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Phycology-Based Approaches for Wastewater Treatment and Resource Recovery



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ISBN 9780367726447
November 30, 2021 Forthcoming by CRC Press
368 Pages 23 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Algal and phycology-based approaches for the wastewater treatment has gained interest in recent times. This volume highlights advanced algal-based technologies developed or under consideration for the wastewater treatment along with the opportunities that the existing technologies can provide at an industrial scale. It aims to cover recent findings on algal-based approaches for removal of heavy metals, organic pollutants, etc., from sewage and industrial effluents and in-depth analysis on the technologies such as biosorption and bioaccumulations. Advanced mathematical modeling approaches to understand the waste removal and resource recovery from wastewater has been illustrated as well.

  • Provides exhaustive information on the use of algae for the simultaneous treatment and resource recovery of wastewater.
  • Discuses algae, microalgae, and cyanobacteria applications in-detail.
  • Presents critical insight into limitations of the prevalent technologies.
  • Reviews methodology of advanced technologies.
  • Includes illustrations and  interesting trivia boxes throughout the book.

This book is aimed at Researchers, Graduate students and Professionals in Phycology, Microbiology, Bioremediation, Environmental Sciences, Biotechnology, Wastewater Treatment, Resource Recovery, and Circular Economy.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1
Biotechnological advances for utilization of algae, microalgae, and cyanobacteria for wastewater treatment and resource recovery
Prabuddha Gupta, Ashok Kumar Bishoyi, Mahendrapal singh Rajput, Ujwal Trivedi, Gaurav Sanghvi*
1.1. Introduction 
1.2. Wastewater treatment by Microalgae 
1.3. Wastewater treatment by Cyanobacteria 
1.4. Open system 
         1.4.1. Stabilization ponds/oxidation ditches/lagoons 
         1.4.2. Raceway ponds (RWP) 
         1.4.3. Revolving algal biofilms (RAB) 
         1.4.4. Photo sequencing batch reactor (PSBR) 
1.5. Closed system 
         1.5.1. Photobioreactors (PBRs) 
         1.5.2. Immobilized Algae system 
         1.5.3. Algal membrane photobioreactor (A-MPBR) 
1.6. Biotechnological advancement towards wastewater treatment: better understanding with omics approach 
         1.6.1. Omics approach in wastewater treatment 
1.7 Conclusion 
        References

Chapter 2
Wastewater utilization as growth medium for seaweed, microalgae and cyanobacteria, defined as potential source of human and animal services
Silvia Lomartire, Diana Pacheco, Glácio Souza Araújo, João C. Marques, Leonel Pereira, Ana M. M. Gonçalves*
2.1. Introduction  
2.2. Correlation between biological tools and production of services for humans and animals  
       2.2.1. Use in the aquaculture
2.3. Seaweed as potential source of food industry, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products 
      2.3.1. Industrial applications of seaweed 
      2.3.2. Nutraceutical applications of seaweed 
      2.3.3. Pharmaceutical products from seaweed 
      2.3.4. Therapeutical applications of seaweed 
2.4. Microalgae as potential source of food industry, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products 
      2.4.1. Microalgae application in food industry 
      2.4.2. Nutraceutical applications of microalgae  
      2.4.3. Pharmaceutical applications of microalgae 
      2.4.4. Companies that produce microalgae-based products 
2.5. Cyanobacteria as potential source of food industry, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products 
      2.5.1. Cyanobacteria’s application in Food industry 
      2.5.2. Nutraceutical applications of cyanobacteria 
      2.5.3. Pharmaceutical applications of cyanobacteria 
2.6. Methods of cultivation of macroalgae, microalgae and cyanobacteria 
      2.6.1. Macroalgae cultivation 
      2.6.2. Microalgae and Cyanobacteria cultivation 
2.7. Rural and industrial wastewater application as potential growth substrate 
     2.7.1. Macroalgae 
     2.7.2. Microalgae and Cyanobacteria 
2.8. Conclusion 
       References

