2nd Edition

Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties

By Abhijit Y. Dandekar Copyright 2013
    544 Pages 100 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    A strong foundation in reservoir rock and fluid properties is the backbone of almost all the activities in the petroleum industry. Suitable for undergraduate students in petroleum engineering, Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties, Second Edition offers a well-balanced, in-depth treatment of the fundamental concepts and practical aspects that encompass this vast discipline.

    New to the Second Edition

    • Introductions to Stone II three-phase relative permeability model and unconventional oil and gas resources
    • Discussions on low salinity water injection, saturated reservoirs and production trends of five reservoir fluids, impact of mud filtrate invasion and heavy organics on samples, and flow assurance problems due to solid components of petroleum
    • Better plots for determining oil and water Corey exponents from relative permeability data
    • Inclusion of Rachford-Rice flash function, Plateau equation, and skin effect
    • Improved introduction to reservoir rock and fluid properties
    • Practice problems covering porosity, combined matrix-channel and matrix-fracture permeability, radial flow equations, drilling muds on fluid saturation, wettability concepts, three-phase oil relative permeability, petroleum reservoir fluids, various phase behavior concepts, phase behavior of five reservoir fluids, and recombined fluid composition
    • Detailed solved examples on absolute permeability, live reservoir fluid composition, true boiling point extended plus fractions properties, viscosity based on compositional data, and gas-liquid surface tension

    Accessible to anyone with an engineering background, the text reveals the importance of understanding rock and fluid properties in petroleum engineering. Key literature references, mathematical expressions, and laboratory measurement techniques illustrate the correlations and influence between the various properties. Explaining how to acquire accurate and reliable data, the author describes coring and fluid sampling methods, issues related to handling samples for core analyses, and PVT studies. He also highlights core and phase behavior analysis using laboratory tests and calculations to elucidate a wide range of properties.

    Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluids
    Formation of Petroleum Reservoirs
    Typical Characteristics of Petroleum Reservoirs
    Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources
    Significance of Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties

    Preamble to Petroleum Reservoir Rock Properties
    Coring Methods
    Important Issues Related to Coring Methods
    Types of Cores
    Allocation of Core Data for Measurement of Reservoir Rock Properties
    Handling of Reservoir Rock Core Samples
    Types of Core Tests

    Significance and Definition
    Types of Porosities
    Classification of Porosity
    Parameters That Influence Porosity
    Laboratory Measurement of Porosity
    Nonconventional Methods of Porosity Measurements
    Averaging of Porosity
    Examples of Typical Porosities

    Absolute Permeability
    Significance and Definition
    Mathematical Expression of Permeability: Darcy’s Law
    Dimensional Analysis of Permeability and Definition of a Darcy
    Application of Darcy’s Law to Inclined Flow and Radial Flow
    Averaging of Permeabilities
    Permeability of Fractures and Channels
    Darcy’s Law in Field Units
    Laboratory Measurement of Absolute Permeability
    Factors Affecting Absolute Permeability
    Porosity and Permeability Relationships
    Permeabilities of Different Types of Rocks

    Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Reservoir Rocks
    Mechanical Properties
    Electrical Properties

    Fluid Saturation
    Significance and Definition
    Distribution of Fluid Saturation in a Petroleum Reservoir
    Definition and Mathematical Expressions for Fluid Maturation
    Reservoir Rock Samples Used for Fluid Saturation Determination
    Laboratory Measurement of Fluid Saturation
    Assessing the Validity of Fluid Saturation Data Measured on the Plug-End Trim for the Core Plug Sample
    Special Types of Fluid Saturations
    Saturation Averaging
    Factors Affecting Fluid Saturation Determination

    Interfacial Tension and Wettability
    Introduction and Fundamental Concepts
    Interfacial and Surface Tension
    Fundamental Concepts of Wettability
    Discussion on Practical Aspects of Wettability
    Measurement of Reservoir Rock Wettability
    Factors Affecting Wettability
    Relationship between Wettability and Irreducible Water Saturation and Residual Oil Saturation

    Capillary Pressure
    Basic Mathematical Expression of Capillary Pressure
    The Rise of Liquid in Capillaries and the Plateau Equation
    Dependence of Capillary Pressure on Rock and Fluid Properties
    Capillary Pressure and Saturation History
    Laboratory Measurement of Capillary Pressure
    Characteristics of Capillary Pressure Curves
    Converting Laboratory Capillary Pressure Data to Reservoir Conditions
    Averaging Capillary Pressure: J Function
    Calculation of Permeability from Capillary Pressure
    Effect of Wettability on Capillary Pressure
    Practical Application of Capillary Pressure

