This book provides a precise description of safe and reliable procedures for regional anesthesia in children. It covers the advantages and disadvantages, specific features related to the pediatric range of ages, and the practical importance of the described procedures. Written in two main parts, emphasis is placed on scientific basis and technical approach. It includes both anatomical and psychological aspects of pain, as well as detailed viewpoints of parents, children, surgeons, and anesthetists. This book is a must for all anesthesiologists and will be particularly useful to students of medicine and anesthesiology and nurses working with intensive care units.
Introduction. PART I: GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. SECTION I: ANATOMICAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL DATA. General Organization of the Nervous System. Embryology of the Spinal Cord, Peripheral Nerves and Vertebrae. The Spinal Cord and the spinal Canal. The Peripheral Nerves. The Autonomic Nervous System. The Sympathetic System. SECTION II: PAIN. The Physiology of Pain. The Assessment of Pain in Children. SECTION III: PHARMACOLOGY. Local Anesthetics and Additives. Narcotics and Non-Narcotic Analgesics. SECTION IV: PRACTICE OF REGIONAL ANESTHESIA IN CHILDREN. Indications, Effects and Monitoring Procedures. Selection of Materials and Techniques. Adverse Reactions to Local Anesthetics. PART II: TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS. SECTION I: UPPER LIMB BLOCKS. Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Blocks. Infraclavicular Brachial Plexus Blocks. Distal Conduction Blocks. Other Types of Regional Anesthesia. SECTION II: LOWER LIMB BLOCKS. Blocks of Nerves of the Lumbar Plexus Supplying the Lower Extremities. Blocks of Nerves of the Sacral Plexus Supplying the Lower Extremities. Distal Conduction Blocks. Other Types of Regional Anesthesias. SECTION III: BLOCKS ALONG THE NEURAXIS. Caudal Anesthesia. Epidural Anesthesia. Spinal Anesthesia. SECTION IV: OTHER TYPES OF REGIONAL ANESTHESIA IN CHILDREN. Blocks of Nerves of the Trunk. Blocks of Nerves Supplying the Head and Neck. Miscellaneous. Conclusion.