If everyone with a smartphone can be a citizen photojournalist, who needs professional photojournalism? This rather flippant question cuts to the heart of a set of pressing issues, where an array of impassioned voices may be heard in vigorous debate. While some of these voices are confidently predicting photojournalism's impending demise as the latest casualty of internet-driven convergence, others are heralding its dramatic rebirth, pointing to the democratisation of what was once the exclusive domain of the professional.
Regardless of where one is situated in relation to these stark polarities, however, it is readily apparent that photojournalism is being decisively transformed across shifting, uneven conditions for civic participation in ways that raise important questions for journalism’s forms and practices in a digital era. This book's contributors identify and critique a range of factors currently recasting photojournalism's professional ethos, devoting particular attention to the challenges posed by the rise of citizen journalism. This book was originally published as two special issues, in Digital Journalism and Journalism Practice.
Introduction: Photojournalism and Citizen Journalism Stuart Allan
1. Gatecheckers at the Visual News Stream: A new model for classic gatekeeping theory Carol B. Schwalbe, B. William Silcock, and Elizabeth Candello
2. Not Good Enough? Amateur images in the regular news flow of print and online newspapers Maria Nilsson and Ingela Wadbring
3. The Tyranny of the Empty Frame: Reluctance to use citizen-produced photographs in online journalism Igor Vobič and Ilija Tomanić Trivundža
4. Taking Our Pictures: Citizen photojournalism in traditional US news media Bonnie Brennen and J. Scott Brennen
5. Conflictual Media Events, Eyewitness Images, and the Boston Marathon Bombing (2013) Mette Mortensen
6. Evaluating News Photographs: Trust, impact and consumer culture in the digital age Andrea Pogliano
7. Citizen Photojournalism: How photographic practices of amateur photographers affect narrative functions of editorial photographs Louise Grayson
8. Amateur Photographs as Visual Quotes: Does the rise of amateur photography lead to fundamental changes in the news media? Kathrin Schmieder
9. The Favelas through the Lenses of Photographers: Photojournalism from community and mainstream media organisations Alice Baroni
10. The ‘‘Public Eye’’ or ‘‘Disaster Tourists’’: Investigating public perceptions of citizen smartphone imagery Stuart Allan and Chris Peters
11. The Fragility of Photo-truth: Verification of amateur images in Finnish newsrooms Mervi Pantti and Stefanie Sirén
12. Toward a New Visual Culture of the News: Professional photojournalism, digital post-production, and the symbolic struggle for distinction Marco Solaroli
13. Innovation(s) in Photojournalism: Assessing visual content and the place of citizen photojournalism in Time’s Lightbox photoblog Valérie Gorin
14. Citizen Photojournalists and their Professionalizing Logics: The case of contributors to the Citizenside agency Aurélie Aubert and Jérémie Nicey
15. News Images on Instagram: The paradox of authenticity in hyperreal photo reportage Eddy Borges-Rey
16. When News Media Turn to Citizen-generated Images of War: Transparency and graphicness in the visual coverage of the Syrian conflict Jelle Mast and Samuel Hanegreefs
17. Locating the Journalism in Citizen Photojournalism: The use and content of citizen-generated imagery Keith Greenwood and Ryan J. Thomas
18. Mini Cameras and Maxi Minds: Citizen photojournalism and the public sphere Gregory Paschalidis
The journal Journalism Studies was established at the turn of the new millennium by Bob Franklin. It was launched in the context of a burgeoning interest in the scholarly study of journalism and an expansive global community of journalism scholars and researchers. The ambition was to provide a forum for the critical discussion and study of journalism as a subject of intellectual inquiry but also an arena of professional practice. Previously, the study of journalism in the UK and much of Europe was a fairly marginal branch of the larger disciplines of media, communication and cultural studies; only a handful of Universities offered degree programmes in the subject. Journalism Studies has flourished and succeeded in providing the intended public space for discussion of research on key issues within the field, to the point where in 2007 a sister journal, Journalism Practice, was launched to enable an enhanced focus on practice-based issues, as well as foregrounding studies of journalism education, training and professional concerns. Both journals are among the leading ranked journals within the field and publish six issues annually, in electronic and print formats. From the outset, the publication of themed issues has been a commitment for both journals. Their purpose is first, to focus on highly significant or neglected areas of the field; second, to facilitate discussion and analysis of important and topical policy issues; and third, to offer readers an especially high quality and closely focused set of essays, analyses and discussions; or all three.
The Journalism Studies: Theory and Practice book series draws on a wide range of these themed issues from both journals and thereby extends the critical and public forum provided by them. The Editor of the journals works closely with guest editors to ensure that the books achieve relevance for readers and the highest standards of research rigour and academic excellence. The series makes a significant contribution to the field of journalism studies by inviting distinguished scholars, academics and journalism practitioners to discuss and debate the central concerns within the field. It also reaches a wider readership of scholars, students and practitioners across the social sciences, humanities and communication arts, encouraging them to engage critically with, but also to interrogate, the specialist scholarly studies of journalism which this series provides.