Language comprises a major mark of humans compared with other primates and is the main vehicle for social interaction. A major characteristic of any natural language is that the same communication, idea, or intention can be articulated in different ways—in other words, the same message can be "framed" differently. The same medical treatment can be portrayed in terms chance of chance of success or chance of failure; energy reduction can be expressed in terms of savings per day or savings per year; and a task can be described as 80% completed or 20% uncompleted. In this book, contributors from a variety of disciplines—psychology, linguistics, marketing, political science, and medical decision making—come together to better understand the mechanisms underlying framing effects and assess their impact on the communication process.
Table of Contents
G. Keren, On the Definition and Possible Underpinnings of Framing Effects: A Brief Review and a Critical Evaluation. S. Sher, C.R.M. McKenzie, Levels of Information: A Framing Hierarchy. D. Soman, H.K. Ahn, Mental Accounting and Individual Welfare. C. Janiszewski, Too Many Views to Capture: Reference Set Effects in Human Judgment. L.M. Moxey, Mechanisms Underlying Linguistic Framing Effects. D.J. Hilton, Linguistic Polarity, Outcome Framing, and the Structure of Decision-Making: A Pragmatic Approach. Y. Schul, Alive or Not Dead: Implications for Framing From Research on Negations. M. Wänke, L. Reutner, Direction-of-Comparison Effects: How and Why Comparing Apples with Oranges is Different from Comparing Oranges With Apples. K.H. Teigen, When Frames Meet Realities: On the Perceived Correctness of Inaccurate Estimates. E.R. Igou, The When and Why of Risky Choice Framing Effects: A Constructive Processing Perspective. S. Moran, I. Ritov, Valence Framings in Negotiations. A.J. Rothman, J.A. Updegraff, Specifying When and How Gain- and Loss-framed Messages Motivate Healthy Behavior: An Integrated Approach. J.N. Druckman, What’s It All About? Framing in Political Science. W.B. de Bruin, Framing Effects in Surveys: How Respondents Make Sense of the Questions We Ask.
"Is the glass half full or half empty? Quite obviously, the very same situation can be framed quite differently and the framing is highly consequential for subsequent communicative and cognitive processes. The present volume offers outstanding contributions which tackle framing from different perspectives and which in sum allow for an integrative picture. The chapters are authored by outstanding contributors whose work is at the cutting edge of research on framing. The exciting state-of-the-art chapters are a must for any researcher interested in the fascinating causes and consequences of framing." - Herbert Bless, University of Mannheim, Germany