5th Edition

Percutaneous Absorption Drugs, Cosmetics, Mechanisms, Methods

Edited By Nina Dragićević, Howard Maibach Copyright 2021
    1008 Pages 177 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    1008 Pages 177 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Updating and expanding the scope of topics covered in the previous edition, Percutaneous Absorption: Drugs, Cosmetics, Mechanisms, Methods, Fifth Edition supplies new chapters on topics currently impacting the field including cutaneous metabolism, skin contamination, exposure to protein allergens, in vitro absorption methodology and the percutaneous absorption of chemical mixtures. Complete with studies on the role of the skin as a key portal of entry for chemicals into the body, this book serves as a detailed reference source for recent advances in the field, as well as an experimental guide for laboratory personnel.

    Key Features:

    • Details in vivo and in vitro methods for measuring absorption, dermal decontamination, mechanisms of transdermal delivery, and the relationship of transepidermal water loss to percutaneous absorption
    • Considers a range of mathematical models, the safety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients, the absorption of hair dyes, nanoparticles for drug delivery, and other novel methods of drug delivery
    • Discusses topics including skin metabolism, the skin reservoir, and the effects of desquamation on absorption

    Chapter 1 Molecular structure and function of the skin barrier

    Lars Norlén

    Chapter 2 Mathematical Models in Percutaneous Absorption  

    Michael S. Roberts and Yuri G. Anissimov

    Chapter 3 In Vivo Percutaneous Absorption: A Key Role for Stratum Corneum/ Vehicle Partitioning           

    André Rougier

    Chapter 4 The Skin Reservoir for Topically Applied Solutes      

    Michael S. Roberts, Sheree E. Cross, and Yuri G. Anissimov

    Chapter 5 Chemical Partitioning into Powdered Human Stratum Corneum: A Useful In Vitro Model for Studying Interaction of Chemicals and Human Skin  

    Xiao-Ying Hui and Howard I. Maibach

    Chapter 6  Variations of Hair Follicle Size and Distribution in Different Body Sites       

    Nina Otberg, Heike Richter, Hans Schaefer, Ulrike Blume-Peytavi, Wolfram Sterry, and Jürgen Lademann

    Chapter 7 In Vivo Relationship Between Percutaneous Absorption and Transepidermal Water Loss           

    André Rougier, Claire Lotte, Howard I. Maibach

    Chapter 8 The correlation between transepidermal water loss and percutaneous absorption: An updated overview      

    Marjan Koosha Johnson, Jacquelyn Levin*, and Howard Maibach

    Chapter 9 Human Percutaneous Absorption and Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL) Correlation           

    Howard I.Maibach

    Chapter 10 Evaluation of Stratum Corneum Heterogeneity        

    Gerald B. Kasting, Matthew A. Miller, and Priya S. Talreja

    Chapter 11 Regional Variation in Percutaneous Absorption: Principles and Applications to Human Risk Assessment    

    Ronald C. Wester and Howard I. Maibach

    Chapter 12 Effects of Anatomical Location on In Vivo Percutaneous Penetration in Man         

    Jordan L Bormann and Howard Maibach

    Chapter 13 Interrelationships in the Dose-Response of Percutaneous Absorption        

    Ronald C. Wester and Howard I. Maibach

    Chapter 14 Effects of Occlusion: Percutaneous Absorption         

    Nina Dragicevic and Howard I. Maibach

    Chapter 15 Occlusion Does Not Uniformly Enhance Penetration In Vivo

    Daniel Bucks and Howard Maibach

    Chapter 16 Effect of Single vs. Multiple Dosing in Percutaneous Absorption      

    Howard I.Maibach

    Chapter 17 Influence of formulation on topical and transdermal drug delivery

    Heather A.E Benson, Hamid R. Moghimi, Jeffrey E. Grice and Michael S. Roberts

    Chapter 18 In Vitro Release from Semisolid Dosage Forms—What Is Its Value?

