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    This new four volume collection, Pidgins and Creoles, will showcase the major areas of research and their achievements in this multidisciplinary field. The collection will include both works that represent the status quo as well as those that are controversial in nature but which have nevertheless functioned as major catalysts for the production of knowledge. An important focus of the volumes will be to critically assess existing models, truths, research agendas and methodological frameworks in the research on these languages. While the bulk of research to date has principally investigated so-called English-lexified creoles, the volumes will also draw on work carried out on the range of such languages, crucially including not just creoles but also pidgins.

    Pidgins and Creoles: Critical Concepts in Linguistics

    Edited by Joseph T. Farquharson and Bettina Migge


    Volume 1: Pidgin and Creole Genesis and Typology I

    Introduction to volume 1 & 2

    Part 1: Overviews

    1. Salikoko Mufwene, ‘Introduction’, in The Ecology of Language Evolution (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), pp.1-24.

    2. Sarah G. Thomason, extract from ‘Contact Languages I: Pidgins and Creoles’, in Language Contact (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2001), pp. 157-189.

    Part 2: Traditions of research

    3. Sidney W. Mintz, ‘The Socio-historical Background to Pidginization and Creolization’, in Dell Hymes (ed.), Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977), pp. 481-496.

    4. John Victor Singler, ‘The Demographics of Creole Genesis in the Caribbean: A Comparison of Martinique and Haiti’, in Jacques Arends (ed), The Early Stages of Creolization (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1996), pp. 203-232.

    5. Christine Jourdan and Roger Keesing, ‘From Fisin to Pijin: Creolization in Process in the Solomon Islands’, Language in Society 26, 1997, 401-420.

    6. Jacques Arends, ‘Towards a Gradualist Model of Creolization’, in Francis Bye and John Holm (eds.) Atlantic Meets Pacific [Creole Language Library 11] (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1992), pp. 371-380.

    Part 3: Historical texts and analysis


    7. Marie-Christine Hazael-Massieux, ‘Using and Interpreting Historical Texts to Analyze the Formation and Development of Creole Languages’, in J. Clancy Clements, Thomas A. Klinger, Deborah Piston-Hatlen and Kevin J. Rottet (eds.), History, Society and Variation: In Honor of Albert Valdman (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2006), pp. 29-46.

    8. Anthony P. Grant, ‘A Note on Ethnolectal Variation in Mathews’ Texts’, in Philip Baker and Adrienne Bruyn (eds.), St Kitts and the Atlantic Creoles: The Texts of Samuel Augustus Mathews in Perspective. [Westminster Creolistics Series 4] (London: Battlebridge Publications, 1999), pp. 123-128.


    Part 4: Grammaticalisation

    9. Adrienne Bruyn, ‘On Identifying Instances of Grammaticalization in Creole Languages’, in Philip Baker and Anand Syea (eds), Changing Meanings, Changing Functions: Papers Relating to Grammaticalization in Contact Languages, (London: University of Westminster Press, 1996), pp. 29-46.

    10. Sibylle Kriegel, Susanne Michaelis and Stefan Pfaender, ‘Modalité et grammaticalisation: le cas des créoles français’, in Sybille Kriegel and Jacques Arends (eds.), Grammaticalisation et réanalyse. Approches de la variation et français (CNRS Editions, 2003), pp. 165-192.


    Part 5: Diffusion vs. domestic hypothesis

    11. Mikael Parkvall, ‘The Role of St. Kitts in a New Scenario of French Creole Genesis’, in Philip Baker (ed.), From Contact to Creole and Beyond ( London: University of Westminster Press, 1995), pp. 41-61.

    12. Philip Baker and Magnus Huber, extracts from ‘Atlantic, Pacific, and World-wide Features in English-lexicon Contact Languages’, English World-Wide 22, 2, 2001, 157-158, 163-175, 179-208.

