Physics and Applications of Negative Refractive Index Materials  book cover
1st Edition

Physics and Applications of Negative Refractive Index Materials

ISBN 9781420068757
Published September 26, 2008 by CRC Press
440 Pages - 140 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Ever since the first experimental demonstration was reported in 2000, the interest in metamaterials and left-handed media that exhibit a negative refractive index has increased exponentially. Surveying this explosive growth, Physics and Applications of Negative Refractive Index Materials covers the fundamental physical principles and emerging engineering applications of structured electromagnetic metamaterials that yield a negative refraction as well as other unexpected physical properties. It provides detailed explanations on the history, development, and main achievements of metamaterials.

Making it easy to access relevant, up-to-date information on the field, the authors bring together the most important and influential papers related to metamaterials. They present the principles of negative refraction and compare the uniqueness of novel metamaterials with other media that exhibit similar properties. The book discusses the design, optimization, and testing of structured metamaterials as well as applications of metamaterials at frequencies ranging from radio wave to optical. It also explores novel concepts and phenomena, such as the perfect lens for super-resolution imaging, hyper lenses that couple the near-field to radiative modes, electromagnetic cloaking and invisibility, and near-field optical imaging.

Connecting theoretical ideas to recent experimental techniques and results, this state-of-the-art book enables an understanding of the basic principles of and research contributions to metamaterials with negative refractive index and their electromagnetic properties.

Table of Contents

General historical perspective
The concept of metamaterials
Modeling the material response
Phase velocity and group velocity
Metamaterials and homogenization procedure

Metamaterials and Homogenization of Composites
The homogenization hypothesis
Limitations and consistency conditions
Forward problem
Inverse problems: retrieval and constitutive parameters
Homogenization from averaging the internal fields
Generalization to anisotropic and bianisotropic media

Designing Metamaterials with Negative Material Parameters
Negative dielectric materials
Metamaterials with negative magnetic permeability
Metamaterials with negative refractive index
Chiral metamaterials
Bianisotropic metamaterials
Active and nonlinear metamaterials

Negative Refraction and Photonic Bandgap Materials
Photonic crystals and bandgap materials
Band diagrams and iso-frequency contours
Negative refraction and flat lenses with photonic crystals
Negative refraction versus collimation or streaming

Media with e < 0 and µ < 0: Theory and Properties
Origins of negative refraction
Choice of the wave-vector and its consequences
Anisotropic and chiral media

Energy and Momentum in Negative Refractive Index Materials
Causality and energy density in frequency dispersive media
Electromagnetic energy in left-handed media
Momentum density, momentum flow, and transfer in media with negative material parameters
Limit of plane waves and small losses
Traversal of pulses in materials with negative material parameters

Plasmonics of Media with Negative Material Parameters
Surface electromagnetic modes in negative refractive materials
Waveguides made of negative index materials
Negative refraction of surface plasmons
Plasmonic properties of structured metallic surfaces
Surface waves at the interfaces of nonlinear media

Veselago’s Lens Is a Perfect Lens
Near-field information and diffraction limit
Mathematical demonstration of the perfect lens
Limitations due to real materials and imperfect NRMs
Issues with numerical simulations and time evolution
Negative stream of energy with a perfect lens configuration
Effects of spatial dispersion

Designing Super Lenses
Overcoming the limitations of real materials
Generalized perfect lens theorem
The perfect lens in other geometries

Brief Report on Electromagnetic Invisibility
Concept of electromagnetic invisibility
Excluding electromagnetic fields
Cloaking with localized resonances

Appendix A: The Fresnel Coefficients for Reflection and Refraction
Appendix B: The Dispersion and Fresnel Coefficients for a Bianisotropic Medium
Appendix C: The Reflection and Refraction of Light across a Material Slab



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S. Anantha Ramakrishna, Tomasz M. Grzegorczyk


The book has been very carefully produced, with the mathematics and physics accurately represented. … This is an excellent introduction to a fascinating class of materials. All aspects of the interaction of negative refractive index materials with electromagnetic materials are covered, and detailed theoretical derivations are linked with clear discussions of practical issues. It is a book that will be of value both to a newcomer to the field and as a concise reference work for the more experienced researcher.
—Dr. A.H. Harker, University College London, in Contemporary Physics, 2010, 1