Physical Principles of Wireless Communications
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Book Description
Updated and expanded, Physical Principles of Wireless Communications, Second Edition illustrates the relationship between scientific discoveries and their application to the invention and engineering of wireless communication systems. The second edition of this popular textbook starts with a review of the relevant physical laws, including Planck’s Law of Blackbody Radiation, Maxwell’s equations, and the laws of Special and General Relativity. It describes sources of electromagnetic noise, operation of antennas and antenna arrays, propagation losses, and satellite operation in sufficient detail to allow students to perform their own system designs and engineering calculations.
Illustrating the operation of the physical layer of wireless communication systems—including cell phones, communication satellites, and wireless local area networks—the text covers the basic equations of electromagnetism, the principles of probability theory, and the operation of antennas. It explores the propagation of electromagnetic waves and describes the losses and interference effects that waves encounter as they propagate through cities, inside buildings, and to and from satellites orbiting the earth. Important natural phenomena are also described, including Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, ionospheric reflection, and tropospheric refraction.
New in the Second Edition:
 Descriptions of 3G and 4G cell phone systems
 Discussions on the relation between the basic laws of quantum and relativistic physics and the engineering of modern wireless communication systems
 A new section on Planck’s Law of Blackbody Radiation
 Expanded discussions on general relativity and special relativity and their relevance to GPS system design
 An expanded chapter on antennas that includes wire loop antennas
 Expanded discussion of shadowing correlations and their effect on cell phone system design
The text covers the physics of Geostationary Earth Orbiting satellites, Medium Earth Orbiting satellites, and Low Earth Orbiting satellites enabling students to evaluate and make first order designs of SATCOM systems. It also reviews the principles of probability theory to help them accurately determine the margins that must be allowed to account for statistical variation in path loss. The included problem sets and sample solutions provide students with the understanding of contemporary wireless systems needed to participate in the development of future systems.
Table of Contents
An Introduction to Modern Wireless Communications
A Brief History of Wireless Communications
Faraday, Maxwell, and Hertz: The Discovery of Electromagnetic Waves
Guglielmo Marconi, Inventor of Wireless Communications
Developments in the Vacuum Electronics Era (1906 to 1947)
The Modern Era in Wireless Communications (1947 to the Present)
Basic Concepts
Information Capacity of a Communication Channel
Antenna Fundamentals
The Basic Layout of a Wireless Communications System
Decibels and Link Budgets
Characteristics of Some Modern Communication Systems
Mobile Communications (Frequency Division Multiple Access, FDMA, and Trunking)
Analog Cell Phone Systems
Digital Cell Phone Systems (Time Division Multiple Access, TDMA, and Code Division Multiple Access, CDMA)
Overview of Past, Present, and Future Cell Phone Systems
Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) of Computers
SATCOM Systems
The Plan of This Book
Problems
Bibliography
Noise in Wireless Communications
Fundamental Noise Concepts
Radiation Resistance and Antenna Efficiency
Nyquist Noise Theorem, Antenna Temperature, and Receiver Noise
Equivalent Circuit of Antenna and Receiver for Calculating Noise
Contributions to Antenna Temperature
Thermal Sources of Noise and Blackbody Radiation
Cosmic Noise
Atmospheric Noise
Big Bang Noise (Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation)
Noise Attenuation
Noise in Specific Systems
Noise in Pagers
Noise in Cell Phones
Noise in MillimeterWave SATCOM
Problems
Bibliography
Antennas
Brief Review of Electromagnetism
Maxwell’s Equations and Boundary Conditions
Vector Potential, and the Inhomogeneous Helmholtz Equation
Radiation from a Hertzian Dipole
Solution of the Inhomogeneous Helmholtz Equation in the Vector Potential A
Near Fields and Far Fields of a Hertzian Dipole
Basic Antenna Parameters
Directive Gain, D(f,q); Directivity, D; and Gain, G
Radiation Resistance of a Hertzian Dipole Antenna
Electrically Short Dipole Antenna (Length << λ)
Small Loop Antennas
Receiving Antennas, Polarization, and Aperture Antennas
Universal Relationship between Gain and Effective Area
Friis Transmission Formula
Polarization Mismatch
A Brief Treatment of Aperture Antennas
ThinWire Dipole Antennas
General Analysis of ThinWire Dipole Antennas
The HalfWave Dipole
Problems
Bibliography
Antenna Arrays
Omnidirectional Radiation Pattern in the Horizontal Plane with Vertical Focusing
Arrays of HalfWave Dipoles
Colinear Arrays
Colinear arrays with Equal Incremental Phase Advance
Elevation Control with a Phased Colinear Antenna Array
Antennas Displaced in the Horizontal Plane
Radiation Pattern of Two Horizontally Displaced Dipoles
Broadside Arrays
Endfire Arrays
Smart Antenna Arrays
Image Antennas
The Principle of Images
QuarterWave Monopole above a Conducting Plane
Antennas for Handheld Cell Phones
HalfWave Dipoles and Reflectors
Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antennas
The TM10 Microstrip Patch Cavity
Duality in Maxwell’s Equations and Radiation from a Slot
Radiation from the Edges of a Microstrip Cavity