    Part 6: Typological approaches

    13. John H. McWhorter, extracts from ‘The World’s Simplest Grammars are Creole Grammars’, Linguistic Typology 5, 2-3, 2001, 125-126, 127-131, 166.

    14. Michel DeGraff, ‘Against Creole Exceptionalism’, Language 79, 2, 2003, 391-410.


    Volume 2: Pidgin and Creole Genesis and Typology II



    Part 7: Substrate approaches

    15. Philip Baker, ‘Directionality in Pidginization and Creolization’, in Arthur K. Spears and Donald Winford (eds), The Structure and Status of Pidgins and Creoles (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1997), pp. 91-109.

    16. Claire Lefebvre, extracts from ‘The Interplay of Relexification and Levelling in Creole Genesis and Development’, Linguistics 39, 3, 2001, 371-379, 382-390, 396-408.

    17. Ian R. Smith, ‘Convergence in South Asia: A Creole Example’, Lingua 48, 1979, 193-222.


    Part 8: Comparison of input grammars

    18. George L. Huttar, James Essegbey and Felix K. Ameka, ‘Gbe and Other West African Sources of Suriname Creole Semantic Structures: Implications for Creole Genesis’, Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 22, 1, 2007, 57-72.

    19. Christine Jourdan, ‘My Nephew is My Aunt: Features and Transformations in Kinship Terminology in Solomon Islands Pijin’, in Jeff Siegel (ed.) Processes of Language Contact (Montreal: Fides, 2000), pp. 99-121.

    20. Armin Schwegler, extracts from ‘The African Vocabulary of Palenque (Colombia), Part 1: Introduction and Corpus of Previously Undocumented Afro-Palenquerisms’. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 15, 2, 2000, 241-244, 254-283, 304-312.


    21. Claire Lefebvre, ‘The Concatenation of Words into Compounds’, in Creole Genesis and the Acquisition of Grammar: The Case of Haitian Creole (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 334-348.

    22. Silvia Kouwenberg and Darlene La Charité, extracts from ‘Echoes of Africa: Reduplication in Caribbean Creole and Niger-Congo languages’. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 19, 2, 2004, 285-301, 303-331.

    23. Tjerk Hagemeijer and Ota Ogie, ‘Èdó Influence on Santome: Evidence from Verb Serialisation’, in Claire Lefebvre (ed.), Creole, their Substrates, and Language Typology (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2011), pp. 37-60.

    24. Bettina Migge, extracts from ‘The Origin of the Copulas (d/n)a and de in the Eastern Maroon Creole. Diachronica 19, 1, 2001, 83–88, 96-126, 133.

    25. Jeff Siegel, extracts from ‘Substrate Influence in Hawai’i Creole English’, Language in Society 29, 2, 2000, 197-199, 211-236.

    26. Norval S. H. Smith, ‘Creole Phonology’, in Silvia Kouwenberg and John V. Singler (eds.), The Handbook of Pidgin and Creole Studies (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008), pp. 98-129.


    Part 9: Second language acquisition/learning and transfer

    27. Jeff Siegel, ‘Links between SLA and Creole Studies: Past and Present’, in Claire Lefebvre, Lydia White and Christine Jourdan (eds.), L2 Acquisition and Creole Genesis (Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 2006), pp. 15-46.

    28. Ingo Plag, ‘Creoles as Interlanguages: Inflectional Morphology’, Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 23, 1, 2008, 114-135.


    Part 10: Role of the superstrate

    29. Robert Chaudenson, ‘Theories of Linguistic Creolization’, in Creolization of Language and Culture (London: Routledge, 2001), pp. 34-52.

    30. Salikoko S. Mufwene, extracts from ‘The Founder Principle in Creole Genesis’, Diachronica 13, 1996, 83-86, 109-134.


    Part 11: Universalist approaches

    31. Tonjes Veenstra, ‘Creole Genesis: The Impact of the Language Bioprogram Hypothesis’, in Silvia Kouwenberg and John Singler (eds), The Handbook of Pidgin and Creole Studies (London: Blackwell, 2008), pp. 219-241.


