1st Edition

Performance and Image Enhancing Drugs and Substances Issues, Influences and Impacts

    174 Pages
    by Routledge

    174 Pages
    by Routledge

    In the pursuit of more muscle, enhanced strength, sustained endurance and idealised physiques, an increasing number of elite athletes, recreational sport enthusiasts and body-conscious gym-users are turning to performance and image enhancing drugs and substances (PIEDS). In many instances, such use occurs with little regard for the health, social and economic consequences. 

    This book presents a nuanced, evidence-based examination of PIEDS. It provides a classification of PIEDS types, physical impacts, rates of use, user profiles, legal and sporting status, and remedial program interventions, covering both elite and recreational use.

    It offers the perfect guide to assist students, government policy makers and sport managers in understanding the complex issues surrounding PIEDS consumption.

    1. Apply, Ingest, Inject and Regret: Introduction to Performance and Image Enhancing Substances Introduction - Overview of the Book

    Summary of Key Points

    Understanding PIEDS


    Gateways to Use

    Transitions between Substances


    2. Power, Pleasure, Fat and Fit: Dietary and Nutritional Supplements as PIEDS


    What are Dietary and Nutritional Supplements?

    Patterns of DNS Use

    Motives for Use

    Influences on Use

    Concerns about Use


    3. Use, Abuse, Patterns and Profiles: Scale and Scope of PIEDS use in Sport


    Prevalence of Drug Use in Sport and the Community

    Anecdotal Accounts of Use

    Results of Drug Testing Regimes

    Surveys of Reported Drug Use

    Community Surveys

    Player and Athlete Surveys

    Surveys of Students

    In-depth Qualitative Research using Player and Athlete Interviews


    4. Channels, Choices, Causes and Codes: The Impact of Culture, Values, and Ethnicity


    Determinants of PIEDS Use and Intervention Approaches

    Contextual Influences on Athlete Attitudes and Use of PIEDS

    Personality and Identity

    People of Influence

    Early Sporting Experiences

    Commercial Pressures

    Sporting Culture

    Attitudes to Substance Use in Sport

    PIEDS Interventions in Community and Non-Elite Sport

    Intervention Studies


    5. Thoughts, Functions, Brains and Boosters: Cognitive Enhancers as PIEDS


    Common Types and Use of Cognitive Enhancers

    Impact and Ethics of Cognitive Enhancement

    Cognitive Enhancement in Sport

    Challenges for Athletes



    6. Protein, Prohormones, Steroids and Stimulants: Performance and Image Enhancing Drugs and Substances Typology of Classes


    Dietary & Nutritional Supplements

    Human Enhancement

    Performance Enhancing Drugs And Substances


    7. Givens, Gaps, Confidences and Cautions: Conclusion

    Introduction – A Growth Industry

    Summary of Key Points




    Aaron C. T. Smith is Professor of Sport Business at the Institute for Sport Business, Loughborough University London, UK. His research investigates psychological, organisational and policy change in sport, business, health, religion, technology and society.

    Bob Stewart is a Principle Consultant with Aztek Developments and a former Professor of Sport Policy in the College of Sport and Exercise Science at Victoria University, Australia. Bob has a special interest in player regulation in professional team sports, and the ways in which the forces of neoliberalism and hyper-commercialism shape the structure and conduct of contemporary sport.

    Kate Westberg is Associate Professor of Marketing at RMIT University, Australia. Her research focuses primarily on the areas of sport marketing and sponsorship, branding, social marketing and behavioural change.

    Constantino Stavros is Associate Professor of Marketing at RMIT University, Australia, and the Editor-in-Chief of Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal. His research interests lie predominantly at the intersection of consumption and technology.