Array of Microstrip Patch Antennas
Problems
Bibliography
Radio Frequency (RF) Wave Propagation
Some Simple Models of Path Loss in Radio Frequency (RF) Wave Propagation
Free Space Propagation
Laws of Reflection and Refraction at a Planar Boundary
Effect of Surface Roughness
Plane Earth Propagation Model
Diffraction over Single and Multiple Obstructions
Diffraction by a Single Knife Edge
Deygout Method of Approximately Treating Multiple Diffracting Edges
The Causebrook Correction to the Deygout Method
Wave Propagation in an Urban Environment
The Delisle/Egli Empirical Expression for Path Loss
The FlatEdge Model for Path Loss from the Base Station to the Final Street
Ikegami Model of Excess Path Loss in the Final Street
The WalfischBertoni Analysis of the Parametric Dependence of Path Loss
Problems
Bibliography
Statistical Considerations In Designing Cell Phone Systems and Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs)
A Brief Review of Statistical Analysis
Random Variables
Random Processes
Shadowing
The LogNormal Probability Distribution Function
The Complementary Cumulative Normal Distribution Function (Q Function)
Calculating Margin and Probability of Call Completion
Probability of Call Completion Averaged over a Cell
Additional Signal Loss from Propagating into Buildings
Shadowing Autocorrelation (Serial Correlation)
Shadowing CrossCorrelation
Slow and Fast Fading
Slow Fading
Rayleigh Fading
Margin to Allow for Both Shadowing and Rayleigh Fading
Bit Error Rates in Digital Communications
Ricean Fading
Doppler Broadening
Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs)
Propagation Losses Inside Buildings
Standards for WLANs
Sharing WLAN Resources
Problem
Bibliography
Tropospheric and Ionospheric Effects in LongRange Communications
Extending the Range Using Tropospheric Refraction
Limit on LineofSight Communications
Bouger’s Law for Refraction by Tropospheric Layers
Increase in Range Due to Tropospheric Refraction
LongRange Communications by Ionospheric Reflection
The Ionospheric Plasma
Radio Frequency (RF) Wave Interaction with Plasma
Sample Calculations of Maximum Usable Frequency and Maximum Range in a Communications System Based on Ionospheric Reflection
Propagation through the Ionosphere
Time Delay of a Wave Passing through the Ionosphere
Dispersion of a Wave Passing through the Ionosphere
Faraday Rotation of the Direction of Polarization in the Ionosphere
Problems
Bibliography
Satellite Communications (SATCOM)
Satellite Fundamentals
Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO)
Example of a GEO SATCOM System
SATCOM Signal Attenuation
Attenuation Due to Atmospheric Gases
Attenuation Due to Rain
The Rain Rate Used in SATCOM System Design
Design of GEO SATCOM Systems
Noise Calculations for SATCOM
Design of GEO SATCOM System for Wideband Transmission
Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) Satellites
Global Positioning System (GPS)
General Relativity, Special Relativity, and the Synchronization of Clocks
Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Communication Satellites
The Iridium LEO SATCOM System
Path Loss in LEO SATCOM
Doppler Shift in LEO SATCOM
Problem
Bibliography
Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C
Nomenclature
English Alphabet
Greek Alphabet
Index
Author(s)
Biography
Victor L. Granatstein was born and raised in Toronto, Canada. He received his Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Columbia University, New York, in 1963. After a year of postdoctoral work at Columbia, he became a research scientist at Bell Telephone Laboratories from 1964 to 1972 where he studied microwave scattering from turbulent plasma. In 1972, he joined the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) as a research physicist, and from 1978 to 1983, he served as head of NRL’s High Power Electromagnetic Radiation Branch.
In August 1983, he became a professor in the Electrical Engineering Department of the University of Maryland, College Park. From 1988 to 1998, he was director of the Institute for Plasma Research at the University of Maryland. Since 2008, he has been Director of Research of the Center for Applied Electromagnetics at the University of Maryland. His research has involved invention and development of highpower microwave sources for heating plasmas in controlled thermonuclear fusion experiments, for driving electron accelerators used in highenergy physics research, and for radar systems with advanced capabilities. He also has led studies on the effects of highpower microwaves on integrated electronics. His most recent study is of air breakdown in the presence of both terahertz radiation and gamma rays with possible application to detecting concealed radioactive material. He has coauthored more than 250 research papers in scientific journals and has coedited three books. He holds a number of patents on active and passive microwave devices.
Granatstein is a Fellow of the American Physical Society (APS) and a Life Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). He has received a number of major research awards including the E.O. Hulbert Annual Science Award (1979), the Superior Civilian Service Award (1980), the Captain Robert Dexter Conrad Award for scientific achievement (awarded by the Secretary of the Navy, 1981), the IEEE Plasma Science and Applications Award (1991), and the Robert L. Woods Award for Excellence in Electronics Technology (1998). He has spent part of his sabbaticals in 1994, 2003, and 2010 at Tel Aviv University where he holds the position of Sackler Professor by Special Appointment.
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