Physics of Optoelectronics  book cover
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Physics of Optoelectronics




ISBN 9780824753856
Published May 23, 2005 by CRC Press
766 Pages 371 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Physics of Optoelectronics focuses on the properties of optical fields and their interaction with matter. Understanding that lasers, LEDs, and photodetectors clearly exemplify this interaction, the author begins with an introduction to lasers, LEDs, and the rate equations, then describes the emission and detection processes.

The book summarizes and reviews the mathematical background of the quantum theory embodied in the Hilbert space. These concepts highlight the abstract form of the linear algebra for vectors and operators, supplying the "pictures" that make the subject more intuitive. A chapter on dynamics includes a brief review of the formalism for discrete sets of particles and continuous media. It also covers the quantum theory necessary for the study of optical fields, transitions, and semiconductor gain.

This volume supplements the description of lasers and LEDs by examining the fundamental nature of the light that these devices produce. It includes an analysis of quantized electromagnetic fields and illustrates inherent quantum noise in terms of Poisson and sub-Poisson statistics. It explains matter-light interaction in terms of time-dependent perturbation theory and Fermi's golden rule, and concludes with a detailed discussion of semiconductor emitters and detectors.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION TO SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS
Basic Components and the Role of Feedback
Basic Properties of Lasers
Introduction to Emitter Construction
Introduction to Matter and Bonds
Introduction to Bands and Transitions
Introduction to the pn Junction for the Laser Diode
Introduction to Light and Optics
Introduction to Noise in Optoelectronic Components
Review Exercises
Further Reading

INTRODUCTION TO LASER DYNAMICS
Introduction to the Rate Equations
Stimulated Emission-Absorption and Gain
The Power-Current Curves
Relations for Cavity Lifetime, Reflectance and Internal Loss
Modulation Bandwidth
Introduction to RIN and the Weiner-Khintchine Theorem
Relative Intensity Noise for the Semiconductor Laser
Review Exercises
Further Reading

CLASSICAL ELECTROMAGNETICS AND LASERS
A Brief Review of Maxwell's Equations and the Constituent
Relations Conditions
The Wave Equation
Boundary Conditions for the Electric and Magnetic Fields
Law of Reflection, Snell's Law and the Reflectivity
The Poynting Vector
Electromagnetic Scattering and Transfer Matrix Theory
The Fabry-Perot Laser
Introduction to Waveguides
Physical Optics Approach to Waveguiding
Dispersion in Waveguides
The Displacement Current and Photoconduction
Review Exercises
Further Reading

MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS
Vector and Hilbert Spaces
Dirac Notation and Euclidean Vector Spaces
Hilbert Space
The Grahm-Schmidt Orthonormalization Procedure
Linear Operators and Matrix Representations
An Algebra of Operators and Commutators
Operators and Matrices in Tensor Product Space
Unitary Operators and Similarity Transformations
Hermitian Operators and the Eigenvector Equation
A Relation Between Unitary and Hermitian Operators
Translation Operators
Functions in Rotated Coordinates
Dyadic Notation
Minkowski Space
Review Exercises
Further Reading

FUNDAMENTALS OF DYNAMICS
Introduction to Generalized Coordinates
Introduction to the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian
Classical Commutation Relations
Classical Field Theory
Schrodinger Equation from a Lagrangian
Linear Algebra and the Quantum Theory
Basic Operators of Quantum Mechanics
The Harmonic Oscillator
Quantum Mechanical Representations
Time Dependent Perturbation Theory
Density Operator
Review Exercises
Further Reading

LIGHT
A Brief Overview of the Quantum Theory of Electromagnetic Fields
The Classical Vector Potential and Gauges
The Plane Wave Expansion of the Vector Potential and the Fields
The Quantum Fields
The Quantum Free-Field Hamilton and EM Fields
Introduction to Fock States
Fockstates as Eigenstates of the EM Hamiltonian
Interpretation of Fock States
Introduction to EM Coherent States
Definition and Statistics of Coherent States
Coherent States as Displaced Vacuum States
Quasi-Orthonormality, Closure and Trace for Coherent States
Field Fluctuations in the Coherent State
Introduction to Squeezed States
The Squeezing Operator and Squeezed States
Some Statistics for Squeezed States
The Wigner Distribution
Measuring the Noise in Squeezed States
Review Exercises
Further Reading

MATTER-LIGHT INTERACTION
Introduction to the Quantum Mechanical Dipole Moment
Introduction to Optical Transitions
Fermi's Golden Rule
Introduction to the Electromagnetic Lagrangian and Field Equations
The Classical Hamiltonian for Fields, Particles and Interactions
The Quantum Hamiltonian for the Matter-Light Interaction
Stimulated and Spontaneous Emission Using Fock States
Introduction to Matter and Light as Systems
Liouville Equation for the Density Operator
The Liouville Equation for the Density Matrix with Relaxation
A Solution to the Liouville Equation for the Density Matrix
Gain, Absorption and Index for Independent Two Level Atoms
Broadening Mechanisms
Introduction to Jaynes-Cummings' Model
The Interaction Representation for the Jaynes-Cummings' Model
The Master Equation
Quantum Mechanical Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem
Review Exercises
Further Reading

SEMICONDUCTOR EMITTERS AND DETECTORS
Effective Mass, Density of States and the Fermi Distribution
The Bloch Wave Function
Density of States for Nanostructures
The Reduced Density of States and Quasi Fermi Levels
Fermi's Golden Rule for Semiconductor Devices
Fermi's Golden Rule and Semiconductor Gain
The Liouville Equation and Semiconductor Gain
Review Exercises
Further Reading


APPENDIX 1 REVIEW OF INTEGRATING FACTORS

APPENDIX 2 RATE AND CONTINUITY EQUATIONS

APPENDIX 3 THE GROUP VELOCITY
Simple Illustration of Group Velocity
Group Velocity of the Electron in Free-Space
Group Velocity and the Fourier Integral
The Group Velocity for a Plane Wave

APPENDIX 4 REVIEW OF PROBABILITY THEORY AND
STATISTICS
Probability Density
Processes
Ensembles
Stationary and Ergodic Processes
Correlation

APPENDIX 5 THE DIRAC DELTA FUNCTION
Introduction to the Dirac Delta Function
The Dirac Delta Function as Limit of a Sequence of Functions
The Dirac Delta Function from the Fourier Transform
Other Representations of the Dirac Delta Function
Theorems on the Dirac Delta Functions
The Principal Part
Convergence Factors and the Dirac Delta Function

APPENDIX 6 COORDINATE REPRESENTATIONS OF THE
SCHRODINGER WAVE EQUATION

APPENDIX 7 INTEGRALS WITH TWO TIME SCALES

APPENDIX 8 THE DIPOLE APPROXIMATION

APPENDIX 9 THE DENSITY OPERATOR AND THE
BOLTZMANN DISTRIBUTION

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