    Volume 3: Sociolinguistics and/of Pidgins and Creoles

    Introduction to volume 3

    Part 12: Post-Creole continuum and decreolization

    32. John R. Rickford, ‘The Concept of a Creole Continuum’, in Dimensions of a Creole Continuum: History, Texts, & Linguistic Analysis of Guyanese Creole (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1987), pp. 15-39.

    33. Donald Winford, ‘Re-examining Caribbean English Creole Continua’, in English to Pidgin Continua [Special Issue] World Englishes 16, 2, 1997, 233-279.

    Part 13: Quantitative approaches to variation

    34. Peter L. Patrick, ‘Creoles at the Intersection of Variable Processes: -t,d Deletion and Past-marking in the Jamaican Mesolect’, Language Variation and Change 3, 2, 1991, 171-189.

    35. Jack Sidnell, ‘Gender and Pronominal Variation in an IndoGuyanese Creole-speaking Community’, Language in Society 28, 3, 1999, 367-399.

    Part 14: Diglossia and bi-/multilingualism

    36. Donald Winford, ‘The Concept of "Diglossia" in Caribbean Creole Situations’, Language in Society 14, 3, 1985, 345-356.


    Part 15: Code-switching and style shifting

    37. Bettina Migge, ‘Code-switching and Social Identities in the Eastern Maroon Community of Suriname and French Guiana’, Journal of Sociolinguistics 11, 1, 2007, 53-73.

    38. Valerie Youssef, ‘Varilingualism: The Competence behind Code-Mixing in Trinidad and Tobago’, Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 11, 1, 1996, 1-22.

    Part 16: Ethnographic perspectives

    39. Roger D. Abrahams, ‘The Training of the Man of Words in Talking Sweet’, Language in Society 1, 1972, 15-29.

    40. Karl Reisman, ‘Cultural and Linguistic Ambiguity in a West Indian Village’, in N. E. Whitten and F. Szwed (eds), Afro-American Anthropology (New York: The Free Press, 1970), pp. 129-144.

    41. B. Le Page and Andree Tabouret-Keller, ‘Linear Continuum of Multidimensional Model?’, in Acts of Identity: Creole-based Approaches to Language and Ethnicity. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), pp. 180-186.

    Part 17: Registers, styles

    42. Peter Patrick, ‘Style and Register in Jamaican Patwa’, in Edgar W. Schneider (ed.),

    Englishes Around the World 2, Caribbean, Africa, Asia, Australasia (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1997), pp. 41–55.

    43. Jan Voorhoeve, ‘Varieties of Creole in Suriname: Church Creole and Pagan Cult Languages’, in Dell Hymes (ed.), Pidginization and Creolization of Languages (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971), pp. 305-315.

    44. Suzanne Romaine, ‘On the Creation and Expansion of Registers: Sports Reporting in Tok Pisin’, in Douglas Biber and Edward Finegan (eds), Sociolinguistic Perspectives on Register (Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), pp. 59-81.

    Part 18: Language attitudes, ideologies

    45. Susanne Mühleisen, ‘Is "Bad English" Dying Out? A Comparative Diachronic Study of Attitudes Towards Creole Versus Standard English in Trinidad’, Philologie im Netz 15, 2001, 43-78.

    46. Janina Fenigsen, ‘Language Ideologies in Barbados: Processes and Paradigms’,

    Pragmatics 13, 4, 2003, 457-481.

    Part 19: Class, community, gender and sexuality

    47. Christine Jourdan, ‘Language Repertoires and the Middle Class in Urban Solomon Islands’, in Miriam Meyerhoff and Naomi Nagy (eds.), Social Lives in Language - Sociolinguistics and Multilingual Speech Communities (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2008), pp. 43-68.

