1st Edition

Phycology-Based Approaches for Wastewater Treatment and Resource Recovery

Edited By Pradeep Verma, Maulin P. Shah Copyright 2022
    309 Pages 23 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

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    Algal and phycology-based approaches for wastewater treatment have recently gained interest. Phycology-Based Approaches for Wastewater Treatment and Resource Recovery highlights advanced algal-based technologies developed or being considered for wastewater treatment along with the opportunities that existing technologies can provide at an industrial scale. It covers recent findings on algal-based approaches for the removal of heavy metals, organic pollutants, and other toxicities from sewage and industrial effluents and supplies in-depth analysis on technologies such as biosorption and bioaccumulations. Advanced mathematical modeling approaches to understand waste removal and resource recovery from wastewater are illustrated as well. The book:

    • Provides exhaustive information on the use of algae for the simultaneous treatment and resource recovery of wastewater
    • Discusses algae, microalgae, and cyanobacteria applications in detail
    • Presents critical insight into limitations of the prevalent technologies
    • Reviews methodology of advanced technologies
    • Includes illustrations and interesting trivia boxes throughout the book

    This book is of interest to researchers, graduate students and professionals in phycology, microbiology, bioremediation, environmental sciences, biotechnology, wastewater treatment, resource recovery, and circular economy.

    Chapter 1
    Biotechnological advances for utilization of algae, microalgae, and cyanobacteria for wastewater treatment and resource recovery
    Prabuddha Gupta, Ashok Kumar Bishoyi, Mahendrapal singh Rajput, Ujwal Trivedi, Gaurav Sanghvi*
    1.1. Introduction 
    1.2. Wastewater treatment by Microalgae 
    1.3. Wastewater treatment by Cyanobacteria 
    1.4. Open system 
             1.4.1. Stabilization ponds/oxidation ditches/lagoons 
             1.4.2. Raceway ponds (RWP) 
             1.4.3. Revolving algal biofilms (RAB) 
             1.4.4. Photo sequencing batch reactor (PSBR) 
    1.5. Closed system 
             1.5.1. Photobioreactors (PBRs) 
             1.5.2. Immobilized Algae system 
             1.5.3. Algal membrane photobioreactor (A-MPBR) 
    1.6. Biotechnological advancement towards wastewater treatment: better understanding with omics approach 
             1.6.1. Omics approach in wastewater treatment 
    1.7 Conclusion 

    Chapter 2
    Wastewater utilization as growth medium for seaweed, microalgae and cyanobacteria, defined as potential source of human and animal services
    Silvia Lomartire, Diana Pacheco, Glácio Souza Araújo, João C. Marques, Leonel Pereira, Ana M. M. Gonçalves*
    2.1. Introduction  
    2.2. Correlation between biological tools and production of services for humans and animals  
           2.2.1. Use in the aquaculture
    2.3. Seaweed as potential source of food industry, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products 
          2.3.1. Industrial applications of seaweed 
          2.3.2. Nutraceutical applications of seaweed 
          2.3.3. Pharmaceutical products from seaweed 
          2.3.4. Therapeutical applications of seaweed 
    2.4. Microalgae as potential source of food industry, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products 
          2.4.1. Microalgae application in food industry 
          2.4.2. Nutraceutical applications of microalgae  
          2.4.3. Pharmaceutical applications of microalgae 
          2.4.4. Companies that produce microalgae-based products 
    2.5. Cyanobacteria as potential source of food industry, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products 
          2.5.1. Cyanobacteria’s application in Food industry 
          2.5.2. Nutraceutical applications of cyanobacteria 
          2.5.3. Pharmaceutical applications of cyanobacteria 
    2.6. Methods of cultivation of macroalgae, microalgae and cyanobacteria 
          2.6.1. Macroalgae cultivation 
          2.6.2. Microalgae and Cyanobacteria cultivation 
    2.7. Rural and industrial wastewater application as potential growth substrate 
         2.7.1. Macroalgae 
         2.7.2. Microalgae and Cyanobacteria 
    2.8. Conclusion 

    Chapter 3
    Identification, Cultivation and Potential Utilization of Micro-algae in Domestic Wastewater Treatment
    Debanjan Sanyal*, Sneha Athalye, Shyam Prasad, Dishant Desai, Vinay Dwivedi and Santanu Dasgupta
    3.1. Introduction
    3.2. Algae naturally present in domestic wastewater
    3.3. Algae:  An indicator species for pollution
    3.4. Role of algae in wastewater treatment
    3.5. Cultivation methodology for various algal species
    3.6. Utilization of harvested algae biomass
    3.7. Challenges and future prospects
    3.8. Conclusion

