Photodegradation of Water Pollutants: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Photodegradation of Water Pollutants

1st Edition

By Martin M. Halmann

CRC Press

320 pages

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Hardback: 9780849324598
pub: 1995-12-05
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Photodegradation of Water Pollutants, the only complete survey available of current photocatalytic methods for treating water pollutants, covers all aspects of light-stimulated detoxification. Ideal for researchers and students, this new book explains methods for pollution treatment that have proven more effective than conventional biodegradation.

Photodegradation of Water Pollutants examines advanced oxidation processes that have been successful in treating the chemical substances produced by industrial effluents and intensive agriculture. These oxidation processes include irradiation with ultraviolet or visible light, the use of homogenous sensitizers, such as dyes, and the use of heterogeneous photocatalysts, such as dispersed semiconductors.

In addition, Photodegradation of Water Pollutants addresses the naturally occurring self-cleaning of some pollutants in sunlit surface waters, as well as several alternative non-photochemical approaches to water treatment. Available treatment options are discussed for the main groups of water pollutants, including toxic inorganic ions (cyanides, heavy metals), hydrocarbon derivatives (oil spills, surfactants, pulp and paper wastes), halocarbons, organo-N, organo-P, and organo-S compounds. The text also contains a unique section on the economics of advanced oxidation pollution treatments.

Table of Contents

Introduction: Advanced Oxidation Processes. Mechanisms: eaq-, 102, .OH and Peroyxy Radicals. Sensitized Excitation. Semiconductor Promoted Photooxidation. Experimental Techniques.

Inorganic Ions and Molecules: Water and Hydrogen Peroxide. Halide Ions. Nitrogen Compounds. Phosphorus Oxyanions. Sulfur Oxyanions and Sulfide. Heavy Metal Ions. Organo-Metallic Compounds.

Hydrocarbon Derivatives: Aliphatic Compounds. Aromatic and Other Cyclic Compounds. Long-Chain Compounds. Photo-induced Nitrosation and Nitration.

Halocarbons: Aliphatic Halocarbons. Aromatic and Other Cyclic Compounds.

Organic Nitrogen Compounds: Triazines. Amines, Amides, and Carbamates. Nitrobenzene and Nitrophenols. Bromoxynil and Choroxynil. Thymine. Triclopyr. Fenarimol. Flavins. Catecholamines. Dyes. Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles.

Organic Phosphorus Compounds: Homogenous Photolysis. Heterogenous Photodegradation.

Organic Sulfur Compounds

Natural and Waste Waters: Natural Transformations in Freshwater and Oceans. Treatment of Polluted Groundwater. Treatment of Waste Water. Photodynamic Sterilization. Concentrated Sunlight.

Evaluation and Future Trends: Photodegradation Compared with Other Methods. Cost estimates, Energetics, and Conclusions.



THis TOC has 3 levels:


Advanced Oxidation Processes

Mechanisms: eaq-, 102, .OH and Peryoxy Radicals

Sensitized Excitation

Semiconductor-Promoted Photooxidation

Primary Reaction Steps

Kinetic Models

Role of Oxygen

Direct and Indirect Photodegradations

Zeta Potentials and Surface Properties

Catalyst Preparations

Surface Density of OH Groups in TiO2 Particles

Quantum Yields and Turnover Numbers

Experimental Techniques

Reactor Design

Laser and Excimer Light Sources

Light-Dark Cycling

Concentrated Sunlight

Photoelectrochemical Reactions

Inorganic Ions and Molecules

Water and Hydrogen Peroxide

Halide Ions

Nitrogen Compounds

Phosphorus Oxyanions

Sulfur Oxyanions and Sulfide

Heavy Metal Ions

Organo-Metallic Compounds

Hydrocarbon Derivatives

Aliphatic Compounds

Homogenous Photolysis

Heterogenous Photodegradation

Aromatic and Other Cyclic Compounds

Homogenous Photolysis

Heterogenous Photodegradation

Oil Spills

Long-Chain Compounds


Lignin Sulfonates and Kraft Wastewater

Phthalate Esters


Photoinduced Nitrosation and Nitration


Aliphatic Halocarbons

Aromatic and Other Cyclic Halocarbons



Polychlorinated Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls

Halocarbon Pesticides

Organic Nitrogen Compounds


Amines, Amides, and Carbamates

Nitrobenzene and Nitrophenols

Bromoxynil and Chloroxynil







Azo Dyes

Tannery Dyes

Dyes in Municipal Wastewater

Methyl Violet

Methyl Viologen

Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles

Organic Phosphorus Compounds

Homogenous Photolysis

Heterogenous Photodegradation

Organic Sulfur Compounds

Natural and Waste Waters

Natural Transformations in Freshwater and Oceans

Treatment of Polluted Groundwater

Treatment of Wastewater

Photodynamic Sterilization

Concentrated Sunlight

Evaluation and Future Trends

Photodegradation Compared with Other Methods





Corona Discharge

Electrochemical Oxidation

Oxidation in Supercritical Water

Cost Estimates, Energetics, and Conclusions

Cost Estimates

Energy Requirement Evaluation

Future Trends



Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply