Philosophy and Gender  book cover
1st Edition

Philosophy and Gender

Edited By

Cressida J. Heyes

ISBN 9780415571142
Published December 14, 2011 by Routledge
1512 Pages

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Book Description

How are ‘philosophy’ and ‘gender’ implicated? Throughout history, philosophers—mostly men, though with more women among their number than is sometimes supposed—have often sought to specify and justify the proper roles of women and men, and to explore the political consequences of sexual difference. The last forty years, however, have seen a dramatic explosion of critical thinking about how philosophy is a gendered discipline; there has also been an abundance of philosophical work that uses gender as a central analytic category. In particular, feminist philosophy has become established as a major field of inquiry, and it is now complemented by related emerging areas, including the philosophy of race and the philosophy of sex and love.

For those working in Philosophy and Gender dizzying questions such as the following arise:

  • What justifications were used historically for the exclusion or inclusion of women in political life, and what is their contemporary resonance?
  • How is what counts as knowledge shaped by gender norms?
  • What metaphysical questions about identity are raised by sex change?
  • How might some feminist philosophies risk reproducing racist assumptions about what it means to be a woman, while some critical philosophies of race assume a masculine subject?
  • What does it mean to say that moral theories are gendered?

Addressing the need for an authoritative and comprehensive reference work to enable users to answer these and other questions, and to make sense of—and to navigate around—an ever more complex corpus of scholarly literature, Philosophy and Gender is a new title in Routledge’s acclaimed Critical Concepts in Philosophy series. Edited by Cressida J. Heyes, it is a four-volume collection of foundational and the very best cutting-edge scholarship. It features critical analysis of gender as it relates to philosophy of mind and language, epistemology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, social and political thought, aesthetics, and philosophy of science; it is also distinctive in showing how feminist thought has been intertwined in both analytic and continental traditions. The collection reconfigures ‘gender and philosophy’ into an integrated field of inquiry while providing an invaluable resource for scholars in all disciplines who need to know how to think critically about gender. In so doing it responds to recent curriculum developments, while providing a crucial reference guide for theoretically minded scholars across the humanities and social sciences.

Supplemented with a full index, and including an introduction, newly written by the editor, which places the assembled materials in their historical and intellectual context, Philosophy and Gender is destined to be valued by scholars and students as a vital research resource.

Table of Contents

Volume I: ‘Gender’ and ‘Philosophy’: Contested Terms


1. Michèle Le Dœuff, ‘Long Hair, Short Ideas’ [1980], The Philosophical Imaginary (Athlone Press, 1989), pp. 100–28.

2. Janice Moulton, ‘The Paradigm of Philosophy: The Adversary Method’, in Sandra Harding and Merill B. Hintikka (eds.), Discovering Reality: Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science (Reidel, 1983), pp. 149–64.

3. Naomi Scheman, ‘The Unavoidability of Gender’, Journal of Social Philosophy, 1990, 21, 2–3, 34–9.

4. Rosalyn Diprose, ‘What Is (Feminist) Philosophy?’, Hypatia, 2000, 15, 2, 115–32.

5. Judith Butler, ‘Can the "Other" of Philosophy Speak?’, Undoing Gender (Routledge, 2004), pp. 232–50.

6. Lorraine Code, ‘Is the Sex of the Knower Epistemologically Significant?’, What Can She Know? (Cornell University Press, 1991), pp. 1–26.

7. Nancy C. M. Hartsock, ‘The Feminist Standpoint: Developing the Ground for a Specifically Feminist Historical Materialism’, in Sandra Harding and Merill B. Hintikka (eds.), Discovering Reality: Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science (Reidel, 1983), pp. 283–310.

8. Sandra Harding, ‘Why Has the Sex/Gender System Become Visible Only Now?’, in Sandra Harding and Merill B. Hintikka (eds.), Discovering Reality: Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science (Reidel, 1983), pp. 311–24.

