Physical Processes in Inorganic Scintillators: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Physical Processes in Inorganic Scintillators

1st Edition

By Piotr A. Rodnyi

CRC Press

240 pages

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Hardback: 9780849337888
pub: 1997-05-30
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Description

During the last ten to fifteen years, researchers have made considerable progress in the study of inorganic scintillators. New scintillation materials have been investigated, novel scintillation mechanisms have been discovered, and additional scintillator applications have appeared. Demand continues for new and improved scintillation materials for a variety of applications including nuclear and high energy physics, astrophysics, medical imaging, geophysical exploration, radiation detection, and many other fields. However, until now there have been no books available that address in detail the complex scintillation processes associated with these new developments.

Now, a world leader in the theory and applications of scintillation processes integrates the latest scientific advances of scintillation into a new work, Physical Processes in Inorganic Scintillators. Written by distinguished researcher Piotr Rodnyi, this volume explores this challenging subject, explains the complexities of scintillation from a modern point of view, and illuminates the way to the development of better scintillation materials.

This unique work first defines the fundamental physical processes underlying scintillation and governing the primary scintillation characteristics of light output, decay time, emission spectrum, and radiation hardness. The book then discusses the complicated mechanisms of energy conversion and transformation in inorganic scintillators. The section on the role of defects in energy transfer and scintillation efficiency will be of special interest. Throughout, the author does not offer complicated derivations of equations but, instead, presents useful equations with practical results.

Table of Contents

BASIC PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES

Physical Mechanism of Scintillation

Creation of Electron Hole Pairs

Excitation and Emission of Luminescence Centers

Scintillation Materials

Halides

Oxides and Oxide Systems

Chalcogenides

Glasses

Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Scintillators

High Energy Photons

Charged Particles

Neutral Particles

General Characteristics of Inorganic Scintillators

Light Yield

Duration of Scintillation Pulse

Afterglow

Temperature Response

Optical Properties

Radiation Hardness

Density

Emission Spectra

Mechanical and Chemical Properties

Physical Parameters

Cost Consideration

Scintillator Requirements in Various Applications

High Energy Physics

Intermediate Energy Physics

Positron Emission Tomography

Gamma Spectroscopy

Energy Resolution

Intrinsic Scintillator Resolution; Nonproportional Response

Time Resolution

Low Energy Quanta and Electrons

CONVERSION OF ELECTRONIC EXCITATIONS IN SOLIDS

Charge Carrier Behaviors

Delta Rays

Secondaries

Excitation of Luminescence Centers

Effect of Ionization Density

Energy Losses

Simple Phenomenological Model

Plasmon Model

Polaron Model

Scintillation Yield Spectra

Vacuum Ultraviolet Region

Ultrasoft X-Rays

X-Rays

Gamma Rays

Heavy Ionizing Particles

INTRINSIC LUMINESCENCE OF INORGANIC SCINTILLATORS

Excitonic Luminescence

Alkali Halide Crystals

Alkaline-Earth Fluorides

Ternary Halide Compounds

Excitonic-Like Luminescence

Cesium Iodide

Tungstate and Molybdate Phosphors

Core-to-Valence Transitions

First Evidence for Radiative Core-to-Valence Transitions

Excitation Spectra

Emission Spectra

Experiment

Theory

Luminescence Kinetics

Experimental

Theoretical Investigations

Temperature Dependence of Luminescence Parameters

Conditions of Detection

Prospects for Research

EXTRINSIC LUMINESCENCE OF INORGANIC SCINTILLATORS

Thallium-Activated Halide Scintillators

Crystals with NaCl-Type Structure

Crystals with CsCl-Type Structure

Other Thallium-Based and Thallium-Doped Crystals

Crystals Containing Other ns2 Ions

Bismuth Germanate (BGO)

Sodium-Activated Cesium Iodide

Rare-Earth-Activated Crystals

General Considerations

Europium-Activated Crystals

Cerium-Activated Compounds

Preliminary Comments

LaF3-CeF3 Systems

Cerium Chloride

Barium Fluoride

Gadolinium-Containing Crystals

Lu- and Y-Containing Crystals

Nd- and Pr-Activated Crystals

DEFECT FORMATION BY IONIZING RADIATION

Effect on Scintillator Characteristics

Mechanisms of Defect Formation

Efficiency of Defect Production

Geometrical Factor

Separation between F and H Centers

Temperature Dependence of Production Efficiency

Role of Halogen Ion Impurities

Effect of Cation Impurities

Formation Time of F-H Pairs

Closing Comments

References

Index

About the Series

Laser & Optical Science & Technology

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI013030
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Inorganic
SCI055000
SCIENCE / Physics
TEC019000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Lasers & Photonics
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science