    Relative Permeability
    Fundamental Concepts of Relative Permeability
    Mathematical Expressions for Relative Permeability
    Salient Features of Gas–Oil and Water–Oil Relative Permeability Curves Laboratory Measurement of Relative Permeability Determination of Relative Permeability from Capillary Pressure Data Factors Affecting Relative Permeability Measurements Peculiarities of Relative Permeability Data Assessing the Validity of Relative Permeability Data and Determination of Corey Exponents Significance of Relative Permeability Data Three-Phase Relative Permeability

    Introduction to Petroleum Reservoir Fluids
    Chemistry of Petroleum
    Solid Components of Petroleum
    Classification of Reservoir Gases and Oils
    Five Reservoir Fluids
    Other Hydrocarbon Fluids of Interest
    Formation Waters

    Introduction to Phase Behavior
    Definition of Terms Used in Phase Behavior
    Phase Behavior of a Pure Component
    Phase Behavior of Two-Component or Binary Systems
    Phase Behavior of Multicomponent Mixtures
    Construction of Phase Envelopes

    Phase Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids
    Preamble to the Phase Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids
    Brief Description of the Plus Fraction
    Classification and Identification of Fluid Type
    Black Oils
    Volatile Oils
    Gas Condensates
    Wet Gases
    Dry Gases
    Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids in the Two-Phase Region
    Saturated Hydrocarbon Reservoirs
    Production Trends of Five Reservoir Fluids

    Sampling of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids
    Practical Considerations of Fluid Sampling
    Methods of Fluid Sampling
    Evaluating the Representativity of Fluid Samples: Quality Checks
    Factors Affecting Sample Representativity

    Compositional Analysis of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids
    Strategy of Compositional Analysis
    Characteristics of Reservoir Fluid Composition
    Gas Chromatography
    True Boiling-Point Distillation
    Characterization of Pseudo Fractions and Residue
    Other Nonconventional Methods of Compositional Analysis

    PVT Analysis and Reservoir Fluid Properties
    Properties of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids
    Laboratory Tests
    Adjustment of Black Oil Laboratory Data
    Other Sources of Obtaining the Properties of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids

    Vapor–Liquid Equilibria
    Ideal Mixtures
    Empirical Correlations for Calculating Equilibrium Ratios for Real Solutions
    Equations-of-State Models
    Use of EOS Models in PVT Packages

    Properties of Formation Waters
    Compositional Characteristics of Formation Waters
    Bubble-Point Pressure of Formation Water
    Formation Volume Factor of Formation Water
    Density of Formation Water
    Viscosity of Formation Water
    Solubility of Hydrocarbons in Formation Water
    Solubility of Formation Water in Hydrocarbons
    Compressibility of Formation Water


    Abhijit Y. Dandekar is a professor of petroleum engineering at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. An active member of SPE, Dr. Dandekar is the author or coauthor of over 30 peer-reviewed technical papers, over 45 technical conference papers, and numerous research reports in areas as diverse as special core analysis, PVT and phase behavior, gas-to-liquids, gas hydrates, viscous oils, wettability alteration, and CO2 sequestration. He received his PhD in petroleum engineering from Heriot-Watt University.

    I adopted Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties for my course a few years back, and I still believe it is a good compromise between topic coverage and depth. … This book is an excellent gateway for engineers and scientists in training to understand fundamental petroleum reservoir rock and fluid properties. Prof. Dandekar presents a broad collection of topics, practice problems, and measurements techniques aimed to acquaint students with classic concepts, as well as traditional and modern measurement techniques.
    —Zuleima T. Karpyn, The Pennsylvania State University

    The author has provided very detailed information based on his extensive hands-on experience. Easy to read and understand, like sitting in his lectures. Starting from basic and easy materials and gradually moving to more difficult and applied concepts. Plenty of examples and case studies. The other point of strength is that the author covers both rock and fluid aspects in petroleum engineering. This is not only very useful for people who are interested in both topics, but also for people who are interested in only rock or fluid aspects, as they can go over the other aspect which gives them plenty of useful/relevant information which will enrich their understanding and/or lectures. A very good book suitable for both students and lecturers with plenty of worked examples and problems.
    —Bahman Tohidi, Heriot-Watt University

    Good continuity, easy to understand for an undergraduate student. Well illustrated and can also be used as a reference for practical work. … Material is well organized. The book may be appropriate as a textbook for a course like properties of rocks.
    —Pradeep B. Jadhav, Maharashtra Institute of Technology

    Praise for the First Edition:
    An absolutely first-class piece of writing … a very full and solid work that is bound to stand as a reliable textbook for students and an essential reference for engineers. … of inestimable value to the target audience ... enormously valuable ... as an immediate on-the-spot reference to those already well immersed in the field. … No one writing about this subject for students in the future will be able to ignore this graceful and probing book so imaginatively organized.
    Current Engineering Practice, Vol. 48, No. 5-6, 2006