    48. Renee Blake, ‘Barbadian Creole English: Insights into Linguistic and Social Identity’, Journal of Commonwealth and Postcolonial Studies 4, 1, 1996, 37-54.

    49. Donald Winford, ‘The Creole Continuum and the Notion of the Speech Community as the Locus of Language’, International Journal of the Sociology of Language 71, 1988, 91-105.

    50. Miriam Meyerhoff, ‘Sorry in the Pacific: Defining Communities, Defining Practices’, 28, 2, 1999, 225-238.

    51. Joseph T. Farquharson, ‘Faiya-bon: The Socio-pragmatics of Homophobia in Jamaican (Dancehall) Culture’, in Susanne Mühleisen and Bettina Migge (eds), Politeness and Face in Caribbean Creoles (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2005), pp. 101-118.

    52. Jack Sidnell, extracts from ‘Constructing and Managing Male Exclusivity in Talk-in-interaction’, in Janet Holmes and Miriam Meyerhoff (eds), Handbook of Language and Gender (Oxford: Blackwell, 2003), pp. 327-330, 333-352.

    Part 20: Diaspora varieties and mediated practices

    53. Susan Dray and Mark Sebba, ‘"Creole" and Youth Language in a British Inner-city Community’, in Lars Hinrichs and Joseph T. Farquharson (eds), Variation in the Caribbean: From Creole Continua to Individual Agency (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2011), pp. 231-250.

    54. Paul Garrett, ‘"High" Kweyol: The Emergence of a Formal Creole Register in St. Lucia’, in John McWhorter (eds), Language Change and Language Contact in Pidgins and Creoles (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2000), pp. 63-102.

    55. Kathe Managan, ‘Koud Zyé: A Glimpse into Linguistic Enregisterment on Kréyòl Television in Guadeloupe’, Journal of Sociolinguistics 15, 3, 2011, 299-322.

    Part 21: Literature

    56. Barbara Lalla, ‘Black Wholes: Phases in the Development of Jamaican Literary Discourse’, in Barbara Lalla, Jean D’Costa and Velma Pollard (eds), Caribbean Literary Discourse: Voice and Cultural Identity in the Anglophone Caribbean (Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2014), pp. 42-67.

    57. Velma Pollard, ‘Mixing Codes and Mixing Voices: Language in Earl Lovelace’s Salt’, in Barbara Lalla, Jean D’Costa and Velma Pollard (eds) Caribbean Literary Discourse: Voice and Cultural Identity in the Anglophone Caribbean (Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2014), pp. 203-212. Originally published in Changing English 6, 1, 1999, 93-101.

    Part 22: Music

    58. Natalia Bremner, extracts from ‘Keepin’ it Real? Engaging with Language Politics in Réunion through the Juxtaposition of English and Réunionese Kreol in Dancehall Music’, Journal of Romance Studies 15, 1, 2015, 111-115, 119-130.

    59. Hubert Devonish, ‘On the Status of Diphthongs in Jamaican: Mr. Vegas Pronounces’, in Hazel Simmons-McDonald and Ian Robertson (eds), Exploring the Boundaries of Caribbean Creole Languages (Kingston: University of the West Indies Press, 2006), pp. 72-95


    Volume 4: Pidgins and Creoles and Applied Linguistics

    Introduction to volume 4

    Part 23: Language, law, and language rights


    60. Celia Brown-Blake, ‘The Right to Linguistic Non-discrimination and Creole and Creole Language Situations: The Case of Jamaica’, Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 23, 1, 2008, 32-34, 36-74.

    61. Clive Forrester, ‘Converting Time Reference in Judges’ Summations: A Study in Time Reference Management in a Creole Continuum Courtroom’, International Journal of Speech Language and the Law 21, 1, 2014, 225-250.

    Part 24: Lexicography

    62. Annegret Bollée, ‘Lexicographie créole: problèmes et perspectives’, Revue française de linguistique appliquée 10, 1, 2005, 53-63.

