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Physical-Chemical Treatment of Water and Wastewater




ISBN 9781587161247
Published July 29, 2002 by CRC Press
856 Pages 137 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

The books currently available on this subject contain some elements of physical-chemical treatment of water and wastewater but fall short of giving comprehensive and authoritative coverage. They contain some equations that are not substantiated, offering empirical data based on assumptions that are therefore difficult to comprehend. This text brings together the information previously scattered in several books and adds the knowledge from the author's lectures on wastewater engineering.

Physical-Chemical Treatment of Water and Wastewater is not only descriptive but is also analytical in nature. The work covers the physical unit operations and unit processes utilized in the treatment of water and wastewater. Its organization is designed to match the major processes and its approach is mathematical. The authors stress the description and derivation of processes and process parameters in mathematical terms, which can then be generalized into diverse empirical situations. Each chapter includes design equations, definitions of symbols, a glossary of terms, and worked examples.

One author is an environmental engineer and a professor for over 12 years and the other has been in the practice of environmental engineering for more than 20 years. They offer a sound analytical mathematical foundation and description of processes. Physical-Chemical Treatment of Water and Wastewater fills a niche as the only dedicated textbook in the area of physical and chemical methods, providing an analytical approach applicable to a range of empirical situations

Table of Contents

BACKGROUND PREREQUISITES
Introduction
Wastewater
Physical-Chemical Treatment of Water and
Wastewater
Unit Operations and Unit Processes
Coverage
Clean Water Act
Safe Drinking Water Act
Relationship of This Book to the Acts
Glossary
Background Chemistry and Fluid Mechanics
Units Used in Calculation
General Chemistry
Fluid Mechanics
Glossary
Problems
Bibliography

PART I: CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER AND WASTEWATER

QUANTITY OF WATER AND WASTEWATER
Probability Distribution Analysis
Quantity of Water
Types of Wastewater
Sources and Quantities of Wastewater
Population Projection
Derivation of Design Flows of Wastewaters
Deriving Design Flows of Wastewaters from
Field Survey
CONSTITUENTS OF WATER AND WASTEWATER
Physical and Chemical Characteristics
Normal Constituents of Domestic Wastewater
Microbiological Characteristics

PART II: UNIT OPERATIONS OF WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT

FLOW MEASUREMENTS AND FLOW AND QUALITY EQUALIZATIONS
Flow Meters
Miscellaneous Flow Meters
Liquid Level Indicators
Flow and Quality Equalizations
PUMPING
Pumping Stations and Types of Pumps
Pumping Station Heads
Pump Characteristics and Best Operating
Efficiency
Pump Scaling Laws
Pump Specific Speed
Net Positive Suction Head and Deep-Well
Pumps
Pumping Station Head Analysis
SCREENING, SETTLING, AND FLOTATION
Screening
Settling
Flotation
MIXING AND FLOCCULATION
Rotational Mixers
Criteria for Effective Mixing
Pneumatic Mixers
Hydraulic Mixers
Flocculators
CONVENTIONAL FILTRATION
Types of Filters
Medium Specification for Granular Filters
Linear Momentum Equation Applied to Filters
Head Losses in Grain Filters
Backwashing Head Loss in Granular Filters
Cake Filtration
ADVANCED FILTRATION AND CARBON ADSORPTION
Electrodialysis Membranes
Pressure Membranes
Carbon Adsorption
AERATION, ABSORPTION, AND STRIPPING
Mass Transfer Units
Interface for Mass Transfer, and Gas and Liquid
Boundary Layers
Mathematics of Mass Transfer
Dimensions of the Overall Mass Transfer
Coefficients
Mechanics of Aeration
Absorption and Stripping

PART III: UNIT PROCESSES OF WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT

WATER SOFTENING
Hard Waters
Types of Hardness
Plant Types for Hardness Removal
The Equivalent CaCO(3) Concentration
Softening of Calcium Hardness
Softening of Magnesium Hardness
Lime-Soda Process
Order of Removal
Role of CO(2) in Removal
Excess Lime Treatment and Optimum
Operational pH
Summary of Chemical Requirements and Solids
Produced
Sludge Volume Production
Chemical Species in the Treated Water
Relationships of the Fractional Removals
Notes on Equivalent Masses
Typical Design Parameters and Criteria
Split Treatment
Use of Alkalinity in Water Softening Calculations
WATER STABILIZATION
Carbonate Equilibria
Criteria for Water Stability at Normal Conditions
Recarbonation of Softened Water
COAGULATION
Colloid Behavior
Zeta Potential
Colloid Destabilization
Coagulation Process
Chemical Reactions of Alum
Chemical Reactions of the Ferrous Ion
Chemical Reactions of the Ferric Ion
Jar Tests for Optimum pH Determination
Chemical Requirements
Chemical Requirements for pH Adjustments
Alkalinity and Acidity Expressed as CaCO(3)
Sludge Production
REMOVAL OF IRON AND MANGANESE BY CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION
Natural Occurrences of Iron and Manganese
Modes of Removal of Iron and Manganese
Chemical Reactions of the Ferrous and the
Ferric Ions
Chemical Reactions of the Manganous Ion
[Mn(II)]
Oxidation of Iron and Manganese
Unit Operations for Iron and Manganese
Removal
Chemical Requirements
Alkalinity Expressed in OH(-) and Acidity
Expressed in H(+)
Chemical Requirements for pH Adjustments
Sludge Production
REMOVAL OF PHOSPHORUS BY CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION
Natural Occurrence of Phosphorus
Modes of Phosphorus Removal
Chemical Reaction of the Phosphate Ion with
Alum
Chemical Reaction of the Phosphate Ion with
Lime
Chemical Reaction of the Phosphate Ion with
the Ferric Salts
Comments on the Optimum pH Ranges
Effect of the K(sp)'s on the Precipitation of
Phosphorus
Unit Operations for Phosphorus Removal
Chemical Requirements
Sludge Production
REMOVAL OF NITROGEN BY NITRIFICATION-DENITRIFICATION
Natural Occurrence of Nitrogen
To Remove or Not to Remove Nitrogen
Microbial Thermodynamics
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions of Nitrogen
Foods
Modes of Nitrogen Removal
Chemical Reactions in Nitrogen Removal
Total Effluent Nitrogen
Carbon Requirements for Denitrification
Alkalinity Production and Associated Carbon
Requirement
Reaction Kinetics
ION EXCHANGE
Ion Exchange Reactions
Unit Operations of Ion Exchange
Sodium, Hydrogen Cycle, and Regeneration
Production of "Pure Water"
Active or Exchange Zone
Design of Ion Exchangers
Head Losses in Ion Exchangers
DISINFECTION
Methods of Disinfection and Disinfectant Agents
Used
Factors Affecting Disinfection
Other Disinfection Formulas
Chlorine Disinfectants
Dechlorination
Disinfection Using Ozone
Disinfection Using Ultraviolet Light
APPENDICES
INDEX

Each chapter contains: Glossary, Symbols, Problems and Bibliography

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