Physical-Chemical Treatment of Water and Wastewater: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Physical-Chemical Treatment of Water and Wastewater

1st Edition

By Arcadio P. Sincero, Gregoria A. Sincero

CRC Press

856 pages | 137 B/W Illus.

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Description

The books currently available on this subject contain some elements of physical-chemical treatment of water and wastewater but fall short of giving comprehensive and authoritative coverage. They contain some equations that are not substantiated, offering empirical data based on assumptions that are therefore difficult to comprehend. This text brings together the information previously scattered in several books and adds the knowledge from the author's lectures on wastewater engineering.

Physical-Chemical Treatment of Water and Wastewater is not only descriptive but is also analytical in nature. The work covers the physical unit operations and unit processes utilized in the treatment of water and wastewater. Its organization is designed to match the major processes and its approach is mathematical. The authors stress the description and derivation of processes and process parameters in mathematical terms, which can then be generalized into diverse empirical situations. Each chapter includes design equations, definitions of symbols, a glossary of terms, and worked examples.

One author is an environmental engineer and a professor for over 12 years and the other has been in the practice of environmental engineering for more than 20 years. They offer a sound analytical mathematical foundation and description of processes. Physical-Chemical Treatment of Water and Wastewater fills a niche as the only dedicated textbook in the area of physical and chemical methods, providing an analytical approach applicable to a range of empirical situations

Table of Contents

BACKGROUND PREREQUISITES

Introduction

Wastewater

Physical-Chemical Treatment of Water and

Wastewater

Unit Operations and Unit Processes

Coverage

Clean Water Act

Safe Drinking Water Act

Relationship of This Book to the Acts

Glossary

Background Chemistry and Fluid Mechanics

Units Used in Calculation

General Chemistry

Fluid Mechanics

Glossary

Problems

Bibliography

PART I: CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER AND WASTEWATER

QUANTITY OF WATER AND WASTEWATER

Probability Distribution Analysis

Quantity of Water

Types of Wastewater

Sources and Quantities of Wastewater

Population Projection

Derivation of Design Flows of Wastewaters

Deriving Design Flows of Wastewaters from

Field Survey

CONSTITUENTS OF WATER AND WASTEWATER

Physical and Chemical Characteristics

Normal Constituents of Domestic Wastewater

Microbiological Characteristics

PART II: UNIT OPERATIONS OF WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT

FLOW MEASUREMENTS AND FLOW AND QUALITY EQUALIZATIONS

Flow Meters

Miscellaneous Flow Meters

Liquid Level Indicators

Flow and Quality Equalizations

PUMPING

Pumping Stations and Types of Pumps

Pumping Station Heads

Pump Characteristics and Best Operating

Efficiency

Pump Scaling Laws

Pump Specific Speed

Net Positive Suction Head and Deep-Well

Pumps

Pumping Station Head Analysis

SCREENING, SETTLING, AND FLOTATION

Screening

Settling

Flotation

MIXING AND FLOCCULATION

Rotational Mixers

Criteria for Effective Mixing

Pneumatic Mixers

Hydraulic Mixers

Flocculators

CONVENTIONAL FILTRATION

Types of Filters

Medium Specification for Granular Filters

Linear Momentum Equation Applied to Filters

Head Losses in Grain Filters

Backwashing Head Loss in Granular Filters

Cake Filtration

ADVANCED FILTRATION AND CARBON ADSORPTION

Electrodialysis Membranes

Pressure Membranes

Carbon Adsorption

AERATION, ABSORPTION, AND STRIPPING

Mass Transfer Units

Interface for Mass Transfer, and Gas and Liquid

Boundary Layers

Mathematics of Mass Transfer

Dimensions of the Overall Mass Transfer

Coefficients

Mechanics of Aeration

Absorption and Stripping

PART III: UNIT PROCESSES OF WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT

WATER SOFTENING

Hard Waters

Types of Hardness

Plant Types for Hardness Removal

The Equivalent CaCO(3) Concentration

Softening of Calcium Hardness

Softening of Magnesium Hardness

Lime-Soda Process

Order of Removal

Role of CO(2) in Removal

Excess Lime Treatment and Optimum

Operational pH

Summary of Chemical Requirements and Solids

Produced

Sludge Volume Production

Chemical Species in the Treated Water

Relationships of the Fractional Removals

Notes on Equivalent Masses

Typical Design Parameters and Criteria

Split Treatment

Use of Alkalinity in Water Softening Calculations

WATER STABILIZATION

Carbonate Equilibria

Criteria for Water Stability at Normal Conditions

Recarbonation of Softened Water

COAGULATION

Colloid Behavior

Zeta Potential

Colloid Destabilization

Coagulation Process

Chemical Reactions of Alum

Chemical Reactions of the Ferrous Ion

Chemical Reactions of the Ferric Ion

Jar Tests for Optimum pH Determination

Chemical Requirements

Chemical Requirements for pH Adjustments

Alkalinity and Acidity Expressed as CaCO(3)

Sludge Production

REMOVAL OF IRON AND MANGANESE BY CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION

Natural Occurrences of Iron and Manganese

Modes of Removal of Iron and Manganese

Chemical Reactions of the Ferrous and the

Ferric Ions

Chemical Reactions of the Manganous Ion

[Mn(II)]

Oxidation of Iron and Manganese

Unit Operations for Iron and Manganese

Removal

Chemical Requirements

Alkalinity Expressed in OH(-) and Acidity

Expressed in H(+)

Chemical Requirements for pH Adjustments

Sludge Production

REMOVAL OF PHOSPHORUS BY CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION

Natural Occurrence of Phosphorus

Modes of Phosphorus Removal

Chemical Reaction of the Phosphate Ion with

Alum

Chemical Reaction of the Phosphate Ion with

Lime

Chemical Reaction of the Phosphate Ion with

the Ferric Salts

Comments on the Optimum pH Ranges

Effect of the K(sp)'s on the Precipitation of

Phosphorus

Unit Operations for Phosphorus Removal

Chemical Requirements

Sludge Production

REMOVAL OF NITROGEN BY NITRIFICATION-DENITRIFICATION

Natural Occurrence of Nitrogen

To Remove or Not to Remove Nitrogen

Microbial Thermodynamics

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions of Nitrogen

Foods

Modes of Nitrogen Removal

Chemical Reactions in Nitrogen Removal

Total Effluent Nitrogen

Carbon Requirements for Denitrification

Alkalinity Production and Associated Carbon

Requirement

Reaction Kinetics

ION EXCHANGE

Ion Exchange Reactions

Unit Operations of Ion Exchange

Sodium, Hydrogen Cycle, and Regeneration

Production of "Pure Water"

Active or Exchange Zone

Design of Ion Exchangers

Head Losses in Ion Exchangers

DISINFECTION

Methods of Disinfection and Disinfectant Agents

Used

Factors Affecting Disinfection

Other Disinfection Formulas

Chlorine Disinfectants

Dechlorination

Disinfection Using Ozone

Disinfection Using Ultraviolet Light

APPENDICES

INDEX

Each chapter contains: Glossary, Symbols, Problems and Bibliography

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC010030
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply