Perception and Imaging: Photography as a Way of Seeing, 5th Edition (Paperback) book cover

Perception and Imaging

Photography as a Way of Seeing, 5th Edition

By Richard D. Zakia, John Suler

© 2018 – Focal Press

442 pages | 340 Color Illus.

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Description

When you look at an image, what do you see, think, and feel? How do you want your audience to react when they view your work? For over 30 years the late Richard Zakia helped photographers enrich their creative vision through his classic book, Perception and Imaging. Now he is joined by co-author John Suler who extensively studied and worked with images throughout his career as a clinical psychologist. Together they present their insights into the principles of perception, memory, color, time, space, shapes, illusion, subliminals, rhetoric, personality style, and photo critique. Unlike any other book, Perception and Imaging will give you an extensive understanding of how photography relates to art, design, advertising, psychology, and philosophy, as well as what makes photography unique among the image-making disciplines. Whether you are a beginner or a professional, this information will help you appreciate photography not simply as a mastering of technique and composition, but as a way of truly seeing, especially now in the digital age.

– New sections about photo sharing in social media and online groups devoted to photography critique

– Includes inspirational images from some of the world’s most well-known photographers, including Henri Cartier-Bresson, Man Ray, and Ansel Adams

– A comprehensive discussion of the "decisive moment" photo, its vital ingredients, and why some consider it the essence of photography

– New sections about body language in photographs, camera angles, aspect ratios, self portraits and selfies, and how memory and personality affect photography

Table of Contents

Contents

Preface to the Fifth Edition

Acknowledgments

1 Selection

Ganzfeld

Figure–Ground

Figure–Ground Boundary

Graphic Symbols

Similar Concepts to Figure-Ground

Graininess and Noise

Resolution

Figure–Ground Enhancement

The Bigger Picture of Figure-Ground

Notan

Visual Search

Camouflage

Negative Space

Noticing Negative Space

The Role of the Frame

Strategies for Using Negative Space

Viewpoint and Camera Angles

Key Words

Notes

2 Gestalt Grouping

Field Theory and the Gestalt Laws

Proximity

Proximity, Area, and Contrast

Side-by-Side Images

Temporal Proximity

Proximity and Learning

Similarity

Similarity of Shape

Similarity and Repetition

Similarity and Proximity

Symmetry and Asymmetry

Symmetry and Redundancy

Symmetry in Graphic Symbols

Continuity

Continuity in Typography

Continuity in Sequences

Closure

Closure and Nonclosure

Closed Areas

The Zeigarnik Effect

People as Participants

Gestalt Critique

Words of Caution

Captions, Copy, Gestalt

Pragnanz

Pragnanz as an Overarching Principle

Order and Complexity

A Summary of Gestalt Principles

Key Words

Notes

3 Memory and Association

Types of Memory

From STM to LTM

Body/Somatic Memory

Verbal Memory

Visual Memory

Color Memory

Unconscious Memory

Association

Equivalents

Associations in Advertisements

Props (Signifiers)

Associations to Color

Synesthesia

Rebuses and Pictograms

Onomatopoeia and Simile

Metaphors

Semiotics

Iconic, Indexical and Symbolic Representation

Semiotics in Analyzing and Designing Ads

Semiotic Operations

Conceptual Photography

Is Conceptual Photography Art?

The Concept in Conceptual Photography

What Does It Mean, and to Whom?

The Sender, Channel, and Receiver

Concept Difficulty

Creating Titles and Descriptions

Symbolism, Metaphors, Similes, and Anthropomorphism

Composition and Post-Processing Techniques

The Pretty and Ugly Factors

Forward and Reverse Engineering

Educational Applications

Conceptual Advertisements

Key Words

Notes

4 Space, Time, and Movement

Space

The Perception of Depth

Anisotropicity

Rule of Thirds

Golden Section and Fibonacci Numbers

Aspect Ratio and Cropping

Convexity/Concavity

Transparency

Time and Movement

Eye Movement in Composition

The Rhythm of Repeating Elements

Gradation

Blur

Multiple Exposures

Motion in Stillness

The Decisive Moment

Capturing the Unique Fleeting Instant

Candid Shots of People in Real Life

Visual Coalescence

Figure/Ground Relationships

The Gap and Anticipating Closure

The One Hit Wonder

Creating and Losing Oneself

The Hour Leading to the Decisive Moment

The Myth and Reality of the Decisive Moment Photo

Key Words

5 Color

Color Notation Systems

Munsell System

Pantone®

CIE System

CIE Chromaticity Diagram

Luminance (Value or Brightness)

Naming Colors within the CIE Map

Color Gamuts (Color Space)

