Physics of Coal and Mining Processes  book cover
1st Edition

Physics of Coal and Mining Processes

ISBN 9781138074941
Published March 30, 2017 by CRC Press
383 Pages 183 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Around the world, on average, four coal miners die for each million tons of coal recovered. Improving the safety of mining work while responding to the need for increased coal production, however, is impossible without further development of the physics of mining processes. A relatively new branch of science, it tackles problems that arise during mineral products recovery, particularly safety issues such as rock failures, coal and gas outbursts, and methane explosions.

The first book to present a unifying methodology for addressing problems such as outbursts and explosions of methane in coal mining, Physics of Coal and Mining Processes integrates theoretical and experimental research on coal and bearing rocks and examines the anthropogenic processes that occur during deep underground mining.

The book summarizes the results of recent and established research, including studies conducted at the Institute of Physics of Mining Processes of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, headed by the author. Key topics covered include rock mass in multi-component compressive stress fields and phase conditions of methane in coal. The book also examines state-of-the-art instrumentation and physical methods of analysis, among them x-ray analysis of coal structures combined with computer simulation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy combined with gas chromatography.

Bridging the gap between the academic theory and the practice of coal mining, the book proposes novel methods to predict rock mass condition, control gas-dynamic phenomena, and estimate safe mining loads. A useful reference for scientists, technicians, and engineers working in the coal industry, it also offers an overview of the physics of mining processes for students pursuing careers in the field.

Table of Contents

Coal Structure
Genesis of Coal Substance
Elemental Compositions of Coals
Structure of Organic Mass
X-Ray Studies
Literature Review
Structural Peculiarities of Coal–Methane System
New Approach to Analyzing Coal via Scattering X-Ray Investigation
General Characteristics
Neutron Scattering
Closed Porosity of Donbass Coals

Equilibrium Phase States and Mass Transfer in Coal-Methane Systems
Equilibrium and Dynamics of Mass Exchange between Sorbed and Free Methane
Gaseous State of Methane in System of Opened and Closed Pores
Solid Solution of Methane in Coal: Absorption and Adsorption
Diffusion of Methane from Coal Lumps into Filtration Volume: Efficient Diffusion Coefficient
Joint Flow of Filtration and Diffusion Processes in Coal Massifs
Double-Time Models of Mass Transfer: Fast and Slow Methane
Methane Escaping from Coal into Closed Volume: Role of Backpressure
Methane Flow from Coal Seam into Worked-Out Space
Methane Accumulation in Dangerous Coal Lump Regions
Time for Formation of Highly Explosive Methane–Air Mixture
Thermodynamic Gibbs Potential for Gas–Coal Massif: Prognosis for Localization of Coal Burst Sections of Seam
Investigation of Phase State and Desorption Mechanisms of Methane in Coal
Methane Phase States in Coal
Kinetics and Mechanisms of Methane Desorption from Coal
Transformation of Methane Desorption Mechanism: Three Stages of Desorption

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Coal and Rocks
Experimental Techniques
High Resolution Spectrometers
Wide Line Spectrometers
High Pressure Technique
Coal Structure Research
Determining Structural Components of Coals through 1H NMR Data
Application of 13C NMR for Analyzing Coal Structures
Research of Donets Basin Coals
Phase States of Water and Methane in Coal
Water–Coal Adsorption
Adsorption by Impulse NMR
Water in Rocks
Methane in Coal
Phase State of Binding in Rocks
Polymer Compositions in Coals
Bindings in Rocks

Behaviors of Rocks and Coals in Volumetric Fields of Compressive Stresses
Experimental Technique
Literature Review
True Triaxial Compression Unit
Strength Properties of Rocks Treated by Different Binders
Experimental Methods and Estimates of Strengthening
Width of Fissure Openings
Moisture of Rocks under Strengthening
Temperature of Surroundings
Influence of Loading Method and Loading History on Volumetric Strength
Loading Method
Loading History
Coal Destruction
Mechanism of Coal Destruction
Filtration Properties
Changes of Fissured and Porous Structures
Limit State
Post-Limit State
Essence of Problem
Post-Limit Deformation under True Triaxial Compression

Genesis of Natural Gases, Methane Extraction, and Coal Mining Safety
Genesis of Gases in Coal-Bearing Series
Methane Isotopic Analysis: Literature Review
Methane Isotopic Analysis: Experiment and Discussion
Mossbauer Spectroscopy
Stoichiometry of Reaction
Dependence of Outburst Proneness on Mineral Inclusions
Experiments and Discussion
Electromagnetic Method of Seam Degassing
Electric Dipole
Magnetic Dipole
Physics of Fissured Porous Coal Structure Transformation under Influence of Unloading Wave
Influence of Gas Content on Stability of Coal–Gas System
Modeling of Porous Medium
Movement of Wave of Unloading
Transformation of Pores into Fissures
Classification of Gas-Dynamic Phenomenon Type
Criteria of GDP
Parameters and Technology of Method
Predicting Coal Seam and Sandstone Outburst Danger
Outburst Dangers of Coal Seams
Rock and Gas Outbursts
Safe Extraction of Coal
Outburst Control Measures
Safe Load on Working Face

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Anatoly Dmitriyevich Alexeev is the leading earth scientist in Ukraine. Dr. Alexeev has combined a career in physics, chemistry, and engineering with teaching, research, and writing more than 300 publications, 14 monographs, and 50 patents. He developed the theory of gas absorption and emission in porous media and an applied approach to extreme states or rocks and rock massifs.

Dr. Alexeev’s areas of interest in basic and applied research include the physics of rocks and mining processes, radiophysics, extreme states of solids, and physic-chemical mechanics. He studied the effects of surfagents on stress states of rocks and implemented surfagents to prevent outbursts in coal mines. He also applied nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to studies of methane–coal systems and developed new methods and technologies for predicting mine outbursts.

Dr. Alexeev is a corresponding member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, a member of the Academy of Mining Sciences of Ukraine, and the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. In recognition of his accomplishments, Dr. Alexeev was awarded the State Prize of Ukraine (1996), the A.A. Skotchinsky prize (1990), and the I. Puluy prize (2001). He was designated an Honored Miner of Ukraine (1996) and received several President’s medals in all three classes for "Valiant Labour," "Miner’s Glory," and "Miner’s Valour."