable practical companion" Clinical Laboratory International, April 2000.; ; "This book provides and up-to-date and comprehensive