    63. Lise Winer, ‘Caribbean Lexicography’, in Keith Brown (ed.), Encyclopaedia of Language and Linguistics 2nd ed. (Elsevier, 2006), pp. 204-205.

    Part 25: Language endangerment and revitalization

    64. Paul Garrett, ‘Contact Languages as "Endangered" Languages: What is There to Lose?’, Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 21, 1, 2006, 175-190.

    Part 26: Language policy

    65. Hubert Devonish, ‘Language Planning in Pidgins and Creoles’, in Silvia Kouwenberg and John Victor Singler (eds.), The Handbook of Pidgin and Creole Studies (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2008), pp. 615-636.


    Part 27: Teaching of the standard through use of Creole

    66. Hazel Simmons-McDonald, ‘Trends in Teaching Standard Varieties to Creole and Vernacular Speakers’, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 24, 2004, 187-208.

    67. Dennis R. Craig, ‘Teaching Standard English to Nonstandard Speakers: Some Methodological Issues’, Journal of Negro Education 52, 1983, 65-74.

    Part 28: Literacy

    68. Jeff Siegel, ‘Bilingual Literacy in Creole Contexts’, Journal of Multilingual and

    Multicultural Development 31, 4, 2010, 383-402.


    Part 29: Other language and education initiatives

    69. Hubert Devonish and Karen Carpenter, extracts from ‘Towards Full Bilingualism in Education: The Jamaican Bilingual Primary Education Project’, Social and Economic Studies 56, 2007, 279-303.

    70. Christina Higgins, ‘Raising Critical Language Awareness in Hawai’i at Da Pidgin Coup’, in Bettina Migge, Isabelle Leglise and Angela Bartens (eds), Creole in Education: An Appraisal of Current Programs and Project (Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 2011), pp. 31-54.

    Part 30: Standardization

    71. Kathe Managan, extracts from ‘Anthropological Linguistic Perspectives on Writing Guadeloupean Kréyòl: Struggles for Recognition of the Language and Struggles over Authority’, in Dalila Ayoun (ed.), Studies in French Applied Linguistics (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2008), pp. 223-228, 230-249, 251-254.

    72. Jeff Siegel, ‘Current Use and Expansion of Tok Pisin: Tok Pisin in the Mass Media’, in Stephen A. Wurm and Peter Wurm (eds), Handbook of Tok Pisin (Canberra: Australian National University, 1985), pp. 309-334.

    73. Susanne Mühleisen and Eric A. Anchimbe, ‘Gud Nyus fo Pidgin? Bible Translation as Language Elaboration in Cameroon Pidgin English’, in Eric Anchimbe (ed.), Language Contact in a Postcolonial Setting: The Linguistic and Social Context of English and Pidgin in Cameroon (Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter, 2012), pp. 245-268.

    Part 31: Advocacy

    74. Hubert Devonish, extract from ‘Language Advocacy and "Conquest" Diglossia in the "Anglophone" Caribbean’, in Christian Mair (ed.) The Politics of English as a World Language: New Horizons in Postcolonial Cultural Studies (New York: Rodopi, 2003), pp. 164-174, 176-177.

    Part 32: Acquisition

    75. Dany Adone and Anne Vainikka, ‘Acquisition of Wh-Questions in Mauritian Creole’, in M. DeGraff (ed.), Language Creation and Language Change: Creolization, Diachrony and Development (Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press, 1999), pp. 75-94.


    76. Rocky R. Meade, ‘OT and the Acquisition of Jamaican Syllable Structure’, in Geneviève Escure and Armin Schwegler (eds), Creoles, Contact, and Language Change: Linguistic and Social Implications (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2004), pp. 161-188.

    77. Sandro Sessarego, extracts from ‘Solving the Spanish Creole Puzzle: The Legal Hypothesis of Creole Genesis’, in Afro-Peruvian Spanish: Spanish Slavery and the Legacy of Spanish Creoles (Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2015), pp. 120-121, 139-145, 156-157.