2nd Edition

Physical Principles of Wireless Communications




ISBN 9781439878972
Published March 26, 2012 by CRC Press
312 Pages 116 B/W Illustrations

USD $115.00

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Book Description

Updated and expanded, Physical Principles of Wireless Communications, Second Edition illustrates the relationship between scientific discoveries and their application to the invention and engineering of wireless communication systems. The second edition of this popular textbook starts with a review of the relevant physical laws, including Planck’s Law of Blackbody Radiation, Maxwell’s equations, and the laws of Special and General Relativity. It describes sources of electromagnetic noise, operation of antennas and antenna arrays, propagation losses, and satellite operation in sufficient detail to allow students to perform their own system designs and engineering calculations.

Illustrating the operation of the physical layer of wireless communication systems—including cell phones, communication satellites, and wireless local area networks—the text covers the basic equations of electromagnetism, the principles of probability theory, and the operation of antennas. It explores the propagation of electromagnetic waves and describes the losses and interference effects that waves encounter as they propagate through cities, inside buildings, and to and from satellites orbiting the earth. Important natural phenomena are also described, including Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, ionospheric reflection, and tropospheric refraction.

New in the Second Edition:

  • Descriptions of 3G and 4G cell phone systems
  • Discussions on the relation between the basic laws of quantum and relativistic physics and the engineering of modern wireless communication systems
  • A new section on Planck’s Law of Blackbody Radiation
  • Expanded discussions on general relativity and special relativity and their relevance to GPS system design
  • An expanded chapter on antennas that includes wire loop antennas
  • Expanded discussion of shadowing correlations and their effect on cell phone system design

The text covers the physics of Geostationary Earth Orbiting satellites, Medium Earth Orbiting satellites, and Low Earth Orbiting satellites enabling students to evaluate and make first order designs of SATCOM systems. It also reviews the principles of probability theory to help them accurately determine the margins that must be allowed to account for statistical variation in path loss. The included problem sets and sample solutions provide students with the understanding of contemporary wireless systems needed to participate in the development of future systems.

Table of Contents

An Introduction to Modern Wireless Communications
A Brief History of Wireless Communications
     Faraday, Maxwell, and Hertz: The Discovery of Electromagnetic Waves 
     Guglielmo Marconi, Inventor of Wireless Communications 
     Developments in the Vacuum Electronics Era (1906 to 1947) 
     The Modern Era in Wireless Communications (1947 to the Present)
Basic Concepts
     Information Capacity of a Communication Channel 
     Antenna Fundamentals 
     The Basic Layout of a Wireless Communications System 
     Decibels and Link Budgets
Characteristics of Some Modern Communication Systems 
     Mobile Communications (Frequency Division Multiple Access, FDMA, and Trunking) 
     Analog Cell Phone Systems 
     Digital Cell Phone Systems (Time Division Multiple Access, TDMA, and Code Division Multiple Access, CDMA) 
     Overview of Past, Present, and Future Cell Phone Systems
     Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) of Computers 
     SATCOM Systems
The Plan of This Book
Problems
Bibliography

Noise in Wireless Communications 
Fundamental Noise Concepts 
     Radiation Resistance and Antenna Efficiency 
     Nyquist Noise Theorem, Antenna Temperature, and Receiver Noise 
     Equivalent Circuit of Antenna and Receiver for Calculating Noise 
Contributions to Antenna Temperature 
     Thermal Sources of Noise and Blackbody Radiation
     Cosmic Noise 
     Atmospheric Noise
     Big Bang Noise (Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation) 
     Noise Attenuation 
Noise in Specific Systems 
     Noise in Pagers 
     Noise in Cell Phones 
     Noise in Millimeter-Wave SATCOM
Problems
Bibliography

Antennas 
Brief Review of Electromagnetism 
     Maxwell’s Equations and Boundary Conditions 
     Vector Potential, and the Inhomogeneous Helmholtz Equation 
Radiation from a Hertzian Dipole 
     Solution of the Inhomogeneous Helmholtz Equation in the Vector Potential A 
     Near Fields and Far Fields of a Hertzian Dipole
     Basic Antenna Parameters 
     Directive Gain, D(f,q); Directivity, D; and Gain, G 
     Radiation Resistance of a Hertzian Dipole Antenna 
     Electrically Short Dipole Antenna (Length << λ) 
     Small Loop Antennas 
Receiving Antennas, Polarization, and Aperture Antennas 
     Universal Relationship between Gain and Effective Area 
     Friis Transmission Formula 
     Polarization Mismatch 
     A Brief Treatment of Aperture Antennas 
Thin-Wire Dipole Antennas 
     General Analysis of Thin-Wire Dipole Antennas 
     The Half-Wave Dipole
Problems
Bibliography

Antenna Arrays 
Omnidirectional Radiation Pattern in the Horizontal Plane with Vertical Focusing 
     Arrays of Half-Wave Dipoles 
     Colinear Arrays 
     Colinear arrays with Equal Incremental Phase Advance 
     Elevation Control with a Phased Colinear Antenna Array 
Antennas Displaced in the Horizontal Plane 
     Radiation Pattern of Two Horizontally Displaced Dipoles 
     Broadside Arrays 
     Endfire Arrays 
     Smart Antenna Arrays 
Image Antennas 
     The Principle of Images 
     Quarter-Wave Monopole above a Conducting Plane
     Antennas for Handheld Cell Phones 
     Half-Wave Dipoles and Reflectors 
Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antennas 
     The TM10 Microstrip Patch Cavity 
     Duality in Maxwell’s Equations and Radiation from a Slot 
     Radiation from the Edges of a Microstrip Cavity 
     Array of Microstrip Patch Antennas
Problems
Bibliography

