In the pursuit of more muscle, enhanced strength, sustained endurance and idealised physiques, an increasing number of elite athletes, recreational sport enthusiasts and body-conscious gym-users are turning to performance and image enhancing drugs and substances (PIEDS). In many instances, such use occurs with little regard for the health, social and economic consequences.
This book presents a nuanced, evidence-based examination of PIEDS. It provides a classification of PIEDS types, physical impacts, rates of use, user profiles, legal and sporting status, and remedial program interventions, covering both elite and recreational use.
It offers the perfect guide to assist students, government policy makers and sport managers in understanding the complex issues surrounding PIEDS consumption.
Table of Contents
1. Apply, Ingest, Inject and Regret: Introduction to Performance and Image Enhancing Substances Introduction - Overview of the Book
Summary of Key Points
Gateways to Use
Transitions between Substances
2. Power, Pleasure, Fat and Fit: Dietary and Nutritional Supplements as PIEDS
What are Dietary and Nutritional Supplements?
Patterns of DNS Use
Motives for Use
Influences on Use
Concerns about Use
3. Use, Abuse, Patterns and Profiles: Scale and Scope of PIEDS use in Sport
Prevalence of Drug Use in Sport and the Community
Anecdotal Accounts of Use
Results of Drug Testing Regimes
Surveys of Reported Drug Use
Player and Athlete Surveys
Surveys of Students
In-depth Qualitative Research using Player and Athlete Interviews
4. Channels, Choices, Causes and Codes: The Impact of Culture, Values, and Ethnicity
Determinants of PIEDS Use and Intervention Approaches
Contextual Influences on Athlete Attitudes and Use of PIEDS
Personality and Identity
People of Influence
Early Sporting Experiences
Attitudes to Substance Use in Sport
PIEDS Interventions in Community and Non-Elite Sport
5. Thoughts, Functions, Brains and Boosters: Cognitive Enhancers as PIEDS
Common Types and Use of Cognitive Enhancers
Impact and Ethics of Cognitive Enhancement
Cognitive Enhancement in Sport
Challenges for Athletes
6. Protein, Prohormones, Steroids and Stimulants: Performance and Image Enhancing Drugs and Substances Typology of Classes
Dietary & Nutritional Supplements
Performance Enhancing Drugs And Substances
7. Givens, Gaps, Confidences and Cautions: Conclusion
Introduction – A Growth Industry
Summary of Key Points
Aaron C. T. Smith is Professor of Sport Business at the Institute for Sport Business, Loughborough University London, UK. His research investigates psychological, organisational and policy change in sport, business, health, religion, technology and society.
Bob Stewart is a Principle Consultant with Aztek Developments and a former Professor of Sport Policy in the College of Sport and Exercise Science at Victoria University, Australia. Bob has a special interest in player regulation in professional team sports, and the ways in which the forces of neoliberalism and hyper-commercialism shape the structure and conduct of contemporary sport.
Kate Westberg is Associate Professor of Marketing at RMIT University, Australia. Her research focuses primarily on the areas of sport marketing and sponsorship, branding, social marketing and behavioural change.
Constantino Stavros is Associate Professor of Marketing at RMIT University, Australia, and the Editor-in-Chief of Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal. His research interests lie predominantly at the intersection of consumption and technology.