    Vinod P Shah

    Chapter 19 Understanding Skin Metabolism: Effect on Altering In Vitro Skin Absorption and Bioavailability of Topically Applied Chemicals

    Jeffrey J. Yourick and Margaret E.K. Kraeling

    Chapter 20 Phenomenon of Lateral Spread in Percutaneous Penetration          

    Rebecca M. Law, Howard I. Maibach

    Chapter 21 Clinically Pertinent Factors/Observations Affecting Percutaneous Absorption in Humans           

    Rebecca M Law, Mai A Ngo, Howard I Maibach

    Chapter 22 Percutaneous Absorption of Chemical Mixtures      

    Jim E. Riviere

    Chapter 23 Dermal Decontamination and Percutaneous Absorption     

    Howard I.Maibach

    Chapter 24 Skin Decontaminartion          

    Annick Roul, Howard HI Maibach

    Chapter 25 Chemical Warfare Agent VX Penetration Through Military Uniform and Human Skin: Risk Assessment and Decontamination    

    Howard I.Maibach

    Chapter 26 Percutaneous Absorption of Hazardous Chemicals from Fabric into and Through Human Skin           

    Howard I.Maibach

    Chapter 27 Percutaneous Absorption of Chemicals from Fabric (Textile)         

    Jordan L Bormann, Ayse Sermin Filiz Acipayam and Howard I Maibach

    Chapter 28 The Fate of Material Remaining in Skin in In Vitro Absorption Studies        

    Margaret E.K. Kraeling and Jeffrey J. Yourick

    Chapter 29 Skin Absorption of Hair Dyes 

    Margaret E.K. Kraeling and Jeffrey J. Yourick

    Chapter 30 Hair Dye Penetration in Monkey and Man    

    Leszek J. Wolfram and Howard I. Maibach

    Chapter 31 Percutaneous Absorption of Sunscreens       

    Heather A.E. Benson, Yousuf H. Mohammed, Kenneth A. Walters and Michael S. Roberts

    Chapter 32 Sunscreen Percutaneous Penetration in Vivo in Man         

    Pranav Vasu and Howard Maibach

    Chapter 33 Cutaneous Metabolism of Xenobiotics           

    Howard I. Maibach

    Chapter 34 Chemical modification: an important and feasible method for improving peptide and protein dermal and transdermal delivery      

    Seyedeh Maryam Mortazavi, Hamid R. Moghimia, Howard I. Maibach

    Chapter 35 Enchancing Percutaneous Penetration of Oligonucleotide Drugs    

    Howard I. Maibach and Myeong Jun Choi

    Chapter 36 Use of Microemulsions for Topical Drug Delivery     

    Efrem N. Tessema, Sandra Heuschkel, Anuj Shukla, and Reinhard H. H. Neubert

    Chapter 37 Transdermal Delivery of Vesicular Nanocarriers Under Electrical Potential

    Ebtessam A. Essa , Gamal M. El Maghraby, Michael C. Bonner and Brian W. Barry

    Chapter 38 Nanocarriers and physical methods  

    Nina Dragicevic

    Chapter 39 Assessment of Microneedles for Transdermal Drug Delivery          

    Melissa Kirkby, Kurtis J. Moffatt, Aaron. R.J. Hutton, Inken Ramöeller, Peter E. McKenna, Marco T.A. Abbate, Sarah A. Stewart, Ryan F. Donnelly

    Chapter 40 Clinical Testing of Microneedles for Transdermal Drug Delivery     

    Raja K. Sivamani, Gabriel C. Wu, Boris Stoeber, Dorian Liepmann, Hongbo Zhai and Howard I. Maibach

    Chapter 41 Delivery of drugs, vaccines, and cosmeceuticals to skin using microneedle patches           

    Yasmine Gomaa and Mark R. Prausnitz

    Chapter 42 Mirconeedle dermatotoxicology       

    Boen Wang

    Chapter 43 Transdermal Transport by sonophoresis       

    Laurent Machet and Alain Boucaud

    Chapter 44 Effect of Tape Stripping on Percutaneous Penetration and Topical Vaccination     

    Howard I.Maibach, Myeong Jun Choi and Harald Löffler

    Chapter 45 Transcutaneous Delivery of Drugs by Electroporation          

    Shivakumar H Najappa, S.Narasimha Murthy


    Taís Gratieri, Yogeshvar N. Kalia


    Christian Surber

    Chapter 48 The role of in vitro skin models in optimization of dermal drug delivery     

    Gøril Eide Flaten and Željka Vanić and Nataša Škalko-Basnet

    Chapter 49 Effects of phospholipids on skin: use of primary human keratinocytes and fibroblasts as 2D cell culture models    

    Claudia Vater, Claudia Valenta, Victoria Klang

    Chapter 50 Human cadaver skin viability for in vitro percutaneous absorption: storage and detrimental effects ...        