Chapter 3
Identification, Cultivation and Potential Utilization of Micro-algae in Domestic Wastewater Treatment
Debanjan Sanyal*, Sneha Athalye, Shyam Prasad, Dishant Desai, Vinay Dwivedi and Santanu Dasgupta
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Algae naturally present in domestic wastewater
3.3. Algae:  An indicator species for pollution
3.4. Role of algae in wastewater treatment
3.5. Cultivation methodology for various algal species
3.6. Utilization of harvested algae biomass
3.7. Challenges and future prospects
3.8. Conclusion
Acknowledgement
 References

Chapter 4
Phyco-remediation: A Promising Solution for Heavy Metal Contaminants in Industrial Effluents
Chandra Shekharaiah P. S, Santosh Kodgire, Ayushi Bisht, Debanjan Sanyal*, Santanu Dasgupta
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Conventional methods of heavy metal removal
       4.2.1. Ion exchange method
       4.2.2. Adsorption method
       4.2.3. Membrane filtration
       4.2.4. Chemical precipitation
       4.2.5. Coagulation and clotting method
4.3. Phycoremediation
        4.3.1. Phycoremediation by live algal cultures
4.4. Cultivation systems for removal of heavy metals
        4.4.1. Phycoremediation of heavy metals by immobilized algal cultures
        4.4.2. Phycoremediation of heavy metals by batch mode cultivation of algae
        4.4.3. Phycoremediation of heavy metals by continuous mode cultivation of algae
4.5. Commercial adsorbents versus algal adsorbents
4.6. Recycle and regeneration of algae
4.7. Conclusion
        References

Chapter 5
Microalgae mediated elimination of endocrine-disrupting chemicals
Chandra Prakash, Komal Agrawal, Pradeep Verma, Venkatesh Chaturvedi*
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Removal of various EDCs using microalgae
          5.2.1 Estrogens
          5.2.2 Phenol derivatives
                5.2.2.1. Nonylphenol and Octylphenol
                5.2.2.2  Bisphenol A
          5.2.3 NSAIDS
          5.2.4 Antibiotics
            5.2.5 Pesticides
5.3 Conclusion
 References

Chapter 6
The application of microalgae for bioremediation of pharmaceuticals from wastewater: recent trend and possibilities
Prithu Baruah and Neha Chaurasia*
6.1. Introduction
6.2 Pharmaceuticals in the environment
     6.2.1 Source and entry of pharmaceuticals into the environment
     6.2.2 Environmental and health risks of pharmaceuticals
6.3 Modern methods of pharmaceuticals remediation
6.4 Removal of pharmaceuticals by microalgae
     6.4.1 Ecological role of microalgae
      6.4.2 Mechanism of pharmaceuticals removal by microalgae
      6.4.3 Factors affecting pharmaceuticals removal by microalgae
6.5 Other application of microalgae
      6.5.1 Production of biofuel
      6.5.2 Biomitigation of carbon dioxide
6.6 Conclusion and prospects
       References

