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    The past forty years or so have witnessed a renaissance in the philosophy of religion. New tools (modal logic, probability theory, and so on) and new historical research have prompted many thinkers to take a fresh look at old topics (God’s existence, the problem of evil, faith and reason, and the like). Moreover, sophisticated examinations of contentious new issues, such as the problem of religious diversity or the role of emotions and other non-evidential factors in shaping rationally held religious beliefs, have also emerged.

    Addressing the need for an authoritative reference work to make sense of this rapidly growing and ever more complex corpus of scholarly literature, Philosophy of Religion is a new title in the Routledge Major Works series, Critical Concepts in Philosophy. Edited by a leading scholar, it is a four-volume collection which brings together key examples of the most important recent work, together with carefully selected historical pieces needed to understand them. Volume I focuses on concepts of the divine while Volume II explores arguments for and against the existence of a divine reality, with special attention to the problem of evil, the problem of divine hiddenness, and the case for naturalism. Volume III and the first part of Volume IV are devoted to broadly epistemic issues: the cognitive value of religious experience; the proper role of evidence in the formation of religious belief; the nature of justified religious belief; and pragmatic arguments for religious belief. The remainder of Volume IV introduces some of the best recent work on religious diversity, tolerance, and the public role of religion in a pluralistic society.

    The Philosophy of Religion is fully indexed and has a comprehensive introduction, newly written by the editor, which places the material in its historical and intellectual context. It is an essential work of reference and is destined to be valued by scholars and students as a vital one-stop research resource.

    Available now at a special introductory price. This price is applicable until 3 months after publication. For more information, please contact us ([email protected]).

    Volume I

    Concepts of God

    1. Thomas V. Morris, ‘The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Anselm’, Faith and Philosophy, 1984, 1, 177–87.

    2. Paul Griffiths, ‘Buddha and God: A Comparative Study in Ideas about Maximal Greatness’, Journal of Religion, 1989, 69, 502–29.

    3. William J. Wainwright, ‘Concepts of God’, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Spring 2007.

    God’s Knowledge

    4. Nelson Pike, ‘Divine Omniscience and Voluntary Action’, The Philosophical Review, 1965, 74, 27–46.

    5. Alvin Plantinga, ‘On Ockham’s Way Out’, Faith and Philosophy, 1986, 3, 235–69.

    6. Thomas P. Flint, ‘The Molinist Account of Providence’, Divine Providence: The Molinist Account (Cornell University Press, 1998), pp. 35–59.

    7. Ted A. Warfield, ‘Divine Foreknowledge and Human Freedom are Compatible’, Nous, 1997, 31, 1, 80–6.

    8. Patrick Grim, ‘The Being that Knew Too Much’, International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 2000, 47, 141–54.

    God’s Power

    9. Nelson Pike, ‘Omnipotence and God’s Ability to Sin’, American Philosophical Quarterly, 1968, 6, 3, 208–16.

    10. Peter Geach, ‘Omnipotence’, Philosophy, 1973, 48, 7–20.

    11. William L. Rowe, ‘God isn’t Free’, Can God be Free? (Clarendon Press, 2004), pp. 2, 88–91, 104–21, 123–7.

    12. William J. Wainwright, ‘Rowe on God’s Freedom and God’s Grace’, Philo, 2005, 8, 1, 12–22.

    13. Klaas J. Kraay, ‘Theistic Replies to Rowe’s a Priori Argument for Atheism’, Philo, 2005, 8, 1, 23–37.

    God’s ‘Metaphysical’ Attributes

    14. Nelson Pike, ‘Is God Timeless’, God and Timelessness (Schocken Books, 1970), pp. 101–17, 121–9.

    15. Alvin Plantinga, ‘Divine Simplicity’, Does God Have a Nature? (Marquette University Press, 1980), pp. 28–61.

    16. Charles Hartshorne, ‘God as Supreme, Yet Indebted to All’, The Divine Relativity (Yale University Press, 1948), pp. 22–3, 25–6, 42–9.

    17. Eleonore Stump and Norman Kretzmann, ‘Eternity, Awareness, and Action’, Faith and Philosophy, 1992, 9, 4, 463–82.

    18. William E. Mann, ‘Simplicity and Immutability in God’, International Philosophical Quarterly, 1983, 23, 267–76.


    19. Jean-Luc Marion, ‘Thomas Aquinas and Onto-theo-logy’, in Michael Kessler and Christian Sheppard (eds.), Mystics: Presence and Aporia (University of Chicago Press, 2003), pp. 38–74.

    20. Merold Westphal, ‘Aquinas and Onto-theology’, American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly, 2006, 80, 2, 173–91.