    Chapter 4
    Phyco-remediation: A Promising Solution for Heavy Metal Contaminants in Industrial Effluents
    Chandra Shekharaiah P. S, Santosh Kodgire, Ayushi Bisht, Debanjan Sanyal*, Santanu Dasgupta
    4.1. Introduction
    4.2. Conventional methods of heavy metal removal
           4.2.1. Ion exchange method
           4.2.2. Adsorption method
           4.2.3. Membrane filtration
           4.2.4. Chemical precipitation
           4.2.5. Coagulation and clotting method
    4.3. Phycoremediation
            4.3.1. Phycoremediation by live algal cultures
    4.4. Cultivation systems for removal of heavy metals
            4.4.1. Phycoremediation of heavy metals by immobilized algal cultures
            4.4.2. Phycoremediation of heavy metals by batch mode cultivation of algae
            4.4.3. Phycoremediation of heavy metals by continuous mode cultivation of algae
    4.5. Commercial adsorbents versus algal adsorbents
    4.6. Recycle and regeneration of algae
    4.7. Conclusion

    Chapter 5
    Microalgae mediated elimination of endocrine-disrupting chemicals
    Chandra Prakash, Komal Agrawal, Pradeep Verma, Venkatesh Chaturvedi*
    5.1. Introduction
    5.2. Removal of various EDCs using microalgae
              5.2.1 Estrogens
              5.2.2 Phenol derivatives
           Nonylphenol and Octylphenol
            Bisphenol A
              5.2.3 NSAIDS
              5.2.4 Antibiotics
                5.2.5 Pesticides
    5.3 Conclusion

    Chapter 6
    The application of microalgae for bioremediation of pharmaceuticals from wastewater: recent trend and possibilities
    Prithu Baruah and Neha Chaurasia*
    6.1. Introduction
    6.2 Pharmaceuticals in the environment
         6.2.1 Source and entry of pharmaceuticals into the environment
         6.2.2 Environmental and health risks of pharmaceuticals
    6.3 Modern methods of pharmaceuticals remediation
    6.4 Removal of pharmaceuticals by microalgae
         6.4.1 Ecological role of microalgae
          6.4.2 Mechanism of pharmaceuticals removal by microalgae
          6.4.3 Factors affecting pharmaceuticals removal by microalgae
    6.5 Other application of microalgae
          6.5.1 Production of biofuel
          6.5.2 Biomitigation of carbon dioxide
    6.6 Conclusion and prospects

    Chapter 7
    Green Nanotechnology: A microalgal approach to remove heavy metals from wastewater
    Navonil Mal, Reecha Mohapatra, Trisha Bagchi, Sweta Singh, Yagya Sharma, Meenakshi Singh*, Murthy Chavali and K. Chandrasekhar
    7.1  Introduction
    7.2.    Microalgal nanoparticles in wastewater treatment
    7.2.1. Classification of algae as adsorbents
    7.2.2. Molecular mechanism of action Ion-exchange Physical adsorption Complexation or Coordination Metallothioneins Vacuolar Sequestration of Heavy Metals Chloroplast and mitochondrial sequestration Polyphosphate bodies Other responses
    7.2.3.  Genetic manipulation for efficient metal binding
    7.2.4. Commercial feasibility
    7.3 Microalgae-mediated nanotechnology techniques to remove heavy metals
    7.3.1.    Biosorption
    7.3.2 Biogenic silica-based filtration
    7.3.3 Bioreactors
    7.3.4 Hybrid system
    7.4 Factors affecting heavy metal remediation
    7.4.1. Metal toxicity
    7.4.2 Biomass concentration
    7.4.3 pH
    7.4.4 Temperature
    7.5 Physiological benefit of microalgal nanoparticles over other nanomaterials ....
    7.5.1.    Activated carbon-based nanomaterial
    7.5.2 Zero-valent metal-based nanomaterial
    7.5.3 Metal-oxide based nanomaterial
    7.5.4 Nanocomposites
    7.5.5 Hybrid Nanoparticles
    7.6 Strategies in algal nano factory for optimal elimination of hazardous metals
    7.7 Conclusion

    Chapter 8
    Valued products from algae grown in wastewater
    Durairaj Vijayan, Muthu Arumugam*
    8.1. Introduction
    8.2. Environmental impact and commercial value of algal-based wastewater management
    8.3. Bioenergy
          8.3.1 Biooil
          8.3.2 Biogas
          8.3.3 Bioelectricity
    8.4. Nutrients
          8.4.1 Fatty Acids
          8.4.2 Protein
          8.4.3 Carbohydrates, vitamins, and other minerals
    8.5. Valued chemicals
          8.5.1 Pigments
   Chlorophyll and phycobiliproteins
          8.5.2 Bioalcohol
          8.5.3 Biopolymers and bioplastics
    8.6. Organic biofertilizer
    8.7. Future prospective
    8.8. Conclusion

    Chapter 9 
    Seaweeds used in wastewater treatment: Steps to Industrial commercialization
    Sara Pardilhó, João Cotas, Ana M. M. Gonçalves, Joana Maia Dias, Leonel Pereira*

    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Seaweed as a Wastewater Treatment Tool
    13.2.1 Removal of excess of nitrogen and phosphorus: Treatment of eutrophic water
    13.2.2 Removal of harmful compounds and pollutants
    9.3. Seaweeds used in wastewater treatment: industrial potential
    9.4. How can the SWWT quality be checked?
    9.5. Conclusion