9. María Lugones and Elizabeth V. Spelman, ‘Have We Got A Theory for You! Feminist Theory, Cultural Imperialism and the Demand for "The Woman’s Voice"’, Women’s Studies International Forum, 1983, 6, 6, 573–81.

10. Audre Lorde, ‘Age, Race, Sex, and Class: Women Redefining Difference’, Sister/Outsider (The Crossing Press, 1984), pp. 114–23.

11. Marilyn Frye, ‘The Possibility of Feminist Theory’, in Ann Garry and Marilyn Pearsall (eds.), Women, Knowledge, and Reality: Explorations in Feminist Philosophy (Routledge, 1996), pp. 34–47.


12. Monique Wittig, ‘The Category of Sex’ [1976] in The Straight Mind and Other Essays (Beacon, 1992), pp. 1–8.

13. Anne Fausto-Sterling, ‘The Five Sexes: Why Male and Female are Not Enough’, The Sciences, 1993, 33, 2, 20–4.

14. Anne Fausto-Sterling, ‘The Five Sexes Revisited’, The Sciences, 2010, 40, 19-23.

15. Adrienne Rich, ‘Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence’, Signs, 1980, 5, 4, 631–60.

16. Patricia Hill Collins, ‘It’s All in the Family: Intersections of Gender, Race, and Nation’, Hypatia, 1998, 13, 3, 62–81.

17. Joan Scott, ‘Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis?’, American Historical Review, 1986, 91, 5, 1053–75.

18. Val Plumwood, ‘Nature, Self, and Gender: Feminism, Environmental Philosophy, and the Critique of Rationalism’, Hypatia, 1991, 6, 1, 3–27.

19. María Lugones, ‘Heterosexualism and the Colonial/Modern Gender System’, Hypatia, 2007, 22, 1, 186–209.

20. Judith Butler, ‘Imitation and Gender Insubordination’, in Diana Fuss (ed.), Inside/Out: Lesbian Theories, Gay Theories (Routledge, 1991), pp. 13–31.


Volume II: Gender and the History of Philosophy

Methods and Problems

21. Robin May Schott, ‘Feminism and the History of Philosophy’, Discovering Feminist Philosophy (Rowman and Littlefield, 2003), pp. 25–52.

22. Eileen O’Neill, ‘Early Modern Women Philosophers and the History of Philosophy’, Hypatia, 2005, 20, 3, 185–97.

Ancient and Medieval Philosophy

23. Kristin Sampson, ‘Identity and Gender in Plato’, in Lilli Alanen and Charlotte Witt (eds.), Feminist Reflections on the History of Philosophy (Kluwer, 2004), pp. 17–32.

24. Charlotte Witt, ‘Form, Normativity, and Gender in Aristotle: A Feminist Perspective’, in Cynthia Freeland (ed.), Feminist Interpretations of Aristotle (Penn State Press, 1998), pp. 118–37.

25. Penelope Deutscher, ‘The Evanescence of Masculinity: Deferral in Saint Augustine’s Confessions and Some Thoughts on its Bearing on the Sex/Gender Debate’, Australian Feminist Studies, 1992, 15, 41–56.


26. Susan Bordo, ‘The Cartesian Masculinization of Thought’, Signs, 1986, 11, 3, 439–56.

27. Margaret Atherton, ‘Cartesian Reason and Gendered Reason’, in Louise Antony and Charlotte Witt (eds.), A Mind of One’s Own: Feminist Essays on Reason and Objectivity (Westview, 2002), pp. 21–37.

28. Genevieve Lloyd, ‘Dominance and Difference: A Spinozistic Alternative to the Distinction Between "Sex" and "Gender"’, in Moira Gatens (ed.), Feminist Interpretations of Benedict Spinoza (Penn State Press, 2009), pp. 29–41.

29. Teresa Brennan and Carole Pateman, ‘"Mere Auxiliaries to the Commonwealth": Women and the Origins of Liberalism’, Political Studies, 1979, 27, 2, 183–200.