    Volume II

    Arguments for the Existence of God

    The Ontological Argument

    21. David Lewis, ‘Anselm and Actuality’, Nous, 1970, 4, 175–88.

    22. Alvin Plantinga, ‘The Ontological Argument’, God, Freedom and Evil (Harper and Row, 1974), pp. 85–8, 92–112.

    23. Peter Van Inwagen, ‘Ontological Arguments’, Nous, 1977, 11, 375–95.

    24. Graham Oppy, ‘The Uses of Parody and the Argument’s Value’, Ontological Arguments and Belief in God (Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 179–81, 183–94.

    The Cosmological Argument

    25. William L. Rowe, ‘Two Criticisms of the Cosmological Argument’, The Monist, 1970, 54, 441–59.

    26. William L. Rowe, ‘The Cosmological Argument’, Man and World, 1968, 1, 283–90.

    27. Richard Gale and Alexander Pruss, ‘A New Cosmological Argument’, Religious Studies, 1999, 35, 461–76.

    28 Graham Oppy, ‘On "A New Cosmological Argument"’, Religious Studies, 2000, 36, 345–53.

    29. Kevin Davey and Robert Clifton, ‘Insufficient Reason in the "New Cosmological Argument"’, Religious Studies, 2001, 37, 485–90.

    30. Richard Gale and Alexander Pruss, ‘A Response to Oppy and Davey and Clifton’, Religious Studies, 2002, 38, 89–99.

    Design Arguments

    31. Richard Swinburne, ‘The Argument from the Fine-Tuning of the Universe’, in John Leslie (ed.), Physical Cosmology and Philosophy (Macmillan 1990), pp. 154–73.

    32. Peter Van Inwagen, ‘Design Arguments’, Metaphysics (Westview Press, 1993), pp. 134–47.

    33. Elliott Sober, ‘The Design Argument’, in William Mann (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Religion (Blackwell, 2005), pp. 117–47.

    The Problem of Evil

    34. John Hick, ‘The Free Will Defense’, Evil and the God of Love (Harper and Row, 1966), pp. 43–4, 289–95, 369–72, 374–6.

    35. Alvin Plantinga, ‘The Free Will Defense’, God, Freedom, and Evil (Harper and Row, 1974), pp. 12–49.

    36. Paul Draper, ‘Pain and Pleasure: An Evidential Problem for Theists’, Nous, 1989, 23, 331–50.

    37. William L. Rowe, ‘The Evidential Argument from Evil: A Second Look’, in Daniel Howard-Snyder (ed.), The Evidential Argument from Evil (Indiana University Press, 1996), pp. 262–85.

    38. Peter Van Inwagen, ‘The Problem of Evil, the Problem of Air, and the Problem of Silence’, in James E. Tomberlin (ed.), Philosophical Perspectives 5: Philosophy of Religion (Ridgeway, 1991), pp. 135–65.

    39. Marilyn M. Adams, ‘Redemptive Suffering: A Christian Approach to the Problem of Evil’, in Robert Audi and William J. Wainwright (eds.), Rationality, Religious Belief, and Moral Commitment (Cornell University Press, 1986), pp. 248–67.

    40. Paul Draper, ‘Cosmic Fine-Tuning and Terrestrial Suffering: Parallel Problems for Naturalism and Theism’, American Philosophical Quarterly, 2004, 41, 4, 311–21.

    Divine Hiddenness

    41. John L. Schellenberg, ‘God’s Hiddenness’, Divine Hiddenness and Human Reason (Cornell University Press, 1993), pp. 2–3, 17–43.

    42. William J. Wainwright, ‘Jonathan Edwards and the Hiddenness of God’, in Daniel Howard-Snyder and Paul K. Moser (eds.), Divine Hiddenness: New Essays (Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp. 98–119.

    Volume III

    Religious Experience

    43. Richard Swinburne, ‘The Argument from Religious Experience’, The Existence of God (Clarendon Press, 1991), pp. 244–9, 254–76.

    44. William J. Wainwright, ‘The Cognitive Status of Mystical Experience’, Mysticism: A Study of its Nature, Cognitive Value, and Moral Implications (University of Wisconsin Press, 1981), pp. 82–137.

    45. William P. Alston, ‘Is Religious Belief Rational?’, in Stanley M. Harrison and Richard C. Taylor (eds.), The Life of Religion (University Press of America, 1987), pp. 1–15.

    46. Richard M. Gale, ‘Religious Experience Arguments’, On the Nature and Existence of God (Cambridge University Press, 1991), pp. 285–343.

    Faith and Reason

    47. Nicholas Wolterstorff, ‘The Migration of the Theistic Arguments: From Natural Theology to Evidentialist Apologetics’, in Robert Audi and William J. Wainwright (eds.), Rationality, Religious Belief, and Moral Commitment (Cornell University Press, 1986), pp. 38–80.