Chapter 7
Green Nanotechnology: A microalgal approach to remove heavy metals from wastewater
Navonil Mal, Reecha Mohapatra, Trisha Bagchi, Sweta Singh, Yagya Sharma, Meenakshi Singh*, Murthy Chavali and K. Chandrasekhar
7.1  Introduction
7.2.    Microalgal nanoparticles in wastewater treatment
7.2.1. Classification of algae as adsorbents
7.2.2. Molecular mechanism of action
7.2.2.1 Ion-exchange
7.2.2.2 Physical adsorption
7.2.2.3 Complexation or Coordination
7.2.2.4 Metallothioneins
7.2.2.5 Vacuolar Sequestration of Heavy Metals
7.2.2.6 Chloroplast and mitochondrial sequestration
7.2.2.7 Polyphosphate bodies
7.2.2.8 Other responses
7.2.3.  Genetic manipulation for efficient metal binding
7.2.4. Commercial feasibility
7.3 Microalgae-mediated nanotechnology techniques to remove heavy metals
7.3.1.    Biosorption
7.3.2 Biogenic silica-based filtration
7.3.3 Bioreactors
7.3.4 Hybrid system
7.4 Factors affecting heavy metal remediation
7.4.1. Metal toxicity
7.4.2 Biomass concentration
7.4.3 pH
7.4.4 Temperature
7.5 Physiological benefit of microalgal nanoparticles over other nanomaterials ....
7.5.1.    Activated carbon-based nanomaterial
7.5.2 Zero-valent metal-based nanomaterial
7.5.3 Metal-oxide based nanomaterial
7.5.4 Nanocomposites
7.5.5 Hybrid Nanoparticles
7.6 Strategies in algal nano factory for optimal elimination of hazardous metals
7.7 Conclusion
References

Chapter 8
Valued products from algae grown in wastewater
Durairaj Vijayan, Muthu Arumugam*
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Environmental impact and commercial value of algal-based wastewater management
8.3. Bioenergy
      8.3.1 Biooil
      8.3.2 Biogas
      8.3.3 Bioelectricity
8.4. Nutrients
      8.4.1 Fatty Acids
      8.4.2 Protein
      8.4.3 Carbohydrates, vitamins, and other minerals
8.5. Valued chemicals
      8.5.1 Pigments
         8.5.1.1 Carotenoids
            8.5.1.1.1 Astaxanthin
            8.5.1.1.2 Lutein
        8.5.1.2 Chlorophyll and phycobiliproteins
      8.5.2 Bioalcohol
      8.5.3 Biopolymers and bioplastics
8.6. Organic biofertilizer
8.7. Future prospective
8.8. Conclusion
       References


Chapter 9 
Seaweeds used in wastewater treatment: Steps to Industrial commercialization
Sara Pardilhó, João Cotas, Ana M. M. Gonçalves, Joana Maia Dias, Leonel Pereira*

9.1 Introduction
9.2 Seaweed as a Wastewater Treatment Tool
13.2.1 Removal of excess of nitrogen and phosphorus: Treatment of eutrophic water
13.2.2 Removal of harmful compounds and pollutants
9.3. Seaweeds used in wastewater treatment: industrial potential
9.4. How can the SWWT quality be checked?
9.5. Conclusion
        References

Chapter 10
Recent insights of algal based bioremediation and energy production for environmental sustainability
Sunil Kumar*, Nitika Bhardwaj, S. K. Mandotra , A. S. Ahluwalia
10.1. Introduction
10.2.  What are pollutants
10.2.1. Dyes and Heavy metals
10.2.2. Water pollution
10.3. Bioremediation
10.3.1. Factors affecting bioremediation
10.3.2. Algal status in bioremediation
10.3.3. Why algae?
10.3.4. Algal interaction with waste water
10.4. Large scale production
      10.4.1. Raceway ponds
10.4.1.1. Open ponds
10.4.1.2. Covered Ponds
10.4.2. Enclosed Photobioreactor
10.4.2.1. Tubular Photobioreactor
10.4.2.2.Flat Plate photo-bioreactor
10.4.2.3. Bio film photobioreactor
10.5. Harvesting
      10.5.1. Centrifugation
      10.5.2. Filtration
      10.5.3. Flocculation
10.5.3.1. Chemical flocculation
10.5.3.2. Auto flocculation
    10.5.3.3. Bio flocculation
10.6. Lipid extraction from algae
      10.6.1. Extraction by chemicals and solvents cells
10.6.1.1.Folch method
10.6.1.2. Bligh and Dryer method
      10.6.2. Extraction by mechanical process
10.6.2.1. Expeller press
10.6.2.2. Ultra Sonication extraction
      10.6.3. Enzymatic assisted extraction
10.7. Conclusions
References

