Performance and Image Enhancing Drugs and Substances : Issues, Influences and Impacts book cover
1st Edition

Performance and Image Enhancing Drugs and Substances
Issues, Influences and Impacts

ISBN 9781138492950
Published June 5, 2018 by Routledge
174 Pages

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Book Description

In the pursuit of more muscle, enhanced strength, sustained endurance and idealised physiques, an increasing number of elite athletes, recreational sport enthusiasts and body-conscious gym-users are turning to performance and image enhancing drugs and substances (PIEDS). In many instances, such use occurs with little regard for the health, social and economic consequences. 

This book presents a nuanced, evidence-based examination of PIEDS. It provides a classification of PIEDS types, physical impacts, rates of use, user profiles, legal and sporting status, and remedial program interventions, covering both elite and recreational use.

It offers the perfect guide to assist students, government policy makers and sport managers in understanding the complex issues surrounding PIEDS consumption.

Table of Contents

1. Apply, Ingest, Inject and Regret: Introduction to Performance and Image Enhancing Substances Introduction - Overview of the Book

Summary of Key Points

Understanding PIEDS


Gateways to Use

Transitions between Substances


2. Power, Pleasure, Fat and Fit: Dietary and Nutritional Supplements as PIEDS


What are Dietary and Nutritional Supplements?

Patterns of DNS Use

Motives for Use

Influences on Use

Concerns about Use


3. Use, Abuse, Patterns and Profiles: Scale and Scope of PIEDS use in Sport


Prevalence of Drug Use in Sport and the Community

Anecdotal Accounts of Use

Results of Drug Testing Regimes

Surveys of Reported Drug Use

Community Surveys

Player and Athlete Surveys

Surveys of Students

In-depth Qualitative Research using Player and Athlete Interviews


4. Channels, Choices, Causes and Codes: The Impact of Culture, Values, and Ethnicity


Determinants of PIEDS Use and Intervention Approaches

Contextual Influences on Athlete Attitudes and Use of PIEDS

Personality and Identity

People of Influence

Early Sporting Experiences

Commercial Pressures

Sporting Culture

Attitudes to Substance Use in Sport

PIEDS Interventions in Community and Non-Elite Sport

Intervention Studies


5. Thoughts, Functions, Brains and Boosters: Cognitive Enhancers as PIEDS


Common Types and Use of Cognitive Enhancers

Impact and Ethics of Cognitive Enhancement

Cognitive Enhancement in Sport

Challenges for Athletes



6. Protein, Prohormones, Steroids and Stimulants: Performance and Image Enhancing Drugs and Substances Typology of Classes


Dietary & Nutritional Supplements

Human Enhancement

Performance Enhancing Drugs And Substances


7. Givens, Gaps, Confidences and Cautions: Conclusion

Introduction – A Growth Industry

Summary of Key Points



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Aaron C. T. Smith is Professor of Sport Business at the Institute for Sport Business, Loughborough University London, UK. His research investigates psychological, organisational and policy change in sport, business, health, religion, technology and society.

Bob Stewart is a Principle Consultant with Aztek Developments and a former Professor of Sport Policy in the College of Sport and Exercise Science at Victoria University, Australia. Bob has a special interest in player regulation in professional team sports, and the ways in which the forces of neoliberalism and hyper-commercialism shape the structure and conduct of contemporary sport.

Kate Westberg is Associate Professor of Marketing at RMIT University, Australia. Her research focuses primarily on the areas of sport marketing and sponsorship, branding, social marketing and behavioural change.

Constantino Stavros is Associate Professor of Marketing at RMIT University, Australia, and the Editor-in-Chief of Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal. His research interests lie predominantly at the intersection of consumption and technology.