    Chapter 10
    Recent insights of algal based bioremediation and energy production for environmental sustainability
    Sunil Kumar*, Nitika Bhardwaj, S. K. Mandotra , A. S. Ahluwalia
    10.1. Introduction
    10.2.  What are pollutants
    10.2.1. Dyes and Heavy metals
    10.2.2. Water pollution
    10.3. Bioremediation
    10.3.1. Factors affecting bioremediation
    10.3.2. Algal status in bioremediation
    10.3.3. Why algae?
    10.3.4. Algal interaction with waste water
    10.4. Large scale production
          10.4.1. Raceway ponds Open ponds Covered Ponds
    10.4.2. Enclosed Photobioreactor Tubular Photobioreactor Plate photo-bioreactor Bio film photobioreactor
    10.5. Harvesting
          10.5.1. Centrifugation
          10.5.2. Filtration
          10.5.3. Flocculation Chemical flocculation Auto flocculation Bio flocculation
    10.6. Lipid extraction from algae
          10.6.1. Extraction by chemicals and solvents cells method Bligh and Dryer method
          10.6.2. Extraction by mechanical process Expeller press Ultra Sonication extraction
          10.6.3. Enzymatic assisted extraction
    10.7. Conclusions


    Prof. Pradeep Verma

    Prof. Verma completed his PhD from Sardar Patel University Gujarat, India in 2002. In the same year he was selected as UNESCO fellow and joined Czech Academy of Sciences Prague, Czech Republic. He later moved to Charles University, Prague to work as Post Doctoral Fellow. In 2004 he joined as a visiting scientist at UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Halle, Germany. He was awarded a DFG fellowship which provided him another opportunity to work as a Post-Doctoral Fellow at Gottingen University, Germany. He moved to India in 2007 where he joined Reliance Life Sciences, Mumbai and worked extensively on biobutanol production which attributed few patents to his name. Later he was awarded with JSPS Post-Doctoral Fellowship Programme and joined Laboratoy of Biomass Conversion, Research Institute of Sustainable Humanosphere (RISH), Kyoto University, Japan. He is also a recipient of various prestigious awards such as Ron-Cockcroft award by Swedish society, UNESCO Fellow ASCR Prague.

    Prof. Verma began his independent academic career in 2009 as a Reader and Founder Head at the Department of Microbiology at Assam University. In 2011 he moved to Department of Biotechnology at Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (A Central University), Bilaspur, and served as an Associate professor till 2013. He is currently working as Professor (former Head and Dean, School of Life Sciences) at Department of Microbiology, CURAJ. He is a member of various National & International societies/academies. He has completed two collaborated projects worth 150 million INR in the area of microbial diversity and bioenergy.

    Prof. Verma is a Group leader of Bioprocess and Bioenergy laboratory at Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, CURAJ. His area of expertise involves Microbial Diversity, Bioremediation, Bioprocess Development, Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass based Biorefinery. He also holds 12 International patents in the field of microwave assisted biomass pretreatment and bio-butanol production. He has more than 60 research articles in peer reviewed international journals and contributed in several book chapters (28 published; 15 in press) in different edited books. He has also edited 3 books in international publishers such as Springer and Elsevier. He is a Guest editor to several journals such as Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery (Springer), Frontier in nanotechnology (Frontiers),  and International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (mdpi). He is also an editorial board member for the Journal Current Nanomedicine (Bentham Sciences). He is acting as reviewers for more than 40 journals in different publication houses such as Springer, Elsevier, RSC, ACS, Nature, Frontiers, mdpi etc. 

    Dr. Maulin P. Shah

    Maulin P. Shah is an active researcher and scientific writer in his field for over 20 years. He received a B.Sc. degree (1999) in Microbiology from Gujarat University, Godhra (Gujarat), India. He also earned his Ph.D. degree (2005) in Environmental Microbiology from Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar (Gujarat) India. He is Chief Scientist & Head of the Industrial Waste Water Research Lab, Division of Applied and Environmental Microbiology Lab at Enviro Technology Ltd., Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India. His work focuses on the impact ofindustrial pollution on the microbial diversity of wastewater, and genetically engineering high-impact microbes for the degradation of hazardous materials. His research interests include Biological Wastewater Treatment, Environmental Microbiology, Biodegradation, Bioremediation, & Phytoremediation of Environmental Pollutants from Industrial Wastewaters. He has published more than 250 research papers in national and international journals of repute on various aspects of microbial biodegradation and bioremediation of environmental pollutants. He is the editor of more than 50 books of international repute (Elsevier, Springer, RSC and CRC Press). He is an active editorial board member in top-rated journals. He is on the Advisory Board of CLEAN—Soil, Air, Water (Wiley); editor of Current Pollution Reports (Springer Nature), Environmental Technology & Innovation (Elsevier), Current Microbiology (Springer Nature), Journal of Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment (Taylor & Francis), Ecotoxicology (Microbial Ecotoxicology) (Springer Nature), and Current Microbiology (Springer Nature); and associate editor of GeoMicrobiology (Taylor & Francis) and Applied Water Science (Springer Nature).