Color Perception

The Visual Field

Flare Desaturates Colors

Color Test Chart

Color Reproduction

Subtractive Color

Additive Color

Complementary Colors

Color Is a Chameleon

Constancy

Metamerism

Simultaneous Contrast and Assimilation

Color Dependency

Phosphors and Pointillism

Color Modality

Color Temperature

Color Names

Color and Synesthesia

Synesthesia and Photography

Color Connotations

Color versus Color

Neutral Colors

Black and White Photography

B&W as the Origin of Photography

The Absence of Color

B&W Photography in the Digital Age

Selective Color

Key Words

Notes

6 Contours

Common Contour

Playing with Depth Perception

Activating an Image

Subjective Contour

Mach Bands

Visual Vibrations

Photographic Edge Effects

Acutance

Film and Digital Sharpness

Cornsweet Effect

Development

The Psychology of Being Sharp

The Beauty of Blur

Key Words

Notes

7 Illusion and Ambiguity

Trompe l’Oeil

Space, Time, and Color Illusions

Geometric Illusions

Reversibles

Time (Movement) Illusions

Depth Cues and Movement

The Pulfrich Effect

The Waterfall Effect

Color Illusions

Size–Distance Tradeoffs

Dutch Cabinets

Size–Size Dependency

Shrinking Size, Increasing Distance

Emmert’s Law

Size–Distance Reversal

Ambiguity

Ambiguity in Language

Ambiguity in Images

Illusion in the Digital Age

Key Words

Notes

8 Morphics

Animism

Biomorphic

Isomorphic

Anthropomorphic

Zoomorphic

Theriomorphic

Mechanomorphic

Anamorphic

Geometric and Organic Shapes

Geometric or Man-made Patterns

Organic or Natural Patterns

Mixing Geometric and Organic Patterns

Key Words

Notes

9 Subliminals

How the Eye Sees

The Retina

Photopic/Scotopic Vision

Luminance Factor

Ambient Light

Eye Movements When Reading Pictures

Embeds

Secondary or Latent Images

Hidden Faces

Archetypes

Kilroy

Body Language

Microexpressions

The Pupils

Body Language Patterns

The Hands

Body Language in Groups

Interpersonal Space

Key Words

Notes

10 Rhetoric

Using the Rhetorical Matrix

Where to Begin

Horse and Truck

Intuition First

Addition

Identity

Similarity

Difference

Opposition

False Homology

Suppression

Identity

Similarity

Difference

Opposition

False Homology: Ambiguity

False Homology: Paradox

Substitution

Identity

Similarity

Difference

Opposition

False Homology: Ambiguity

False Homology: Paradox

Exchange

Identity

Similarity

Difference

Opposition

False Homology: Ambiguity

False Homology: Paradox

Words, Sounds, and Rhetoric

A Summary of Rhetorical Techniques

The Four Basic Rhetorical Operations

The Five Relationships Between Elements

Addition

Suppression

Substitution

Exchange

Key Words

Notes

11 Personality

Leveling and Sharpening

Field Dependency

Projection

The Word Association Test

The Thematic Apperception Test

The Rorschach

The Walker Visuals

Mindfulness

What Mindfulness is Not

Simply and Truly Seeing

The Beginner’s Mind

Letting Go

The Balance of Concentration and Noticing

The Qualities of Mindfulness

How to Cultivate Mindfulness

Personality Types

Jung’s Psychological Types

How Many Traits Are There?

Types Based on Body and Brain

Psychodynamics

Primary and Secondary Process

Multiplicity (Clone) Images

From Self-Portraits to Selfies

Objective and Subjective Self-Portraits

The Bigger Picture of Identity

Self-Portrait as Self-Awareness

Other People’s Perceptions

The Spontaneous or Carefully Composed Self

The Superficially Narcissistic Selfie

The March of Selfies

The Creative Personality

Synectics is Seeing Connections

Being Connected to All Things

Key Words

Notes

12 Photo Sharing and Critique

Critique as Evaluation

Validity

Variability

The Role of Context

Johari’s Window

Use Your Words

Critique without words

The Clustering Technique

Relationships

Direction

Nostalgia

Composition

Location

Word Clouds

The Semantic Differential Technique

Critique Using Group Dynamics

Group Dynamics During and Exhibition

Online Photosharing

Settling into and Exploring a Community

Getting to Know You

Becoming a Good Citizen

Titles for Images

Descriptions for Images

Commenting on Images

The Meaning of Likes

Popularity and the Ratings Game

Image Categories, Streams, and Series

Sensory / Cognitive Overload

Computers and Critique

The Illusion of Digital Permanency

Photosharing as Therapeutic

All photography can be therapeutic

Key Words

Notes

 

About the Authors

John Suler

Lawrenceville, New Jersey, USA

Learn more about John Suler >>

Dr. John Suler is Professor of Psychology in the Science and Technology Center at Rider University. He has published widely on images in creativity, personal identity, psychotherapy, and interpersonal perception. As a longstanding member of online photo sharing groups, a founder of the new discipline known as cyberpsychology, and author of the groundbreaking book Psychology of the Digital Age, he specializes in research on the experience of images in social media.

Dr. Richard Zakia, Ed.D., Professor Emeritus at the Rochester Institute of Technology, taught in many areas of photography and served as chair of the Fine Art Photography Department and Graduate Program in Imaging Arts. He was recipient of the Eisenhart Outstanding Teaching Award and author of twelve books on photography. Dr. Zakia passed away in 2012 and has been greatly missed by many, especially the Focal staff.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
PHO000000
PHOTOGRAPHY / General
PSY045050
PSYCHOLOGY / Movements / Gestalt