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Editor(s)

Biography

Prof. Pradeep Verma

Prof. Verma completed his PhD from Sardar Patel University Gujarat, India in 2002. In the same year he was selected as UNESCO fellow and joined Czech Academy of Sciences Prague, Czech Republic. He later moved to Charles University, Prague to work as Post Doctoral Fellow. In 2004 he joined as a visiting scientist at UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Halle, Germany. He was awarded a DFG fellowship which provided him another opportunity to work as a Post-Doctoral Fellow at Gottingen University, Germany. He moved to India in 2007 where he joined Reliance Life Sciences, Mumbai and worked extensively on biobutanol production which attributed few patents to his name. Later he was awarded with JSPS Post-Doctoral Fellowship Programme and joined Laboratoy of Biomass Conversion, Research Institute of Sustainable Humanosphere (RISH), Kyoto University, Japan. He is also a recipient of various prestigious awards such as Ron-Cockcroft award by Swedish society, UNESCO Fellow ASCR Prague.

Prof. Verma began his independent academic career in 2009 as a Reader and Founder Head at the Department of Microbiology at Assam University. In 2011 he moved to Department of Biotechnology at Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (A Central University), Bilaspur, and served as an Associate professor till 2013. He is currently working as Professor (former Head and Dean, School of Life Sciences) at Department of Microbiology, CURAJ. He is a member of various National & International societies/academies. He has completed two collaborated projects worth 150 million INR in the area of microbial diversity and bioenergy.

Prof. Verma is a Group leader of Bioprocess and Bioenergy laboratory at Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, CURAJ. His area of expertise involves Microbial Diversity, Bioremediation, Bioprocess Development, Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass based Biorefinery. He also holds 12 International patents in the field of microwave assisted biomass pretreatment and bio-butanol production. He has more than 60 research articles in peer reviewed international journals and contributed in several book chapters (28 published; 15 in press) in different edited books. He has also edited 3 books in international publishers such as Springer and Elsevier. He is a Guest editor to several journals such as Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery (Springer), Frontier in nanotechnology (Frontiers),  and International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (mdpi). He is also an editorial board member for the Journal Current Nanomedicine (Bentham Sciences). He is acting as reviewers for more than 40 journals in different publication houses such as Springer, Elsevier, RSC, ACS, Nature, Frontiers, mdpi etc. 

Dr. Maulin P. Shah

Maulin P. Shah is an active researcher and scientific writer in his field for over 20 years. He received a B.Sc. degree (1999) in Microbiology from Gujarat University, Godhra (Gujarat), India. He also earned his Ph.D. degree (2005) in Environmental Microbiology from Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar (Gujarat) India. He is Chief Scientist & Head of the Industrial Waste Water Research Lab, Division of Applied and Environmental Microbiology Lab at Enviro Technology Ltd., Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India. His work focuses on the impact ofindustrial pollution on the microbial diversity of wastewater, and genetically engineering high-impact microbes for the degradation of hazardous materials. His research interests include Biological Wastewater Treatment, Environmental Microbiology, Biodegradation, Bioremediation, & Phytoremediation of Environmental Pollutants from Industrial Wastewaters. He has published more than 250 research papers in national and international journals of repute on various aspects of microbial biodegradation and bioremediation of environmental pollutants. He is the editor of more than 50 books of international repute (Elsevier, Springer, RSC and CRC Press). He is an active editorial board member in top-rated journals. He is on the Advisory Board of CLEAN—Soil, Air, Water (Wiley); editor of Current Pollution Reports (Springer Nature), Environmental Technology & Innovation (Elsevier), Current Microbiology (Springer Nature), Journal of Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment (Taylor & Francis), Ecotoxicology (Microbial Ecotoxicology) (Springer Nature), and Current Microbiology (Springer Nature); and associate editor of GeoMicrobiology (Taylor & Francis) and Applied Water Science (Springer Nature).