    Ronald C. Wester, Julie Christoffel, Tracy Hartway, Nicholas Poblete, Howard I. Maibach and James Forsell

    Chapter 51 Determination of Percutaneous Absorption by In Vitro Techniques

    Margaret E.K. Kraeling and Jeffrey J. Yourick

    Chapter 52 Stripping Method for Measuring Percutaneous Absorption In Vivo 

    André Rougier, Claire Lotte, Howard I. Maibach

    Chapter 53 Tape Stripping - Technique and Applications

    Rebekka Christmann, Anne S. Raber, Ulrich F. Schaefer, Ana Melero and Brigitta Loretz

    Chapter 54 Blood flow as technology in percutaneous absorption         

    Ethel Tur

    Chapter 55 Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy in the assessment of skin barrier function and drug penetration    

    Jacqueline Resende de Azevedo, Yuri Dancik, Marie-Alexandrine Bolzinger, Stéphanie Briançon, Yves Chevalier

    Chapter 56 Microscopy methods for assessing percutaneous drug penetration         

    Miko Yamada, Peter Hoffmann and Tarl Prow

    Chapter 57 Dermal sampling techniques with focus on dermal Open Flow Microperfusion     

    Thomas Birngruber, Beate Boulgaropoulos, Frank Sinner

    Chapter 58 Dermal-epidermal Separation Methods: Research Implications      

    Ying Zou

    Chapter 59 Use of Skin Absorption Data in the Safety Evaluation of Cosmetic Ingredients       

    Jeffrey J. Yourick and Margaret E.K. Kraeling


    Isadore Kanfer

    Chapter 61 In Vitro Human Nail Model To Evaluate Ungual Absorption and Transungual Delivery           

    Xaoying Hui, Howard I. Maibach

    Chapter 62 Drug Permeation through Burn Eschar: Possibilities and Improvements     

    Hamid R. Moghimi, Seyedeh Maryam Mortazavi, Howard I. Maibach


    Dr. Nina Dragićević is a professor in Pharmaceutical technology at the Department of Pharmacy at the Singidunum University in Belgrade, Serbia. She earned her master’s degree at the University of Belgrade, Faculty of Pharmacy, in 1999 and subsequently earned a Magister Degree and a PhD (summa cum laude, Dr. rer. nat.) in Pharmaceutical technology from the University of Belgrade and the Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Germany, respectively. Before her employment at the University Singidunum, Dr. Dragićević worked as an accredited specialist in Pharmaceutical technology in the state pharmaceutical chain Apoteka "Beograd" in Belgrade. From 2007 to 2013 she was responsible for the preparation of compounded drugs for different routes of administration in pharmacies of Apoteka "Beograd", and in 2013 she was appointed director of the Production Department in the same company. She has published in a variety of international journals and she is editor of six books.

    Professor Howard I. Maibach, Ph.D. is currently serving as Professor of Dermatology at the University of California, San Francisco. He earned his MD from Tulane University, New Orleans, LA in 1955. Later he served in faculty positions in various levels at the UCSF. Dr. Maibach has over 2,520 published manuscripts. He has been on the editorial board of more than 30 scientific journals and is a member of 19 professional societies including the American Academy of Dermatology, San Francisco Dermatological Society and the Internal Commission on Occupation Health.

    "Understanding dermal absorption and developing mathematical models for absorption and dermal drug development is a complex process. This book is intended for scientists working in dermal absorption, degradation, and toxicities of drugs, cosmetics, and chemicals, who will find it informative. With a few new chapters, this book could be considered a comprehensive and updated reference. There are several books related to this subject matter in the marketplace, but each focuses on a particular area of the broader topic. Thus, this reference is a must-have in a library. "

    - Rahmat M. Talukder, PhD, RPh(The University of Texas at Tyler)

    Over the last three decades, vesicular phospholipid nanocarriers have been used successfully as tools to improve dermal and transdermal drug delivery as well as in the cosmetic field. The most common nanocarriers used for skin delivery are liposomes. However, since they have failed in efficiently delivering drugs across the intact skin, intensive research has been devoted to the development of new lipid vesicles that are capable of improving this process.
    Invasomes represent a new class of vesicles, developed by introducing a mixture of terpenes and ethanol to the classic composition of liposomes, which have shown interesting results both in dermal and transdermal drug delivery.

    The book “Invasomes as Drug Nanocarriers for Innovative Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms “ provides a comprehensive source of information for researchers from both academia and industry.
    The first chapter deals the skin as a drug delivery route while the next chapter is a comprehensive overview on vesicular phospholipid nanocarriers. Then, the book content deals with preparation, characterization and evaluation of Invasomes, properly designed for delivering drugs and cosmetic active to the skin.

    Overall, the book provides readers with comprehensive knowledge about these nanocarriers, since the author of the book is one of the main researchers in the field of Invasomes.

    - Professor Chiara Sinico, University of Cagliari-Italy