30. Annette Baier, ‘Hume: The Reflective Women’s Epistemologist?’, Moral Prejudices: Essays on Ethics (Harvard University Press, 1994), pp. 76–94.

31. Sally Sedgwick, ‘Can Kant’s Ethics Survive the Feminist Critique?’, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 1990, 71, 60–79.

32. Seyla Benhabib, ‘On Hegel, Women, and Irony’, in Mary Lyndon Shanley and Carole Pateman (eds.), Feminist Interpretations and Political Theory (Penn State Press, 1991), pp. 129–45.

33. Wendy Brown, ‘Wounded Attachments’, Political Theory, 1993, 21, 3, 390–410.

The Twentieth Century to The Second Sex

34. Andrea Nye, ‘Frege’s Metaphors’, Hypatia, 1992, 7, 2, 18–39.

35. Linda Zerilli, ‘Doing Without Knowing: Feminism’s Politics of the Ordinary’, Political Theory, 1998, 26, 4, 435–58.

36. Shannon Sullivan, ‘Reconfiguring Gender with John Dewey: Habit, Bodies, and Cultural Change’, Hypatia, 2000, 15, 1, 23–42.

37. Mariana Ortega, ‘"New Mestizas", "World-Travelers", and "Dasein": Phenomenology and the Multi-Voiced, Multi-Cultural Self’, Hypatia, 2001, 16, 3, 1–29.

38. Iris Marion Young, ‘Throwing Like a Girl: A Phenomenology of Feminine Body Comportment, Motility, and Spatiality’, Throwing Like A Girl and Other Essays in Feminist Philosophy and Social Theory (Indiana University Press, 1990), pp. 141–59.

39. Sara Heinämaa, ‘Simone de Beauvoir’s Phenomenology of Sexual Difference’, Hypatia, 1999, 14, 4, 114–32.

Volume III: Knowledge and Reality


40. Elizabeth Anderson, ‘Feminist Epistemology: An Interpretation and Defense’, Hypatia, 1995, 10, 3, 50–84.

41. Uma Narayan, ‘The Project of Feminist Epistemology: Perspectives from a Nonwestern Feminist’, in Susan Bordo and Alison Jaggar (eds.), Gender/Body/Knowledge (Rutgers University Press, 1989), pp. 256–69.

42. Alison Wylie, ‘Why Standpoint Matters’, in Robert Figueroa and Sandra Harding (eds), Science and Other Cultures (Routledge, 2003), pp. 26-48.

43. Elisabeth Lloyd, ‘Objectivity and the Double Standard for Feminist Epistemologies’, Synthese, 1995, 104, 3, 351–81.


Science and Medicine

44. Donna Haraway, ‘Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective’, Feminist Studies, 1988, 14, 3, 575–99.

45. Helen Longino, ‘Can there be a Feminist Science?’, Hypatia, 1987, 2, 3, 51–64.

46. Nancy Tuana, ‘Coming to Understand: Orgasm and the Epistemology of Ignorance’, Hypatia, 19, 1, 194–232.

47. Shelley Tremain, ‘On the Government of Disability’, Social Theory and Practice, 2001, 27, 4, 617–36.


48. María Lugones, ‘Playfulness, "World"-Traveling, and Loving Perception’, Hypatia, 1987, 2, 2, 3–19.

49. Linda Martín Alcoff, ‘The Metaphysics of Gender and Sexual Difference’, in Barbara S. Andrew, Jean Keller, and Lisa H. Schwartzmann (eds.), Feminist Interventions into Ethics and Politics (Rowman and Littlefield, 2005), pp. 17–39.

50. Luce Irigaray, ‘Sexual Difference as Universal’, I Love to You (Routledge, 1996), pp. 43–8.

51. Talia Mae Bettcher, ‘Evil Deceivers and Make-Believers: On Transphobic Violence and the Politics of Illusion’, Hypatia, 2007, 22, 3, 43–65.

Logic and Language

52. Val Plumwood, ‘The Politics of Reason: Toward a Feminist Logic’, in Rachel Joffe Falmagne and Marjorie Hasse (eds.), Representing Reason: Feminist Theory and Formal Logic (Rowman and Littlefield, 2002), pp. 11–44.