Radio Frequency (RF) Wave Propagation 
Some Simple Models of Path Loss in Radio Frequency (RF) Wave Propagation 
     Free Space Propagation 
     Laws of Reflection and Refraction at a Planar Boundary
     Effect of Surface Roughness 
     Plane Earth Propagation Model 
Diffraction over Single and Multiple Obstructions 
     Diffraction by a Single Knife Edge 
     Deygout Method of Approximately Treating Multiple Diffracting Edges 
     The Causebrook Correction to the Deygout Method 
Wave Propagation in an Urban Environment 
     The Delisle/Egli Empirical Expression for Path Loss 
     The Flat-Edge Model for Path Loss from the Base Station to the Final Street 
     Ikegami Model of Excess Path Loss in the Final Street 
     The Walfisch-Bertoni Analysis of the Parametric Dependence of Path Loss
Problems
Bibliography

Statistical Considerations In Designing Cell Phone Systems and Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs)
A Brief Review of Statistical Analysis
     Random Variables 
     Random Processes 
Shadowing 
     The Log-Normal Probability Distribution Function 
     The Complementary Cumulative Normal Distribution Function (Q Function) 
     Calculating Margin and Probability of Call Completion 
     Probability of Call Completion Averaged over a Cell 
     Additional Signal Loss from Propagating into Buildings 
     Shadowing Autocorrelation (Serial Correlation) 
     Shadowing Cross-Correlation 
Slow and Fast Fading 
     Slow Fading 
     Rayleigh Fading 
     Margin to Allow for Both Shadowing and Rayleigh Fading 
     Bit Error Rates in Digital Communications 
     Ricean Fading 
     Doppler Broadening 
Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) 
     Propagation Losses Inside Buildings 
     Standards for WLANs 
     Sharing WLAN Resources
Problem
Bibliography

Tropospheric and Ionospheric Effects in Long-Range Communications 
Extending the Range Using Tropospheric Refraction
     Limit on Line-of-Sight Communications 
     Bouger’s Law for Refraction by Tropospheric Layers 
     Increase in Range Due to Tropospheric Refraction 
Long-Range Communications by Ionospheric Reflection 
     The Ionospheric Plasma 
     Radio Frequency (RF) Wave Interaction with Plasma 
     Sample Calculations of Maximum Usable Frequency and Maximum Range in a Communications System Based on Ionospheric Reflection
Propagation through the Ionosphere 
     Time Delay of a Wave Passing through the Ionosphere 
     Dispersion of a Wave Passing through the Ionosphere 
     Faraday Rotation of the Direction of Polarization in the Ionosphere
Problems
Bibliography

Satellite Communications (SATCOM) 
Satellite Fundamentals
     Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) 
     Example of a GEO SATCOM System 
SATCOM Signal Attenuation 
     Attenuation Due to Atmospheric Gases 
     Attenuation Due to Rain 
     The Rain Rate Used in SATCOM System Design
Design of GEO SATCOM Systems 
     Noise Calculations for SATCOM 
     Design of GEO SATCOM System for Wideband Transmission
Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) Satellites 
     Global Positioning System (GPS) 
     General Relativity, Special Relativity, and the Synchronization of Clocks
Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Communication Satellites
     The Iridium LEO SATCOM System 
     Path Loss in LEO SATCOM
     Doppler Shift in LEO SATCOM
Problem
Bibliography

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Nomenclature
English Alphabet
Greek Alphabet

Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Victor L. Granatstein was born and raised in Toronto, Canada. He received his Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Columbia University, New York, in 1963. After a year of postdoctoral work at Columbia, he became a research scientist at Bell Telephone Laboratories from 1964 to 1972 where he studied microwave scattering from turbulent plasma. In 1972, he joined the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) as a research physicist, and from 1978 to 1983, he served as head of NRL’s High Power Electromagnetic Radiation Branch.

In August 1983, he became a professor in the Electrical Engineering Department of the University of Maryland, College Park. From 1988 to 1998, he was director of the Institute for Plasma Research at the University of Maryland. Since 2008, he has been Director of Research of the Center for Applied Electromagnetics at the University of Maryland. His research has involved invention and development of high-power microwave sources for heating plasmas in controlled thermonuclear fusion experiments, for driving electron accelerators used in high-energy physics research, and for radar systems with advanced capabilities. He also has led studies on the effects of high-power microwaves on integrated electronics. His most recent study is of air breakdown in the presence of both terahertz radiation and gamma rays with possible application to detecting concealed radioactive material. He has coauthored more than 250 research papers in scientific journals and has co-edited three books. He holds a number of patents on active and passive microwave devices.

Granatstein is a Fellow of the American Physical Society (APS) and a Life Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). He has received a number of major research awards including the E.O. Hulbert Annual Science Award (1979), the Superior Civilian Service Award (1980), the Captain Robert Dexter Conrad Award for scientific achievement (awarded by the Secretary of the Navy, 1981), the IEEE Plasma Science and Applications Award (1991), and the Robert L. Woods Award for Excellence in Electronics Technology (1998). He has spent part of his sabbaticals in 1994, 2003, and 2010 at Tel Aviv University where he holds the position of Sackler Professor by Special Appointment.

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