    48. Alvin Plantinga, ‘Is Belief in God Properly Basic?’, Nous, 1981, 15, 41–51.

    49. Gary Gutting, ‘Proper Basicality’, Religious Belief and Religious Skepticism (University of Notre Dame Press, 1982), pp. 79–92.

    50. Alvin Plantinga, ‘Warranted Belief in God’, Warranted Christian Belief (Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 167–92.

    51. Basil Mitchell, ‘Cumulative Case Arguments’, The Justification of Religious Belief (Macmillan, 1973), pp. 39–47, 51–3, 59–65, 69–73, 76–82, 85–95, 160–5.

    52. William J. Wainwright, ‘Religious Experience, Theological Argument, and Rhetoric’, Faith and Philosophy, 2005, 22, 4, 391–412.

    Religious Language

    53. William P. Alston, ‘Functionalism and Theological Language’, American Philosophical Quarterly, 1985, 22, 3, 221–30.

    54. Paul Ricouer, ‘Philosophy and Religious Language’, The Journal of Religion, 1974, 54, 71–85.

    55. Janet Soskice, ‘Metaphor, Reference, and Realism’, Metaphor and Religious Language (Clarendon Press, 1985), pp. 99–104, 107–40, 142–4, 148–59, 173–80.

    Volume IV

    Pragmatic Arguments for Religious Belief

    56. Richard Foley, ‘Pragmatic Reasons for Belief’, in Jeff Jordan (ed.), Gambling on God: Essays on Pascal’s Wager (Rowman and Littlefield, 1994), pp. 31–46.

    57. Ian Hacking, ‘The Logic of Pascal’s Wager’, American Philosophical Quarterly, 1972, 9, 2, 186–92.

    58. Anthony Duff, ‘Pascal’s Wager and Infinite Utilities’, Analysis, 1986, 46, 107–9.

    59. Alan Hajek, ‘Waging War on Pascal’s Wager’, The Philosophical Review, 2003, 112, 1, 27–56.

    60. Jeff Jordan, ‘A Qualified Defense of the Wager’, Pascal’s Wager: Pragmatic Arguments and Belief in God (Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 73–95, 103–7, 110–20.

    61. Philip L. Quinn, ‘Moral Objections to Pascalian Wagering’, in Jeff Jordan (ed.), Gambling on God: Essays on Pascal’s Wager (Rowman and Littlefield, 1994), pp. 61–81.

    Religious Diversity and Rational Religious Belief

    62. John Hick, ‘The Pluralistic Hypothesis’, An Interpretation of Religion (Yale University Press, 1989), pp. 233–51, 307–8.

    63. Peter Byrne, ‘Religious Pluralism and Religious Reference’, Prolegomena to Religious Pluralism: Reference and Realism in Religion (Macmillan, 1995), pp. 12, 26–8, 33–4, 96–7, 127–30, 140–5, 149–50, 193, 200–3, 205–10.

    64. Alvin Plantinga, ‘Pluralism: A Defense of Religious Exclusivism’, in Thomas D. Senor (ed.), The Rationality of Belief and the Plurality of Faith (Cornell University Press, 1995), pp. 191–215.

    65. David Basinger, ‘Hick’s Religious Pluralism and "Reformed Epistemology": A Middle Ground’, Faith and Philosophy, 1988, 5, 4, 421–32.

    66. William J. Wainwright, ‘Competing Religious Claims’, in William E. Mann (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Religion (Blackwell, 2005), pp. 220–41.

    Tolerance and the Public Role of Religion

    67. Jeremy Waldron, ‘Locke: Toleration, and the Rationality of Persecution’, in Susan Mendus (ed.), Justifying Toleration (Cambridge University Press, 1988), pp. 61–86.

    68. Philip L. Quinn, ‘Religious Diversity and Religious Toleration’, International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 2001, 50, 1–3, 57–80.

    69. Robert Audi, ‘Liberal Democracy and the Place of Religion in Politics’, in Robert Audi and Nicholas Wolterstorff (eds.), Religion in the Public Square (Rowman and Littlefield, 1997), pp. 9–21, 24–37, 50–3.

    70. John Rawls, ‘The Idea of Public Reason’, Political Liberalism (Columbia University Press, 1993), pp. 212–30; 240–4, 247–51.

    71. Nicholas Wolterstorff, ‘Audi on Religion, Politics, and Liberal Democracy’, in Robert Audi and Nicholas Wolterstorff (eds.), Religion in the Public Square (Rowman and Littlefield, 1997), pp. 151–60.

    72. Nicholas Wolterstorff, ‘Why We Should Reject What Liberalism Tells Us’, in Paul J. Weithman (ed.), Religion and Contemporary Liberalism (University of Notre Dame Press, 1997), pp. 162–81.


    William J. Wainwright is Distinguished Professor of Philosophy, Emeritus, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. He is a former editor of Faith and Philosophy and a past President of the Society for Philosophy of Religion.