53. Sally Haslanger, ‘What are We Talking About? The Semantics and Politics of Social Kinds’, Hypatia, 2005, 20, 4, 10–26.

54. Monique Wittig, ‘The Mark of Gender’ [1985], The Straight Mind and Other Essays (Beacon, 1992), pp. 76–89.

55. Andrea Nye, ‘The Voice of the Serpent: French Feminism and Philosophy of Language’, in Ann Garry and Marilyn Pearsall (eds.), Women, Knowledge, and Reality: Explorations in Feminist Philosophy (Routledge, 1996), pp. 323–38.

56. Rae Langton, ‘Speech Acts and Unspeakable Acts’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, 1993, 22, 4, 293–330.

Volume IV: Values and Society


57. Carolyn Korsmeyer, ‘Pleasure: Reflections on Aesthetics and Feminism’, Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 1993, 51, 2, 199–206.

57. Mary Devereaux, ‘Oppressive Texts, Resisting Readers, and the Gendered Spectator: The New Aesthetics’, Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 1990, 48, 4, 337–47.

59. A. W. Eaton, ‘Feminist Philosophy of Art’, Philosophy Compass, 2008, 3, 5, 873–93.

60. Michelle Meagher, ‘Jenny Saville and a Feminist Aesthetics of Disgust’, Hypatia, 2003, 18, 4, 23-41.



61. Annette Baier, ‘What Do Women Want in a Moral Theory?’, Noûs, 1985, 19, 1, 53–63.

62. Margaret Urban Walker, ‘Feminism, Ethics, and the Question of Theory’, Hypatia, 1992, 7, 3, 23–38.

63. Margaret Olivia Little, ‘Why a Feminist Approach to Bioethics?’, Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 1996, 6, 1, 1–18.

64. Seyla Benhabib, ‘The Generalized and the Concrete Other: The Kohlberg-Gilligan Controversy and Moral Theory’, Praxis International, 1985, 5, 4, 402–24.

65. Cheshire Calhoun, ‘Justice, Care, and Gender Bias’, Journal of Philosophy, 1988, 85, 9, 451–63.

66. Claudia Card, ‘Gender and Moral Luck’, in Owen Flanagan and Amélie Oksenberg Rorty (eds.), Identity, Character, and Morality: Essays in Moral Psychology (MIT Press, 1993), pp. 199–218.

67. Martha Nussbaum, ‘Human Capabilities, Female Human Beings’, in Martha Nussbaum and Jonathan Glover (eds.), Women, Culture, and Development: A Study of Human Capabilities (Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 61–104.


Politics and Law

68. Chandra Talpade Mohanty, ‘Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial Discourses’, Feminist Review, 1988, 30, 61–88.

69. Alison Jaggar, ‘Saving Amina: Global Justice for Women and Intercultural Dialogue’, Ethics and International Affairs, 2005, 19, 3, 55–75.

70. Andrea Smith, ‘American Studies Without America: Native Feminisms and the Nation State’, American Quarterly, 2008, 60, 2, 309–15.

71. Iris Marion Young, ‘Five Faces of Oppression’, Justice and the Politics of Difference (Princeton University Press, 1990), pp. 39–65.

72. Sandra Bartky, ‘Foucault, Femininity, and the Modernization of Patriarchal Power’, Femininity and Domination: Studies in the Phenomenology of Oppression (Routledge, 1990), pp. 63–82, 129–32.

73. Catharine MacKinnon, ‘Sex Equality: On Difference and Dominance’, Toward a Feminist Theory of the State (Harvard University Press, 1989), pp. 215–34, 314–19.

74. Patricia J. Williams, ‘On Being the Object of Property’, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 1988, 14, 1, 5–24.

75. Penelope Deutscher, ‘Women, Animality, Immunity—and the Slave of the Slave’, Insights, 2008, 1, 4, 2–19.

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